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Dr. John Rae, in behalf of the Hudson Bay the Arctic and Antarctic Seas, • . . and of an Company, journeyed to Castor and Pollux River open-boat expedition in search of Sir John Frank. in 1853–54, and got some tidings of a part of the lin, under command of the author (London, Franklin party, and his Proceedings were pub- 1884, in 2 vols.). M'Cormick had earlier served lished by the Admiralty in 1855. Cf. Rae's under Parry in 1827, in his attempts to reach Voyages and Travels in Arctic Regions (London, the north pole by the Spitzbergen route. The 1856).
boat expedition is followed in his second volRobt. M'Cormick’s Voyages of Discovery in
P. L. Simond's Sir John Franklin and the expeditions sent by government and others for Arctic Regions (1851-53). The official Papers the rescue of Sir John Franklin (1855). Some relative to the Arctic Expedition in search of Sir “Eskimo reports respecting Sir John Franklin's John Franklin (London, 1854, in 2 vols.). Sir expedition" are examined in the Geographical John Ross's Narrative of the Circumstances and Magazine, Apr., 1878. Causes which led to the failure of the searching
* The centre of the chart of the Arctic regions, in Hayes' Arctic Boat Journey (Boston, 1860). Cf. the map in Richardson's Polar Regions (1861).
Intelligence of the fate of the Franklin party Narrative of the Discovery of the Fate of Sir was at last made known in Captain M'Clintock's John Franklin and his Companions (London, Voyage of the 'Fox' in the Arc Seas. – A 1859, 1860, 1869, 1876; Boston, 1860, 1863).
1 Cf. the private journal of an officer of the “ Fox,” published in the Cornhill Mag. (Jan., 1860); The Little Fox, the Story of McClintock’s Arctic Expedition (London, 1870, 1875); and Sherard Osborn's Career,
• Reduction of a sketch map in M'Clintock's Voyage of the Fox (London, 1859).
There is a further account of the Eskimo sto- that they had perished; Schwatka recorded it ries already referred to in W. H. Gilder's Schwat- as a fact.” Gilder's book may be supplemented ka's Search (N. Y., 1881), who says of that ex. by Heinrich W. Klutschak's Als Eskimo unter pedition : "It was the first expedition which den Eskimos (Vienna, 1881). The author had established beyond a doubt the loss of the Frank- been the draughtsman of the expedition, and he lin records. M'Clintock recorded an opinion gives an interesting map, “Der Schauplatz der
CIRCUMPOLAR MAP, SHOWING ATTEMPTS TO REACH THE NORTHERN POLE.*
Franklinischen Katastrophe,” marking the posi- John Phipps's Voyage towards the North Pole, tion of the graves and other spots associated undertaken by his Majesty's command, 1773 (Lonwith the Franklin party.
don, 1774), which is also included in Pinkerton's
Voyages, vol. i. The admiralty was induced to The modern efforts to reach the Pole as a dis- dispatch Phipps largely through the recommentinct aim began on the side of Spitzbergen in dation of the Royal Society, moved thereto by the voyage recorded in Captain Constantine Daines Barrington, whose somewhat credulous
* Reproduced from A. H. Markham's Northward Ho! (1879).
tracts on the subject are well known : Probabil. plorations of the Arctic seas, including those of ity of reaching the North Pole ; reprinted, with Baffin's Bay.' Chavanne (pp. 85, 125, 243) gives Col. Mark Beaufoy's comments, as Possibility of the bibliography of the explorations on the east approaching the North Pole asserted (London and side of Greenland. New York, 1818). Cf. also Barrington's Miscel- Capt. Albert H. Markham, in his Northward lanies, 1781.
Ho! (London, 1879), offers a distinct account of The voyage of William Scoresby in 1806, in the attempts to reach the Pole, beginning with which he attained with his ship the great north- the sixth century, as introductory to a narrative ing of 81° 30', was also on the side of Spitzber- of experiences by Thomas Floyd, a midshipman gen; and the explorations recorded in Dr. Scores. in Captain Phipps's expedition (1773). Markby's Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale ham then continues the story of these strictly Fishery, including researches on the Eastern polar efforts, in which the most important atCoast of Greenland (Edinburgh, 1823), are also tempts have been made of late years on the side descriptive of exploits east of Greenland. The of Smith Sound, but they fall beyond the chro. younger Scoresby's Account of the Arctic Regions, nological limits of the present chapter, and are with a history and description of the Northern not in the same sense necessary to complete the Whale fishery (London, 1820), is in part a rec- story as was the case with the final results of ord of the whalemen's contributions to the ex- the Franklin search.2
last voyage, and fate of Sir John Franklin (London, 1860), which is also included in the Edinburgh edition (1865) of Osborn's Stray Leaves.
