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Tarabolvs AU Pasha (E). However, not to seem ungrateful for his services, the Soltan takes away neither his estate, nor his liberty, but makes him also governor of Damqfius, a rare' example among the Turks.
AL I Pajba, considering the distressed state of the empire, „ and despairing of victory, as soon as he is advanced to the '?> ^~ Wazirjhip, endeavours to make peace with the Germans and Poles (F), exclusive of the Venetians: but, as on one hand, the emperor refused to treat on any terms, unless they were parties; and, on the other, the French ambassador, by presents, and great promises, had gained both the nobles and Ulema firmly on his fide, they unanimously opposed that design. The Wazir, being thus disappointed, in the end of the year 1105, sends the Serajkier into Hungary, who, as- Hej.noe. faulting Titul, is repulsed with great loss by Caprara, general A. D. of the imperialists: but the Germans were not able to im- 1694. prove this victory; the emperor, intent on the war with France, having left but a small army in Hungary '.
TITUL, in the Turkish account, seems to be a mistake r» p for Peterwaradin; and one of the most famous actions in all mans / this war is here passed over in silence. The imperial army tacked in 1694, not being so numerotis as it used to be, the marshal count Caprara, who commanded it, understanding, that the Wazir intended to attack Peterwaradin, entrenched himself about that place. In effect, the Wazir did arrive with his army in view of the imperialists: but, instead of falling on them, he also entrenched himself; and, what till then was unheard-of, began his approaches against the retrenchments of the enemy. Count Caprara, surprised at this novelty, found it expedient to make another retrenchment between the former and the town: to which, upon occasion, he might re
1 Cant. p. 390, & seqq.
(E) That is, AU Pajhd, go- the confederates, the rest knew vemor of Tripoli! in Syria. nothing of it: but it was sup
(F) Ricaut says, that about posed to have been an artifice May 1694. the Polijh ambassa- of the French to bring Poland dor was dismissed from Adrian- into a separate peace; which tple, re infeQa; and that the perhaps had taken effect, had mystery of his embassy (which not the ambassador too earnestly was properly to the Tatar Khan, insisted on the surrender of Kawho gave him audience, his let- tniniek, with all the provisions, ter being directed to that prince), arms, and fortresses; besides could never be unravelled; for theutipoffidetis, which term the that, though he pretended to Turks mortally hated.
neat of peace in the name of all ,
tire; and to furnish it with mines before the ditches, in order
to stop the IVazir's progress. To this general account of the matter given by count MarfigliTM, who, according to his method, has also inserted a plan of the whole with explanations, we shall add the particulars from Ricaut. at Peter- The imperial troops, increasing but slowly, they resolved waradin to act only upon the defensive, and therefore to remain encamped at Peterwaradin, within the retrenchment of last year. On the 9th of September the Turki/b army, arriving from Belgrade, under the Wazir AU Pajha of Tripoli (G), appeared in sight of the imperialists, who had scarce time to repair the damages made the day before by a storm; which had carried away all their tents, broken their bridge of boats, and funk several of their ships. On the 10 th, the whole army came within half an hour's march of the imperial intrtnchments: the foot took their quarters next to the German front; the horse to the left of their foot; and, on the left of those, was camped the Tatars. Their fleet, consisting of 11 o came likewise within cannon-shot of the imperial ships, and cast anchor in a line of battle. iytbeWiL' Next day it was thought the Turks would have stormed zir: the imperial camp; for they appeared within 800 paces of the
retrenchment, behind the earth of a ditch, which covered them so well, that the imperial guns could but little annoy them. On the 12th, the camps and fleets began to fire furiously on each other: the attack of the Turks seeming to be a formal siege both of Peterwaradin, and the imperial camp; for they plied both with their bombs1 and cannon till the 18 th, when they shewed themselves beyond the imperial intrenchments, but were quickly driven back by the Hujfars. They likewise drew a new parallel line 60 paces nearer to the imperial camp, and were busy to close it with their line of communication. On the 19th, the German left wing, with great guns and muskets, from an eminence, very much annoyed the first line of the Turks, who ran, horse and foot from all sides, to strengthen their left wing; and that evening, six battalions of Brandenburg foot arriving, the enemy seemed less brisk ia their attack.
m L'Etat. Milit. emp. Oth. p, 98, & seqq. part ii.
