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POLAR REGIONS, 1774.

and Alexander, for the Purpose of exploring Baf. in his Journal of a Voyage for the Discovery fin's Bay, and enquiring into the Probability of a of a North-west Passage from the Atlantic to the North-West Passage (London, 1819).1

Pacific ; performed in the Years 1819-20, in his Capt. Wm. Edward Parry, of the British navy, Majesty's Ships Hecla and Griper. With an Aphaving commanded the “ Alexander" of Ross's pendix, containing the Scientific and Other Obserfleet, had published a personal narrative of that vations. Published by Authority of the Lords expedition in his Journal of a Voyage of Discov- Commissioners of the Admiralty (London, 1821).? ery to the Arctic Regions, Apr.-Nov., 1818 (Lon- Capt. John Franklin conducted at the same don, 1819), and was put in command of a new time an overland expedition, which was printed expedition the next year, of which he gave record as a Narrative of a journey to the shores of the

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ARCTIC REGIONS, 1782.*

1 There was a second edition the same year; a German translation at Jena in 1819; a French at Paris in 1819, 1821, and 1822 ; a Dutch at the Hague in 1821. A later English edition (1834) is not complete. There grew out of this publication a controversy represented in Edward Sabine's Remarks on the account of the late Voyage of Discovery to Baffin's Bay, published by J. Ross (London, 1819; two eds.), and Ross's Explanation of Sabine's Remarks (London, 1819). Ross's map shows his development of the geography of Baffin's Bay.

2 This is usually accompanied by a reprint of a paper published on the ships : The North Georgia Gazette and Winter Chronicle (London, 1821). Both were reprinted in Philadelphia (1821); a German version appeared at Hamburg, 1822, and a Dutch at Amsterdam, 1821, 1832.

A correlative account is Alexander Fisher's Journal of a Voyage in the Hecla and Griper, 1819-1820 (London, 1821).

NOTE. — The opposite map is a part of the map given in The Journal of a Voyage by the Hon. Commodore Phipps, etc. (London, 1774).

From Historische, Statistische, Geographische Belustigungen (Leipzig, 1782). The shape of Baffin's Bay here given accorded with a prevalent notion. Cf. Harris's Voyages (1705), vol. ii., and Prévost's Voyages, xv., and the Allg. Hist. der Reisen, xvii. (1758). Cf. ante, Vol. I. 132; Gerard Mercator's Circumpolar map in Engel's Neuer Versuch (Basel, 1777); and that in E. A. W. von Zimmermann's Die Erde und ihre Bewohner, Dritter Theil. Die westliche arctische Welt (Leipzig, 181).

Polar Sea, 1819–1822, by John Franklin, Com- this was followed by his Journal of a Third Voymander of the Expedition (London, 4o and 89, age for the Discovery of a North-west Passage 1823 and 1824 — 3 eds.).1

from the Atlantic to the Pacific; performed in The accounts of Parry's next explorations were the Years 1824-25, in his Majesty's Ships Hecla presented in his Journal of a Second Voyage for and Fury. Published by Authority of the Lords the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Commissioners of the Admiralty (London, 1826).3 Atlantic to the Pacific ; performed in the Years A coöperating voyage by Capt. F. W. Beechey, 1821-22-23, in his Majesty's Ships Fury and on the Pacific side, is recorded in his Narrative Hecla. Published by Authority of the Lords Com- of a Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Strait, missioners of the Admiralty (London, 1824), and to co-operate with the Polar Expeditions ; per.

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ARCTIC REGIONS, 1783. (J. R. Forster.)

1 Reprinted (Philad., 1824). An ed. in 4 vols., to which was added a Brief account of the second Journey, in 1825-27, was published at London, 1829. Franklin's Narrative of a second Expedition to the Shores of a Polar Sea, 1825-27, was published in London, 1828, and reprinted in Philadelphia the same year. A German translation appeared at Weimar in 1829.

A. H. Beesly's Sir John Franklin (N. Y., 1881) is based on Franklin's narratives and on the monograph on Franklin by M. de la Roquette (Paris, 1860).

2 It was reprinted in New York (1824), and Sabin gives a German version (Jena, 1824). Growing out of the same explorations, we have two further records by Captain G. F. Lyon :

The Private Journal of Captain G. F. Lyon of H. M. S. Hecla, during the Recent Voyage of Discovery under Captain Parry (London, 1824). Reprinted, London, 1825, and Boston, 1824. It is

value as respects the characteristics of the Eskimos.

