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esting document, published in 1774, is the letter from the Congress of the United States To the inhabitants of the province of Quebec.1 A very useful work, showing the conflicting views of the different party elements interested in the passage of the “ Quebec Bill” in 1774, is found in the Debate on the Quebec Act, published by 7. Wright, from notes of Sir Henry Cavendish, Bart. (London, 1739). Justice and policy by the late act assisted and proved, by W. Knox (1774), is a view of the loyalist position. A letter to Lord Chatham on the Quebec Bill (1774) 4 was much sought for in its time, and was no doubt properly attributed to Sir William Meredith. The invasion of Canada by Montgomery and Arnold in 1775–76, coming in this period, has been fully treated elsewhere.5

The most remarkable service done to the history of this period, as well as to that of several years following, has been accomplished by the Canadian Archives Department, Ottawa, whose collection, begun in 1872, under the indefatigable management of Mr. Douglas Brymner, has grown with marvellous rapidity in the few years of its existence.6 Among the most valuable documents are one hundred and sixty-four volumes of the Haldimand papers. The original documents were presented to the British Museum in 1857 by Mr. W. Haldimand, nephew of General Haldimand, the governor of Canada from 1778 to 1786, and exact copies have been made for the Ottawa Archives.? In late years much service has been rendered to the public by the calendar or contents published in successive numbers of the Archives Department, 1883-89, and still continuing Materials are here found for reconstructing opinions as to the “Du Calvet affair.” Cf., for instance, Brymner's Report, 1888, Introd., on the Jesuit priest Roubaud, and the work and influence of General Haldimand. Du Calvet, who has succeeded in giving to history his version of his quarrel with General Haldimand, writes it in a Recueil de lettres au roi, etc.8 An enormous collection of military correspondence, contained in hundreds of volumes, including the Seven Years' War and War of the Revolution, is to be found in the Archives, having been removed thither from the chief British military station in America, Halifax, N. S. The printed reports of the archivist are also giving the contents of these.

No one should attempt to pronounce on the Canadian history of this period without studying the Constitutional Act of 1791, for it shows the effect of the American Revolution upon the imperial lawmakers.9



[Cf. ante, VI. p. 104. — Ed.]

An act for making more effectual provision 2 [Cf. ante, VI. p. 102. — Ev.)

for the government of the province of Quebec, 8 [Cf. ante, VI. p. 104. – ED.)

1774. 4 [Cf. ante, VI. p. 102. — Ev.]

An act to establish a fund towards further 5 [Cf. ante, VI. pp. 215-229; Brymner's Re- defraying the charges of the administration of port on the Archives, 1888, p. xii. — ED.)

justice and support of the civil government 6 [The history of this development can be within the province of Quebec, 1791. traced in Brymner's Reports. Cf. also Kings- Constitutional Act, 1791. ford's Canadian Archæology, p. 33. — Ed.]

Proclamations in Upper and Lower Canada, ? (Cf. post, Appendix. — ED.)

bringing the act into force. [Cf. the Case of Peter Du Calvet, containing Commission of Lord Gosford, 1835. an acc. of the long and severe imprisonment he Imperial act suspending the constitution and suffered by order of Gen. Haldimand (London, making temporary provision for the government 1784). — ED.)

of Lower Canada, proclaimed March 29, 1838. (Mr. John George Bourinot, clerk of the Instructions to Lord Durham for the constituHouse of Commons at Ottawa, in outlining to tion of a special council. its Speaker the project of a work to be called Lord Durham's proclamation dissolving the The Federal and Provincial Constitutions, Co- special council. lonial Charters, Organic Laws, Imperial De. Lord Durham's letter to the members of the spatches and other Documents, illustrative of the executive council, dispensing with their attend. Constitutional History of Canada, from 1540 to 1888, points out the following pivotal documents An act to reunite the provinces of Upper as coming within the period now under consid- Canada and Lower Canada, and for the governeration :


ment of Canada, 1840. Commission and royal instructions to Sir John Proclamation declaring the provinces united, (General) Murray, 1763.



