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ments ; and to the non-commissioned officers and private foldiers, for their extraordinary patience and suffering, as well as their invincible fortitude in action.

23. To the various branches of the army, the general takes this laft and folemn opportunity of professing his inviolable attachment and friendship. He wilhes more than bare professions were in his power, that he was really able to be useful to them all in future life. He flatters himself, however, they will do him the justice to believe, that whatever could with propriety be attempted by him, has been done.

24. And being now to conclude these his last public orders, to take his ultimate leave in a short time of the military character, and to bid a final adieu to the armies he has so long had the honor to command, he can only again offer in their behalf, his recommendations to their grateful country, and his prayers to the God of armies.

25. May ample justice be done them here, and may the choicest of heaven's favors, both here and hereafter, attend those who, under the divine auspices, have secured innume. rable blessings for others. With these wishes, and this benediction, the commander in chief is about to retire from service. The curtain of separation will soon be drawn, and the military scene to him will be closed forever.



MR. PRESIDENT, 1. THE great events on which my resignation depend. ed, having at length taken place, I have now the honor of offering my sincere congratulations to congress, and of presenting myself before them to surrender into their hands the trust committed to me, and to claim the indulgence of retiring from the service of my country.

2. Happy in the conármation of our independence and sovereignty, and pleased with the opportunity afforded the United States of becoming a respectable nation; I resiga

with satisfaction the appointment I accepted with diffidence; a diffidence in my abilities to accomplilh fo arduous a task, which, however, was superseded by a confidence in the rectitude of our cause, the support of the supreme power of the union, and the patronage of Heaven.

3. The successful termination of the war has verified the most fanguine expectations ; and my gratitude for the interposition of Providence, and the affiftance I have received from my countrymen, increases with every review of the momentous conteft.

4. While I repeat my obligations to the army in general, I should do injustice to my own feelings, not to acknowledge in this place, the peculiar services and distinguished merits of the persons who have been attached my perfon during the war.

5. It was impossible the choice of confidential officers to compose my family should have been more fortunate. Permit me, fir, to recommend in particular, those who have continued in the service to the present moment, as worthy of the favorable notice and patronage of congress.

6. I consider it as an indispensable duty to close this last folemn act of my official life, by commending the interests of our dearest country to the protection of Almighty God, and those who have the superintendence of them to his holy keeping

7. Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theatre of action ; and, bidding an affectionate farewell to this august body, under whose orders I have long acted, I here offer my commiflion, and take my leave of all the employments of public life.


Head-Quarters, Newburgh, June 18, 1783. 2. SIR... The object for which I had the honor to hold an appointment in the service of my country, being accomplished, I am now preparing to resign it into the hands of


life ;

congress, and return to that domestic retirement, which, it is well known, I left with the greatest reluctance ;

2. A retirement for which I have never ceased to ligh through a long and painful absence, in which, (remote from the noise and trouble of the world,) I meditate to pass the remainder of life, in a state of undisturbed repose :

3.. But, before I carry this resolution into effect, I think it a daty incumbent on me to make this my last official communication, to congratulate you on the glorious events which Heaven has been pleased to produce in our favor ; to offer my sentiments respecting some imponant subjects, which appear to me to be intimately connected with the tranquillity of the United States ; to take my leave of your excellency as a public character ; and to give my final blessing to that country, in whose service I have spent the prime of


4. For whose fake I have consumed so many anxious days and watchful nights, and whose happiness, being extremely dear to me, will always constitute no inconsiderable part of my own.

5. Impressed with the liveliest sensibility on this pleasing occasion, I will claim the indulgence of dilating the more copiously on the subject of our mutual felicitation. When we consider the magnitude of the prize we contended for, the doubtful nature of the contest, and the favorable manner in which it has terminated ; we shall find the greatest possible reason for gratitude and rejoicing.

6. This is a theme that will afford infinite delight to ev. ery benevolent and liberal mind, whether the event in contemplation be considered as a source of present enjoyment,

parent of future happiness ; and we shall have equal occasion to felicitate ourselves on the lot which Providence has afligned us, whether we view it in a natural, a political, or moral point of light.

