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attack on M. Globensky, who had taken part on the loyal side, which drew forth a history of the rebellion by his son C. A. M. Globensky: La rebellion de 1837 à Saint-Eustache (Montreal, 1884). M. Globensky's story was severely criticised by L. O. David, M. P. P. The Upper Canadian rebellion was no doubt hastened by Gourlay's writings, and especially by the Seventh Report of the Grievance Committee of the Legislature of Upper Canada (Toronto, 1835). This publication embodied the results of indefatigable efforts to collect the records of wrongs, some real enough and others imaginary, which were made by the excitable William Lyon Mackenzie. A work published in London (1837), known as Canadiana, described the danger of the state of matters in Upper Canada, and no doubt influenced the authorities at the colonial office towards considering Canadian affairs. The most important work on the rebellion was, for years, The life and times of William Lyon Mackenzie, with an account of the Canadian rebellion (Philadelphia, 1862 ; Toronto, 1863). This was written by Mr. Charles Lindsey, a government officer in Toronto, and a son-in-law of Mr. Mackenzie. While a capable writer, Mr. Lindsey could hardly be expected to take a dispassionate view. The strong personality of William Lyon Mackenzie led to serious differences with his colleagues. The case ex alterâ parte” was taken up by a young Canadian litterateur, since dead, Mr. J. C. Dent, who in 1885 published at Toronto The story of the Upper Canadian Rebellion. Mr. Dent had obtained from Dr. Rolph's family the documents of Dr. Rolph, who was Mackenzie's chief opponent after their quarrel. These papers, which were afterwards obtained by Mr. Brymner, and are now in the archives at Ottawa, were skilfully used by Mr. Dent, who made out a case to Mackenzie's disadvantage. Mr. Dent's work as a literary performance deserves praise, and throws much light on the complications of the rebellion. Fairness, however, demands an opinion which, while by no means exonerating Mackenzie, yet by no means supports Mr. Dent's positions. The work brought out a keen rejoinder entitled, The other side of the story (1886), by Mr. John King, a lawyer, and another son-in-law of Mackenzie.

The despatches received by Sir Francis Bond Head (1839), Sir Franciz' despatches (1837), and Sir Francis' Narrative of his government in Upper Canada (Toronto and London, 1838, 1839) give the loyalist side, with an attempted defence of the governor's conduct.2 Judge Haliburton also wrote The Bubbles of Canada (London, 1839), in which

1 It contains a reprint of a Journal de Mes. Nova Scotia ; letter from A. Macdonell, catholic bishop of sire Paquin, Curé de St. Eustache pendant les Kingston ; memorial of A. Manahan complaining of the

exclusion of Roman Catholics (Irish) from places of emolutroubles de 1837-38.

ment and honor in the government of Upper Canada; 2 (Head's Narrative, together with the Report memorial of representatives of Scotch Church in Montreal; of the Earl of Durham, constitute the App. to address from the Constitutional Association of Montreal the Journal of the House of Assembly of Upper to the inhabitants of British America.

B. Commission appointing C. Buller to inquire into Canada (Toronto, 1839). Durham was the high

the past and present methods of disposing of waste commissioner "to inquire into, and, as far as

lands, woods, forests, and other domains and hereditamay be possible, to adjust all questions depend- ments, the property of the Crown in Lower Canada, etc. ; ing in the provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, circular despatches from the governor-general to the reor either of them, respecting the form and ad- spective lieutenant-governors of her Majesty's colonies in

North America; report to the governor-general (on public ministration of the civil government thereof."

lands and emigration). Minutes of evidence taken before His Report on the affairs of British North

assistant commissioners of crown lands and emigration. America was ordered to be printed by the House C. Reports of commissioners of inquiry into the muni. of Commons, Feb. 11, 1839, and is included in cipal institutions of Lower Canada; report of the bishop of the Sessional Papers, Reports from Commissioners,

Montreal on the state of the church within his diocese.

D. Commission appointing A. Buller to inquire into and vol. xvii. (London, 1839). An appendix contains

investigate the past and present modes of disposing of the a variety of papers illustrative of the condition

produce of any estate or funds applicable to purposes of of the provinces.

education in Lower Canada, etc. ; report of the commis.

sioner of inquiry into the state of education in Lower CONTENTS OF THE APPENDICES. - A. Special report on Canada; Jesuits' estates. Returns made to education comthe excessive appropriation of public land, under the name mission, 1838. Jesuits' estates; report of Mr. Dunkin. of clergy reserves; militia claims to grants of land; state E. Report on the commutation of the feudal tenures in of the hospitals, prisons, charitable institutions, etc., in the island of Montreal, and other seigniories in the possesLower Canada ; addresses presented to the Earl of Dur- sion of the Seigniory of St. Sulpice of Montreal; ordi. ham in 1838; letter from William Young on the state of nance of the governor-general and special council of Lower

travelling over the antecedent ground he endeavors to show the unreasonableness of the Canadian people, and to cast contempt on the remedies employed to pacify them. Sutherland's letters to Her Majesty (1841) and E. A. Theller's Canada in 1837-38 (Philadelphia, 1841), bear on the events of the same stirring time. Theller was an American sympathizer who for a while was a prisoner in Quebec.

The trials and the subsequent action of the executive in sending a number of the prisoners after the rebellion into banishment led to a literature of its own. There were very soon made public two important records of the history of the revolt. The first was the Report of the State Trials before a General Court-martial at Montreal, 1838–39, exhibiting a complete history of the late rebellion (Montreal, 1839, in two vols.). The other was

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Fry's Case of the Canadian prisoners. Other works like Miller's Notes of an Exile of Van Dieman's Land (1846), D. Heustis' Adventures in Canada and Van Dieman's Land (1847),1 Wait's Letters from Van Dieman's Land (1843), and Prieur's Notes d'un condamné politique de 1838 are memorials of this unfortunate crisis in Canadian affairs.?