In Lower Canada, during the last forty years, has grown up a school of French-Canadian historians, whose polished style and national spirit have made their work of much value. As was to have been expected, their sympathies have been drawn out toward the earlier period of Canadian history, though they have also given us detailed histories down to the date of their writing. We propose, on account of their forming a distinctive school of Canadian historians, to give their works a complete notice here, though they deal specially with this earlier time. Of foremost rank in this band, if not among all Canadian historians, is François Xavier Garneau, who, in three volumes, writes L'Histoire du Canada (Quebec, 1852). Though fairly treating his subject, he aroused the susceptibilities of some of the clerical opponents, and his book was later in some points modified. The work has reached its fourth edition (Montreal, 1882). It is a well-written, accurate, and judicious history:2 A compact French history from the conquest to 1818 is that of Bibaud the younger, Les institutions de l'histoire du Canada (1855). Of Michael Bibaud's (d. 1857) Hist. du Canada sous la domination anglaise mention has been already made (ante, IV. p. 367). The wrath of the Church in Quebec was visited upon the Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, when there appeared his Histoire du Canada, de son église et de ses missions (1852). It was an ill-digested and incorrect view of Canadian affairs, given by a visitor from France. The learned Abbé J. B. A. Ferland wrote his excellent and fair Cours d'Histoire du Canada largely to correct the French abbé's errors. The latter part of this work was, however, finished by Abbé Laverdière on the death of Ferland. A work now somewhat past its meridian is the Histoire de Cinquante Ans of M. Bedard (Quebec, 1869), covering the fifty years from 1791. In 1882-84 appeared a voluminous Histoire des Canadiens Françaises (1608–1880), by Benjamin Sulte (Montreal), 8 vols. ; while a French-Canadian littérateur, Louis P. Turcotte, had a few years before given to the world an octavo volume, 616 pages, Le Canada sous l'Union, 1841-1867 (Quebec, 1871), and two years later his Biographies politiques. A distinguished literary man, whose polished and genial manner and wide sympathies make him one of the attractions of

Return to an address from the House of useful little book is based on the author's larger Assembly to the governor-general, August 5, treatise on Parliamentary Practice and Procedure. 1841, on the despatch of Lord John Russell to Cf. Goldwin Smith on the Political History of the governor-general on responsible government, Canada in The Nineteenth Century, July, 1886; October 14, 1839.

E. Hulot on “ The French Canadians and the Her Majesty's instructions to Lord Sydenham development of parliamentary liberty in Canada, on his assumption of the government, Sept. 7, 1763-1867," in the Annales de l'Ecole des Sciences 1839.

Politiques, July, 1887; and Thomas D'Arcy An act for enabling colonial legislatures to McGee's Speeches and Addresses, chiefly on the establish inland posts.

Subject of the British American Union (London, Imperial act respecting coasting trade of the 1865). British possessions.

Mr. Bourinot has also printed in the Johns Despatches relative to removal of restrictions Hopkins University Studies, 5th series, nos. 56, on Canadian commerce.

a monograph on Local government in Canada Imperial act relative to the use of the English (Baltimore, 1887), in which he thus divides his language in legislative instruments, August 14, subject :1848.

Contents. — Introduction; The French régime, Imperial act to empower the legislature of 1608–1760; Lower Canada, 1760-1840; Upper Canada to alter the constitution of the legislative Canada, 1792–1840; The maritime provinces ; council, etc., Aug. 11, 1854.

The establishment of municipal institutions in British North America Act, 1867.

provinces of the Dominion. — Ed.] Proclamation uniting the provinces into one 1 (Four of them, Bibaud, Garneau, Ferland, dominion.

and Faillon, are passed in review by J. M. Mr. Bourinot has already sketched the pro. Lemoine in “ Nos quatre historiens modernes,” gress of constitutional principles in Canada in in the Roy. Soc. of Canada, Trans., vol. i. - Ed.] his Manual of the Constitutional History of 2 (Cf. ante, IV. 359; and a paper by Casgrain Canada from the earliest period to the year 1888. in Roy. Soc. Canada, Trans., i. 85. — Ed.] Including the British North America act, 1867, 3 [Cf. also Ferland's Observations sur un and a digest of judicial decisions on questions of ouvrage intitulé Hist. du Canada (Quebec, 1853; legislative jurisdiction (Montreal, 1888). This also Paris). – Ed.]

