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new and correct map (Halifax, 1823). The book is thought to have been prepared by Judge T.C. Haliburton.

Note. – The above map is reproduced from A General Description of Nova Scotia illustrated by a

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a finished web. A common-sense History of Nova Scotia, in its mercantile and commercial relations, is that of Duncan Campbell (Montreal, 1873)."

The resources of the neighboring province of New Brunswick were described by Thomas Baillie in Account of New Brunswick (London, 1832), and by Abraham Gesner, surgeon (1849), following his immigration work of 1847. New Brunswick history and statistics have been treated by Rev. C. Atkinson in his Historical and Statistical Account of New Brunswick (Edinburgh, 1844), and in a Compendium Hist. of New Brunswick (Halifax, 1832), written by Rev. Robert Cooney. See also Martin's History of New Brunswick (1844).

The history of Prince Edward Island has been written by Duncan Campbell (Charlottetown, 1875), while An account of Prince Edward, &c., by John Stewart (London, 1806), treats the topography, statistics, and history of the island. In 1805 the Earl of Selkirk had published in London his work On Emigration and the State of the Highlands, in which there is a description of his Highland settlement in Queen's County, P. E. I.

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Newfoundland as it was and as it is in 1877 was published by the Rev. Philip Tocque (Toronto, 1878). Reeves' History of the Government of Newfoundland appeared in 1793. Anspach's History of Newfoundland (1819) is mentioned, as also Pedley's (1863). In 1883 the veteran authority on Newfoundland, Rev. Moses Harvey, published in company with another writer, Newfoundland, the oldest British Colony ; while two years after Judge Pinsent wrote a paper, "Newfoundland our oldest colony,” which appeared in vol. xvi. of the Royal Colonial Institute Proceedings.

1 [Cf. ante, V. p. 419. The condition of the M. Martin (London, 1837), is of little moment. province immediately after the Peace of Paris is For later aspects, see Capt. W. Moorsom's Letgathered from an account prepared by order of ters from Nova Scotia, sketches of a young counJonathan Belcher, Jr., the lieutenant-governor. try (London, 1830). — Ed.] The Shelburne Papers, vol. xlviii., show a copy 2 [Local politics make the staple of G. E. Fenof it as given in the Hist. MSS. Com. Report, v. ety's Political notes and observations; or, A glance 217. S. Hollingsworth’s Present State of Nova at the leading measures that have been introduced Scotia (Edinburgh, 1786; 2d ed., 1787) points to and discussed in the house of assembly of New the conditions just after the close of the Amer. Brunswick, extending over a period of twenty-five ican war. An early Hist. of Noa Scotia, by R. years (Fredericton, 1867). — Ed.]

* (From R. M. Martin's History of Nova Scotia (London, 1837). — Ed.] VOL. VIII. – 12

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Upon the history of New Brunswick and the other maritime provinces, Dr. Harper, in 1876, issued a work at St. John, N. B. The writer of special note in connection with literature and history in the lower provinces is Thomas Chandler Haliburton, a judge of Nova Scotia, who was born in Windsor, N. S., 1769, and died in England in 1865, and whose writings under the pseudonym of “Sam Slick” have given amusement and much shrewd wisdom to thousands. Haliburton wrote an Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia (Halifax, 1829), two vols. The historical portion of the work only reaches to the time of the Treaty of Paris; but a great part of the first volume and all of the second is statistical. In his literary works, The Clockmaker (Sam Slick), three series ; the Attaché (two vols.); Letter-bag of the Great Western, and The old Judge (two vols.), Haliburton has drawn many graphic pictures of colonial life, infinitely more valuable as showing the social condition of the Lower Provinces than his history. A brochure by F. B. Crofton has just been published (Halifax, N. S., 1889), entitled Haliburton, the Man and the Writer.

The literature on the war of 1812 is very considerable, and in Vol. VII. pp. 420-437, the bibliography has been largely given. Of Canadian writers, Gilbert Auchinleck first wrote his History of the War in Maclear's Anglo-American Magazine. Col. Coffin's Chronicle of 1812,2 though not arranged with literary grace, is an earnest and honest view of the British side of the war. The Life and Correspondence of Sir Isaac Brock (London, 1847), by C. F. Tupper, is of first importance. Major Richardson, who took part in the war of 1812, and afterwards became a bishop of the Methodist Church in Canada, states his views (Brockville, 1842) with a thorough admixture of loyalist feeling. Historical documents relating to the war of 1812 were published by the Lit. and Hist. Soc. of Quebec in 1877; and the same society issued in 1879 the paper by Mr. J. Stevenson on the Cause and Commencement of the War of 1812.