1 Cf. J. A. Allen's Papers rel. to the mammalian orders of Cete, etc. (Washington, 1882).
2 A good share of the efforts in this direction on the west of Greenland has fallen to Americans. Dr. Hayes had demonstrated his plan of the practicability of reaching the North Pole in the Amer. Asso. Adv. Science Proc. (1858, vol. xii.) and recorded his results in finding, as he held, an unobstructed Arctic ocean in his Open Polar Sea: a narrative of a voyage of discovery towards the North Pole (N. Y., 1867).
Captain C. F. Hall made three Arctic voyages: the first (1860-62) was commemorated in his Arctic Researches (1864); the second (1864-69), in his Narrative of a second Arctic Expedition : Voyage to Repulse Bay, 1864-69. Edited by Professor J. E. Nourse (Washington, 1879). On a third voyage, in the “ Polaris,” he died, Nov. 8, 1871. The government bought his papers of his family in 1874, and out of them, with other material, Professor Nourse constructed the account just mentioned, after Admiral Ch. H. Davis, with Nourse's assistance, had earlier got into shape the Narrative of the North Polar Expedition, U. S. Ship Polaris (Washington, 1876). The “ Polaris ” reached 82° 16' north latitude. E. V. Blake's Arctic Experiences (N. Y. and London, 1874) covers the drift of Captain E. E. Tyson, of the Polaris expedition, on an ice floe. The expeditions of 1860-62 and 1864-69 may be considered in part a portion of the general Franklin search.
Meanwhile the interest in another purely polar effort was increasing in England. Osborn had discussed the proposed routes in the Geographical Mag., Sept., 1874. We have two important records of the results of the expedition which followed : Journals and Proceedings of the Arctic Expedition, 1875-76, under the Command of Capt. Sir George Strong Nares (London, 1877, — Blue Book), with the official charts ; and the personal narrative of one of his officers, Capt. A. H. Markham in his Great Frosen Sea (London, 1878), which title, it will be observed, is a criticism of Dr. Hayes's book. By sledges Markham attained to 83° 20' 26", or to within 400 miles of the Pole. Markham gives a map, illustrating the expedition, reduced by E. G. Ravenstein from the Admiralty chart. (Cf. Bull. de la Soc. de Paris, 1876.) Detailed maps of Markham's greatest northing by sledges will be found in the official Blue-Book of the Nares Expedition, p. 126; in M'Cormick's Voyages of Discoveries, vol. ii. Cf. the Lincoln Sea map in Hall's Northern Polar Expedition (1876), ed. by Davis, p. 356 ; others in Recent Polar Voyages to 1876 ; and in Alexander Leslie's Arctic Voyages of A. E. Nordenskjöld (Lond., 1879).
The “ Pandora ” of Capt. Allen Young's voyage in 1875-76 (see map of her track from Baffin's Bay to Mel. ville Island in J. A. MacGahan's Under the Northern Lights, London, 1876) became, under a new name, the vessel commanded by Captain De Long, whose exploits and fate are commemorated by De Long's widow in the Voyage of the Jeannette (Boston, 1883), and in J. W. Danenhower's Narrative of the Jeannette (Boston, 1882).
The eventful experiences of the Franklin Bay Expedition, under Lieut. A. W. Greely, was told in his Three Years of Arctic Service, 1881-84, and the attainment of the farthest north (N. Y., 1886). Greely's official Report on the Proceedings of the U. S. Expedition to Lady Franklin Bay was not published till 1888. This highest altitude, 83° 24', was attained by Lieutenant Lockwood with a sledge party; and the story of the res. cue is told jointly by Commander W. S. Schley, of the relief expedition, and Professor J. R. Soley, in The Rescue of Greely (N. Y., 1885).
NOTE. — The circumpolar map given in Mrs. De Long's Voyage of the Jeannette (Boston, 1883), showing the highest point reached up to that date, is partly reproduced on the next page.