Quebec city, is Mr. J. M. Lemoine, an English-speaking French-Canadian. Many choice historical sketches are found in his Maple Leaves (1863); Monographies et esquisses; Monographies de nos modernes historiens; Picturesque Quebec (1882); and in many lesser monographs on the old Quebec gates, fortifications, and environs. In 1855, at Montreal, J. G. Barthe published Souvenirs d'un Demi-Siècle, and a brochure embodying the hope of his race in gaining by political means what they had lost by war at the conquest, Canada reconquis par la France, (also Paris, 1855.)

Les servantes de Dieu en Canada, by C. de Laroche-Heron, is an eulogy of the distinguished women who have served the Church in Lower Canada ; while a work on the French-Canadian people, Histoire du Canada et des Canadiens françaises de la découverte jusqu'a nos jours (Paris, 1884), by the Protestant Frenchman Eugène Réveillaud, who visited Canada a few years ago, is severely criticised by the Lower Canadians.?

If the songs of a people are elements of their history, the Chansons populaires du Canada, by Ernest Gagnon (Quebec, 1865), 8vo, 370 pp., is worthy of examination, the more that it was found a few years since that old French ditties, which had entirely disappeared in Normandy, were still sung in Canada.8 Sir Hector Langevin in his earlier days wrote a prize essay on Canada which is favorably viewed.

Two works remain to be spoken of in closing our sketch of Lower Canadian histories, and both of these written in English. One of these is History of Lower Canada, by Robert Christie (Quebec, 1848), 6 vols. While not written in a pleasant style, this is the most complete history of Lower Canada up to 1848. Its writer was a member of the assembly for Gaspé, and was a most industrious and successful collector of facts. His differences with his French-Canadian fellow-members do not seem to have disturbed his judicial frame of mind as a historian. Christie's work extends from 1791 (with a sketch from 1759) to 1841.4 The other writer, who may be called a British Frenchman, is Joseph Bouchette, the author of The British Dominions in North America (London, 1832), 3 vols. These volumes are a vast collection of the historical, geographical, topographical, and statistical data of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, as well as of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The position of surveyor-general of Lower Canada filled by Bouchette makes his work of considerable value. The part taken by Lower Canada in the peopling of the interior of Canada and Rupert's Land, as also of the Western States, is well shown in two volumes published in Montreal (1878), by Joseph Tassé, entitled Les Canadiens de l'Ouest. They are of much interest, and very full of national pride.6

Elsewhere (Vol. VII. 185–214) the authorities have been given on the removal of the loyalists from the United States; it remains for us to point out the materials for their history after their arrival in the British provinces. The main source of loyalist information is the Haldimand collection in the Archives at Ottawa. It awaits the labor of a


1 [E. G. Scott in a striking paper on “La 4 (Later ed., Hist. of the late Province of Lower Nouvelle France” in the Atlantic Monthly, Sept., Canada (Montreal, 1866). Cf. also his Memoirs 1889, tracks the development of the Gallic spirit of the Administration of the Colonial Government in Canada in its progress towards an apparently of Lower Canada, by Craig and Prevost, 1807-15 inevitable domination. — Ed.]

(Quebec, 1818), and John Fleming's British 2 [Eugène Réveillaud's “ Langue et littérature Settlers' Polit. Annals of Lower Canada (MonFrançaises au Canada” in the Bibliothèque treal, 1828). – ED.) Universelle et Revue Suisse (August, 1883), was [Cf. ante, VII. pp. 172, 177. — Ed.] reprinted in the App. of his Hist. du Canada. 6 [These and other works on Canadian his. Cf. Prosper Bender's Old and New Canada, tory are also characterized elsewhere. Cf. ante. 1753-1844. Historic scenes and social pictures, Vol. IV. pp. 157, 367–368.