As in many other instances, the war called attention to Canada, and on peace being established the settlers flowed in from all quarters. Various books of travel now become of use : Lt. Francis Hall's Travels in Canada and the United States, 1810, 1817 (London and Boston, 1818, 1819). James Strachan's Visit to the Province of Upper Canada in 1819 (Aberdeen, 1820). Two volumes called Statistical account of Upper Canada, by R. Gourlay (1822), and a volume of Introduction by the same author, give a good account of the state of the country. Hints to Emigrants, by Rev. William Bell (Edinburgh, 1824), was an exhibition of the crude condition of things in Upper Canada. A book of travels by John Howison, Esq. (Edinburgh and London, 1821, 3d ed. 1825), is called Sketches of Upper Canada, domestic, local, and characteristic. The author spent two and one half years in Canada. John M. Duncan, a Scottish traveller, passed through the United States and Canada in 1818 and 1819, and (2 vols., Glasgow, 1823) gives a graphic description of Niagara Falls and other national objects, as well as of the Six Nations of Indians. An officer of the royal navy, F. F. De Roos, in a work published at London (1827), presents an appreciative account of Montreal and Kingston, and of the future of America. Another British officer, Basil Hall, R. N., in his Travels in North America, 1827–28 (Edinburgh, 1829), depicts in a lively manner the life of the settlers in western Canada. The novelist John Galt, in his Autobiography (London, 1833), describes the Canada Company, whose affairs he managed, and pictures the social condition of Upper Canada. Major Dunlop also wrote Statistical sketches of Upper Canada (1832). Three years in Canada, 1826– 1828 (London, 1829), by McTaggart, is a lively and useful sketch by one of the British 1 Toronto, 1852-53, 2 vols.

also published Personal Memoirs (Montreal, 2 [Cf. ante, VII. p. 427. – En.]

1838). There is something to be gathered from 3 [Cf. ante, VII. p. 459. — Ed.]

Brymner's Reports (cf. 1887, p. civ), and J. W. 4 [Cf. ante, VII. p. 427. Operations of the de Peyster's Miscellanies of an officer (N. Y., right division of the army of Upper Canada. He 1888). — Ed.]

Note.- [The opposite map is reduced from one in John Stewart's Account of Prince Edward Island (London, 1806). — Ev.]

engineers employed in building the Rideau canal. Five Years' residence in the Canadas, 1818–23 (London, 1824), by Edw. A. Talbot, presents the mixed society of Canada as viewed by a young Irish subaltern. There are pictures of the Canadian winter in George Head's Forest Scenes (London, 1829), and in Mrs. Anna Jameson's Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada (New York, 1839). Some Notes of a Journey through Canada and the United States and West Indies (Edinburgh, 1838) was written by James Logan, advocate. He gives an account of Quebec and Montreal, but especially of the opening district of the western peninsula of Upper Canada. Canniff Haight describes Country life in Canada fifty years ago (Toronto, 1885). Capt. R. G. A. Levinge, in his Echoes from the backwoods, etc. (London, 1846), describes the huntsman's paradise of New Brunswick, the rebellion in Lower Canada, and the settlers' life in Upper Canada. T. R. Preston gives us an account of Three years' residence in Canada, 1837-39 (London, 1840). An English writer, James S. Buckingham, dedicated to Governor Metcalfe his Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and other British Provinces (London, 1843), containing a plan of national colonization. The rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada, the state of the Indians, and the features of the chief towns are discussed. Canada and the Canadians (London, 1846), by Sir Richard H. Bonnycastle, is the picture of colonial life as seen by an officer of high rank, and seen through the spectacles of imperial interests. E. Ermatinger prepared a useful little book (1859) containing the biography of the quaint Irish officer Col. Talbot, who settled many townships along Lake Erie. The Imperial papers on Emigration (London, 1847-48) tell of the outflow of the British people, mainly at this time to New Brunswick. In the archives at Ottawa there is a considerable correspondence with the British quartermaster's department on the immigration of the period. Roughing it in the bush, by Mrs. S. Moodie (London, 1854 ; New York, 1877), is one of the most successful and attractive pictures given of Canadian life. It is by an officer's wife, a sister of Miss Agnes Strickland, the well-known British authoress. Major Strickland's Twenty-seven years in Canada West (London, 1853) is another sketchy account of the emigrant's coming told by a brother of the preceding writer. The author was in the employ of the Canada Company while it was making settlements in Upper Canada. The Emigrant (London, 1847) is a series of sketches by Sir Francis Bond Head, some of them being interesting views of colonial life. There is no occasion to enumerate more of these later travels.

The literature connected with the rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada in 1837-38 is somewhat extensive. The rebellions were the outcome of an agitation for twenty years in Upper, and for perhaps more than thirty years in Lower, Canada. The gradual growth of the feeling of inquietude in Lower Canada is thus shown by Mr. John Reade in Canadiana (March, 1889). “The Report of the Gosford commission gives some idea of the state of this (Lower Canada) province in the years preceding the rising. In 1824 was published a number of pamphlets for and against the union of the Canadas as a remedy for the existing dissatisfaction. Later a volume was published showing the alleged defects of the Constitutional Act. In 1828 appeared the Report of the select committee on the civil gove ernment, with the evidence of a number of prominent men. In 1832 was published a Review of the proceedings in the Legislature of Lower Canada in the previous year, with an appendix containing important documents. In 1832 a book was published in Montreal comprising the ninety-two resolutions, with debates on them. These successive publications (of which I have mentioned only a few of the many) indicate the increasing tension in the relations between the malcontent portion of the population and the authorities.”

The French Canadian standpoint is taken in Carrier's Les evenòments de 1832–38, and in L. O. David's Les patriotes de 1837–38. So late as 1883 a controversy aro je by an

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1 [Later, Canada as it was and may be, with sequel to his Canada in 1841 (London 1842), the additions by Sir James Edw. Alexander (Lon- latter book being published at London in 1841. don, 1852). Cf. his Newfoundland in 1842, a - ED.)

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