(G) According to Ricaut, this fajka of Tripoli was different from the Alt of the Turfojh historians. That author makes t> o of the name, and fays, one was made Wazir early in March;
and, being soon after deposed, was succeeded by the second Aliof'Tripoli, who arrived from Asia the 18th of April following.
But what most incommoded them, was the loss of 25 of their provision-ships, taken by the governor of Titul, who also sunk three frigates; and fifteen hundred Tatars cut-off' in an incursion, by general Baffompiere. The son of the Khan '"'•j" " re' being among the slain, that prince, incensed, threatened tot J'*' return with his troops. For all this, the Wazir persisted in his attacks till the 13 th of OUober, when the rains falling for seven days successively, so that the soldiers were up to their knees in the trenches, he, at length, drew-off in the nightn. These terrible rains, fays count Marfigli, convinced the Wazir of his folly; nor could he have succeeded in his design, had his army been double the number °. The Turks thus ended the campaign; but the Germans, after this, added Giula to their other conquests. Let us now return to the Turkish historians.
The Polish and Ruffian forces this year also continue to guard their own frontiers, neither power performing or attempting any thing remarkable. The Venetians alone push Venetians the Turks this campaign with vigour, and effect that which take Khiwould have gained them the dominion of the sea, if they had os: known how to use their good fortune with prudence and moderation. Early in spring, they send out a fleet, by invitation of the inhabitants of Khios, devoted to the Romifb religion (H), and attack that ifland. Silahdar Hajfan Pafbd, who was then governor, had resolved to make a brave defence: but, finding the Christian inhabitants endeavoured to deliver-up the town without his consent, and having but a few Turki/h forces in garrison, to avoid being made a prisoner,
'n Ri c Au T, ubi supr. * L' Etat Milit. ubi supr.
(H) Originally from Italy, section, against the Turks, sent
chiefly Venice. They possessed notice to the Kdfudan Pajba to
the greater part of the island; be on his guard. The Latins,
the Greeks the rest j and enjoy- having discovered this, invite
ed more priviledges than the thefW/?Vu*admiral,who comes,
other subjects of the Othman and takes the city, as mentioned
empire. After the Vienna de- in the text. The Venetians, now
feat, they became spies for the masters, exercise cruelty equally
Venetians, and sent them an ac- on the Greeks and Turks; for
count of whatever was done in bid the exercise of their reli
the Turkijh fleet. When the Ve- gion; and deem them rebels,
r.etians had conquered the Mo- unless they frequent the Romijb
ne, they resolved to deliver-up churches. But next year, the
their ifland to them: but first island being taken by Medzo
founded the Greeks, who, be- morto, they were justly treated
lieving they could depend nei- in the fame manner themselves,
ther on their integrity, nor pro- —Cant,
A. D. surrenders the place himself (I). The Venetians hereupon, 1694. to oblige the pope, stiut-up the Greek churches; and partly \ -^nj by force, and partly by artifice, compel the inhabitants to conform to the Romi/b church: acting also in many other things contrary to justice, and the terms of the surrender. threaten Having settled at pleasure the affairs of Khios, they reSmyrna: solve to besiege Smyrna: but the French, Engli/b, and Dutch consuls, meeting them in their march, intercede for that city; urging, among other reasons against a siege, that almost all the warehouses there were full of merchandize of their respective nations; and that, if they should be destroyed, or plundered by the soldiers, the republick would be responsible to their masters for the damage with interest. Upon this, the Venetians desist from their design, and return with
their fleet. In Dalmatia. however, under the command of
Dalmatia. Dslfini, they take Kiklut and Klobukh, which last they attempted the year before. The Serajkier, Soleyman Pajba, governor of Albania, endeavouring twice to recover the former, is both times repulsed: for which reason, being accused of negligence to the Soltan, he is deprived of his post, and fucceded by Eltnas Mehemmed Pajbd, governor of Bosnia, lately sent from the Saray. The Arabs While the Othman arms areijucceseful in all parts of Euinarms. rope, a new sedition breaks-out in Asia. Amir Mohammed, one of the Arab princes, with several thousands of his countrymen, plunder and spoil the karawan, going in pilgrimage
Afterwards, augmenting the number of his troops, he besieges Mckka itself: but, touched with reverence for the place, and the dread of sacrilege,' retires from before it. The Beglerbcg of Sham (or Damaskus), attended by the other
(I) Ricaut only fays, that der the denomination of Surreh,
the Venetians by surprize, with as if paid them for securing the
little difficulty, took the island roads, but, in reality, to restrain
in a few days; that at first both them from robbing the kara
the cattle and soits capitulated; wans. Now the Surreh not be
and, on the 19th of S.ptcmber ingsent for some years, on ac
1694, all was delivered-up. count of the Hungarian war.