These books are or, The life of Joseph François Perrault (Mon- also passed in review in good part in J. C. treal, 1882), and John Lesperance's Analytical Dent's Last Forty Years of Canada (1881), and Study of Canadian History, in the Roy. Soc. in Canadiana (1889), an historical periodical beCanada, Proc., vol. v. – ED.]

gun in Montreal, under the editing of W. J. [There is a later ed. of Gagnon, Quebec, White, in 1889. — Ed.] 1880.- ED.)

painstaking historian to reproduce the life of the loyalist settlements. A useful book, but not very valuable on account of its being chiefly gathered together from tradition and hearsay, and not from documents, is the Settlement of Upper Canada (1872), by William Canniff. Of United Empire loyalist descent himself, Dr. Canniff deserves credit for his industry, though the work is fragmentary and might have been better arranged." The Loyalists in America, by Dr. Egerton Ryerson (Toronto, 1880), 2 vols., deals with the growth of loyalism in the New England and Cavalier colonies, and adds little of local interest to what Canniff has given. The late J. C. Dent, in his Canadian portrait gallery

(Toronto, 1880), 4 vols., in sketches of Lord Dorchester, Haldimand, Simcoe, and others, has given many details of the loyalist period. The Mohawk chieftain Brant and his Six Nations Indians were to all intents and purposes United Empire loyalists, coming to Canada as they did after the loss of their lands near the Johnson estates in New York, and companions of their neighbors from that locality. Accordingly, in Brant's life by W. L. Stone (New York, 1838), 2 vols., and in the pamphlet by Ke-che-ah-gawme-qua, there is much of interest belonging to this time. Dr. Henry Scadding, the archæologist, of Toronto, has, in his interesting history of Toronto of Old (1873), told the story of many of the early loyalist families and their influence on Upper Canada.

In the Ottawa parliamentary library is a manuscript of three or four hundred

quarto pages, giving Colonel Clarke's recollecJONATHAN SEWELL.*

tions and reminiscences, and it is held in high

esteem for its account of the fathers of Upper Canada. The Travels in North America, 1795-96-97, by Isaac Weld (London, 1800, 1807), in 2 vols., contains a picture of the country of the loyalists in their first generation ; and Travels through the Canadas by George Heriot (London, 1807) is worth examination. The Travels to the interior inhabited parts of North America in ten years, by P. Campbell, in 1791-92 (Edinburgh, 1793), has an account of the author's contact with many of the United Empire leaders, and he speaks of their condition. Also, see Travels of Duc de la Rochefoucault-Liancourt, 2 volumes, 1799. The memorials of the United Empire loyalists have been greatly neglected in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, much to the disgrace of their descendants. In 1883, by a centennial celebration, the children of the loyalists and others of St. John, New Brunswick, sought to atone for this long want of recollection, and the addresses made are published in a Loyalists' Centennial Souvenir (St. John, N. B., 1887). In the same year General J. W. De Peyster prepared an address. on the fathers for the Historical Society of New Brunswick, which was published in New York (1883).

1 [An early Sketch of his Majesty's Province of 3 [Cf. Hugh Gray's Letters from Canada, 1806– Upper Canada (London, 1805), by D'Arcy Boul- 1808 (London, 1809). — Ed.] ton, is of little importance, and so is D. M’Leod, 4 [For local traits of the Nova Scotia loyalists, Brief Review of the Settlement of Upper Canada see G. S. Brown's Hist. of Yarmouth (Boston, by the U. E. Loyalists and Scotch Highlanders in 1888); T. Watson Smith respecting those at 1783 ; and of the Grievances of 1837-38, together Shelburne, in the Nov. Scot. Hist. Soc. Coll., vi. with a Sketch of the Campaigns of 1812, 1813, and 53, and references, ante, Vol. VII. p. 214. 1814 (Cleveland, 1841).— Ed.]

ED.) 2 [There are later editions. See Vol. VI., Index. — Ed.]