A Brief Narrative of an Unsuccessful Attempt to reach Repulse Bay, through Sir Thomas Rowe's “ Welcome,in his Majesty's Ship Griper, in the Year MDCCCXXIV.(London, 1825). This is his official report.

3 It was reprinted in Philadelphia (1826), and a German version was published at Jena, 1827. His Three Voyages was later included in Harper's Family Library (N. Y., 1840). Parry's narratives are of importance in the study of the Eskimos. Cf. Edward Parry's Memoirs of W. E. Parry (London, 1857).

formed in his Majesty's Ship Blossom, in the 1), and found a wider public in his Narrative of Years 1825, 26, 27, 28. Published by Authority the Arctic land Expedition to the mouth of the of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty Great Fish River and along the shores of the (London, 1831).1

Arctic Ocean in the years 1833-35 (London, 1836; David Duncan's Voyage to Davis' Strait, Apr. Philad., 1836). Richard King, in his Journey 1826-June, 1827 (London, 1827), commemorates to the Arctic Ocean, 1833-35, under Capt. Back " the only fishing ship that ever (up to that time] (London, 1836), reproaches that commander for passed a whole winter with her crew on board his want of generosity in not acknowledging the in those regions."

assistance he received from others. Back's next Ross again appears in a Narrative of a Second voyage to follow up his first exploration is reVoyage in Search of a North-West Passage, and corded in his Narrative of an Expedition in of a Residence in the Arctic Regions during the H. M. S. Terror, undertaken with a view to Years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833. Including Geographical Discovery on the Arctic shores, in the Reports of Commander, now Captain, James the Years 1836-7 (London, 1838). Clark Ross, and the Discovery of the Northern The explorations by Dease and Simpson on Magnetic Pole. [With an Appendix.] (London, behalf of the Hudson Bay Company now fol1835).

lowed, and it was to connect these with the Captain George Back now proposed an expe- coast that Parry in 1819 had found about Meldition to follow a route north from the Great ville Island, which induced the expedition under Slave Lake, in search for Ross, and published Sir John Franklin, the search for which constian explanation of his plan in the Journal of the tuted for the next ten years, and even longer, the Royal Geographical Society (1833, vol. iii. 64); and chief burden of the Arctic recitals. his communication on the route followed by him Richardson, in his Polar Regions (ch. 10), gives was made in the same Journal (1836, vol. vi. p. a convenient summary of this Franklin search.

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Chart or the inst from Coronation Gulf to Beat River constructed from the narrative.

DISCOVERIES OF DEASE AND SIMPSON, 1838–39.*

1 There was an octavo edition the same year. It was reprinted at Philadelphia (1832), and Sabin gives a German version (Weimar, 1832). Beechey's earlier voyage (1818), recorded in his Voyage of Discovery towards the North pole (London, 1843), was on the side of Spitzbergen.

2 The Appendix usually is found as a separate publication, Appendix to the Narrative of a Second Voyage. The Narrative was reprinted in Philadelphia, 1835; and at Brussels in the same year. A French translation appeared at Paris in 1835, and a German at Leipzig in 1835 and 1845, and at Berlin in 1835–36. Cf. Pilling's Eskimo Bibliog. ; Sabin's Dictionary, and references in Allibone, ii. 119.

* From the Journal of the Roy. Geog. Soc., X. 274. Their eastern limit was later completed by Dr. John Rae, in the Hudson Bay Company's service, as recorded in Rae's Narrative of an Expedition to the Shores of the Arctic Sea in 1846 and 1847 (London, 1850). Cf. Journal of the Roy. Geog. Soc. (viii. 213, with a map) for their account of their explorations, 1837, and again (Ibid., Aug., 1839) for the progress of discovery in the summer of 1839, with a map.

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Extracted from a map in Back’s “ Discoveries and Route of the Arctic Land Expedition, 1833–34,” in the Journal of the Roy. Geog. Soc., vi. p. 10. Cf. the circumpolar map in Wm. Scoresby's Acc. of the Arctic Regions (Edinburgh, 1820), and the map connecting the discoveries of Ross, Parry, and Franklin, in Frank

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