Lastly, that the Turks were was the occasion of this attack,
struck with a terribleconsterna- But the most illustrious Khan of
tion at the news. Tartary being taken among the
(K) After the time ofSelim I. pilgrims, the Arabs obliged him
40,000 gold crowns were paid to carry their complaint to the
yearly to the Arabs of the desart Soltan; and he never rested till
between Damascus, Bagdad, and the arrears were paid. Cant.
Pashas of those parts, is sent against him: but the Sheykh > A. D. defeats them all by a stratagem, and puts them to flight P. 1694.
The Amir Mohammed, in the foregoing paragraph, seems, L/W> horn circumstances, to be "the Amir mentioned before from Ricaut, who,, about this time, speaks of the Sharif (L) being in arms; and, having plundered a very rich city, he &ys, that his army, which observed exact discipline, was divided in two parts: that one division remained with the Sha- „ , , , rif, encamped between Mekka and Medina; the other in the tg Lacl province of Basrah, to oppose the Pajhds on that side, and cut-off all communication with Hidep, or Aleppo. At length, the Mufti, from a sense of the empire's low condition, wrote to the Sharif, exhorting him to peace; declaring, that he could not, without betraying the Mufulman interest, persist in war against the Soltan, at a time when the Othman emp'rc was oppressed on all sides with enemies. This letter of the Mufti was seconded by exhortations from many Pafhds, Mollahs, Kadis, Sheykhs, and other religious: even Kalailikot Ahmed Pasha, who was sent with forces against the Sharif, became an advocate for peace, making use of the pen instead of the sword. These, admonitions, in behalf of religion, had so good effect, that first, several Arab princes fell-off from their alliance with the Sharif; and, at length, the Sharif himself desisted from hostilities.
The year 1695 began with a terrible fire in Constantinople, Ahmed which consumed 4000 houses and shops: however prepara- dies. tions for war went on both by sea and land'. Mean time, the empire being surrounded with so many enemies, and almost intirely ruined, Soltan Ahmed, in the year 1106, leaves (M) Hej.1106. the world, having lived fifty years, and reigned four. l^9i
In his temper and disposition, he intirely resembled his His chabrother Soleyman, to whom in devotion he was a little infe- raQer rior; but was of a somewhat more lively, though not acute, genius. He listened to the calumnies raised by his domestick officers; and, on their suggestions, often, for flight causes, changed the most important affairs. He affected to appear a lover of justice, though, by reason of his stupidity, he could not discharge the function of a judge; and believed every thing which his friends, bribed by the contending parties, represented to him r.
v Cant. p. 391, & seqq. » Ricaut, ubi supr. * Cant. p. 394
(L) This must be understood (M) The 27th of January, of the prince of Mekka, who 169J. Ricaut puts it on the fame pretends to be a descendant of day. Mohammed.