* [Following a photograph in Fannings Taylor's Portraits of British Americans (Montreal, 1867), vol. ii. His father was Jonathan Sewall, a royalist in Massachusetts, the last attorney-general of that province, who at the outbreak of the Revolution fled to England, where visiting the tombs of his ancestors he found the name spelled with an e and adopted the form Sewell. His son, whose likeness is here given, was born in Cambridge, Mass., June 6, 1766. Educated in England, he came to New Brunswick in 1785, and was established as a lawyer in Quebec in 1789, and in time reached the elevation (1808) of chief justice of Lower Canada. As early as 1814 he advocated a plan of forming a federal union of the British provinces in North America. He died Nov. 12, 1839. – ED.)


The materials for the history of the period in Upper Canada from 1791 to 1804 have hitherto been very scant. The first years of the life of new states or provinces are apt to be unchronicled. Last year (1888) a discovery was made which will enable historians to reproduce this lost period. Along with Governor Simcoe in 1791 came to organize the new province of Upper Canada the Hon. Col. D. W. Smith of the Fifth Regiment, surveyorgeneral of Canada. Stationed chiefly at Niagara, the capital, Col. Smith was not only the central figure of the settlement, but maintained an extensive correspondence with distinguished persons both in Britain and America. What was perhaps more fortunate still, he treasured up every plan and survey, as well as the letters he received. Col. Smith returned to Britain, and though his children have been communicated with by those who knew the colonel's habit of preserving documents, no information could be obtained. It turned out, however, that Col. Smith's widow had married again, and this second family had inherited under another name the surveyor-general's collections. Last year a London dealer came into possession of the documents, and sent word to Canada.

On the same day three cablegrams went to London : one from Mr. Brymner of the Archives Department, Ottawa; another from Premier Mowat of Toronto; and a third from Librarian Bain of the Toronto Public Library. Mr. Bain, who is one of the chief authorities on “Canadiana,” was fortunate in reaching the dealer first, and for £32 obtained this invaluable series of documents. They consist of twenty-four large volumes of many thousand pages. The original documents cover all the details of government and social life in the province for twelve years, and comprise disbursements and receipts of moneys, land claims, memorials, petitions, accounts, land sales and grants, with beautifully executed plans of the towns laid out, and of Col. Smith's estates, which amounted to twenty thousand acres, and were scattered over twenty-one different townships of Upper Canada. The autograph correspon. dence is extensive, and in volume after volume. Among his correspondents are Earl Percy, the Duke of Northumberland, Duke of Rutland, Duke of Portland, Count de Puisaye, General Simcoe, Governors Russell and Hunter, Chief Justice Osgoode, the Bishop of Quebec, and scores of other distinguished persons, and on all imaginable subjects.


In the maritime provinces the history of the early settlement has been given by a number of writers. The Nova Scotia Archives, edited by Dr. T. B. Akins, commissioner of public records (Halifax, 1869), though excellent, only cover the time 1714-55, not thus reaching our period, a thing to be regretted; also five volumes of the Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Historical Society are chiefly taken up with the earlier period; while the well-written History of Acadia, by James Hannay, only reaches the Treaty of Paris. Dr. George Patterson, who has written a number of excellent sketches of church and missionary enterprise, including the memoir of Rev. James McGregor, D. D. (Philadelphia, 1859), the Nova Scotian pioneer, published at Montreal (1877) his valuable History of Pictou. Beamish Murdoch's History of Vova Scotia (Halifax, 1865-67), three vols., is to be spoken of rather as annals than history, and does not come later down than 1828; while the North British Society of Halifax has also published Annals, 1763-1868. Murdoch's collection has been made with pains, and awaits the polished writer to weave the facts into

1 (For other notes on the New Brunswick Of New Brunswick, 1783-1883 (St. John, 1883), loyalists, see ante, Vol. VII. p. 213, as well as and a paper on the Pioneers in the St. James for those in Canada in general. Cf. J. W. Law. Mag. xxix. 575. – ED.] rence's Foot-prints, or incidents in the early hist.

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