7. The citizens of America, placed in the most enviable condition, as the fole lords and proprietors of a vast trac of continent, comprehending all the various foils and climates of the world, and abounding with all the necessaries and conveniences of life, are now, by the late satisfactory paci. fication, acknowledged to be possessed of absolute freedom and independency : they are from this period to be confid

or the

ered as the actors on a most conspicuous theatre, which seems to be peculiarly designed by Providence for the difplay of human greatness and felicity,

8. Here they are not only surrounded with every thing that can contribute to the completion of private and domeltic enjoyment ; but heaven has ciowned all its other blerfings, by giving a surer opportunity for political happiness, than any

other nation has ever been favored with. 9. Nothing can illustrate these observations more forci. bly than a recollection of the happy conjuncture of times and circumstances, under which our republic assumed its rank among the nations.

10. The foundation of our empire was not laid in a gloomy age of ignorance and superstition, but at an epocha when the rights of mankind were better understood and more clearly defined, than at any former period.

11. Researches of the human mind after social happiness have been carried to a great extent ; the treasures of knowledge acquired by the labors of philosophers, sages, and legiflators, through a long succession of years, are laid open

for us, and their collected wisdom may be happily ap. plied in the establishment of our forms of government.

12. The free cultivation of letters, the unbounded extension of commerce, the progressive refinement of manners, the growing liberality of sentiment ; and, above all, the pure and benign light of revelation, have had a meliorating influence on mankind, and increafed the blellings of fociety. At this auspicious period, the United States came into existence as a nation ; and if their citizens should not be completely free and happy, the fault will be entirely their own.

13. Such is our situation, and such are our prospects. But notwithstanding the cup of blessing is thus reached out to us; notwithstanding happiness is ours, if we have a dilposition to seize the occasion, and make it our own ; yet it appears to me there is an option still left to the United States of America, whether they will be respectable and prosperous, or contemptible and miserable as a nation.

14. This is the time of their political probation : this is the moment when the eyes of the whole world are turned upon them: this is the time to establish or ruin their national character for ever : this is the favorable moment to give fuch a tone to the federal government, as will enable it to answer the ends of its institution ;

15. Or, this may be the ill-fated moment for relaxing the powers of the union, annihilating the cement of the confederation, and exposing us to become the sport of European politics, which may play one state against another, to prevent their growing importance, and to serve their own interested purposes.

16. For, according to the system of policy the states shall adopt at this moment, they will stand or fall; and, by their confirmation or lapfe, it is yet to be decided, whether the revolution must ultimately be considered as a blessing or a curse ;-a blessing or a curse, not to the present age alone, for with our fate will the destiny of unborn millions be involved.

17. With this conviction of the importance of the prefent crisis, filence in me would be a crime ; I will therefore fpeak to your excellency the language of freedom and fincerity, without disguise. I am aware, however, those who differ from me in political sentiments may, perhaps, remark, I am stepping out of the proper line of my duty; and they may possibly ascribe to arrogance or ostentation, what I know is alone the result of the purest intention.

18. But the rectitude of my own heart, which disdains such unworthy motives ; the part I have hitherto acted in life ; the determination I have formed of not taking any Share în public business hereafter ; the ardent desire I feel, and shall continue to manifest, of quietly enjoying in pria vate life, after all the toils of war, the benefits of a wise and liberal government, will, I Aatter myself, sooner or later, convince my countrymen, that I could have no finifter views in delivering with fo little reserve the opinions contained in this address.

19. There are four things which I humbly conceive are essential to the well being, I may even venture to say to the existence, of the United States as an independent power. lit. An indiffoluble union of the states under one federal head. 2dly. A facred regard to public justice. 3dly. The adoption of a proper peace establishment.

20. And, 4thly. The prevalence of that pacific and friendly dispofition among the people of the United States, which will induce them to forget their local prejudices and

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