A considerable number of works on the history of special localities are worthy of our notice. Some of these are merely gazetteers, but some embody research, and will be of service to the general historian. We can but mention several of the best : Dr. Poole's Early Settlement of Peterboro' (1867); James Young's Galt and its Neighborhood (Toronto, 1880); James Croil's Dundas (1861); Contributions to the history of the Eastern Townships (Montreal, 1866), and Shefford (1877), by C. Thomas; Mrs. C. N. Day's Canada, for incorporating the Seminary of St. Sulpice of en 1838 (Quebec, 1869, 1884). Statements reMontreal; report on the establishment of a registry of real garding the losses and compensations as resultproperty in Lower Canada. — Ed.]

ing from the rebellion make vol. xxxv. (1849) of 1 [The Boston ed. (1817) is called : Narrative the parliamentary blue books, Accounts and of the Adventures and Sufferings of Capt. Daniel Papers. There is a recent account of the rebelD. Heustis. – ED.)

lion, by D. W. Cross, in the Mag. Amer. Hist. 2 [Cf. also Felix Poutré's Echappé de la po- February and March, 1888. — Ed.] tence. Souvenir d'un prisonnier d'état Canadien

Pioneers (1863), and History of the Eastern Townships (1869); B. F. Hubbard's History of Stanstead County, revised by John Lawrence (Montreal, 1874); Acton Burrows' Guelph (1877); Halifax and its business, by G. White (1876); Leavitt's Leeds and Grenville (1879); Montreal and its fortifications, by A. Sandham (1874), Its prison, by Rev. J. D. Borthwick (1880); Hochelaga depicta, by Newton Bosworth (Montreal, 1846); Ottawa (past and present), by C. Roger (1871); Hawkins' Picture of Quebec (1834); Chronique Trifluvienne, by B. Sulte (Montreal, 1870); numerous works on Toronto – Dr. Henry Scadding's (1878) Toronto of Old (Toronto, 1873); and other books by C. Mulvaney (1884), G. M. Adam, C. C. Taylor (1886); Robert Sellar's History of the County

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From D. W. Smyth’s Gazetteer of the Province of Upper Canada (N. Y., 1813).

of Huntingdon and of the Seigniores of Chateaugay and Beauharnais, to 1838 (Huntingdon, Q., 1888); Esquisse sur la Gaspesie, by J. C. Langlier; and Buie's Saguenay.

Among special histories may be classed, The Irishman in Canada, by Nicholas Flood Davin, and the Scot in British North America (Toronto, 1880–85), by W. J. Rattray, these works being largely biographical.

In the discussion on the Hudson Bay Company,' mention is made of the works on the Red River country. The chief books of reference on Canadian Northwestern history are Alexander Ross's Red River Settlement (London, 1856) — rather onesided in some particulars, but useful; Red River, by J. J. Hargrave (Montreal, 1871), written by a Hudson

1 [Ante, ch. 1. For the Hudson Bay Com- Canada and the States, 1851-1886 (London, pany's relation to Canada, see E. W. Watkins' 1887). – ED.)

Bay Company officer, and intended to be a vindication of the company in some points, especially valuable for chapters vi., vii., viii., which give the principles of the company's rule ; History of Manitoba (Ottawa, 1880), by Hon. Donald Gunn and C. R. Tuttle – the portion up to 1835 written by the former of these two, being the story of an eyewitness who came out in Lord Selkirk's ships; Rattray's Scot in British North America, which in its early chapters covers fur-hunting experience and those of the Selkirk colony; and Manitoba, its infancy, growth, and present condition (London, 1882), by the present writer.1

Of the most western province of Canada, British Columbia, much has been written. The best works on its history belonging to our period are, Fitzgerald's Charter and proceedings of the Hudson's Bay Company, with reference to Vancouver's Island (1849); Vancouver Island and British Columbia (London, 1850), by J. D. Pemberton; Vancouver Island and British Columbia, as described by Matthew McFie (London, 1865); and Four years in British Columbia and Vancouver Island (London, 1862), by R. C. Mayne.

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A considerable literature has arisen in Canada in connection with the founding and growth of its churches. These involve continual references to the general history of the country. We mention only some of the more important. Rise and progress of the Church of England in the British American Provinces (Halifax, 1849), by Dr. T. B. Akins ; Missions of the Church of England in North American Colonies (London, 1848), by E. Hawkins; History of the Church of England in the Colonies (London, 1845, 1856), by Rev. J. S. M. Anderson; History of the Secession (Presbyterian) Church in Nova Scotia (Edinburgh, 1847), by Rev. J. Robertson ; Story of the Kirk in the Maritime Provinces (1875), by James Croil; Life and times of Dr. Robert Burns, by his son R. F. Burns, in Halifax, N. S. (Toronto, 1872); Life and discourses of Rev. Alex. Mathieson, D. D. (Montreal, 1870), by James Croil; Memoir of Dr. John Bayne, of Galt (Toronto, 1871), by Dr. Smellie ; Wm. Bettridge, Brief History of the Church of Upper Canada (London, 1838); Memorials of John Machar (Toronto, 1873), by his daughter (“ Fidelis "); History of the Presbyterian Church in Canada (Toronto, 1885), by Dr. William Gregg ; History of St. Gabriel Street Church, Montreal (1887), by Robert Campbell, containing many facts about the Northwest Fur Company; History of the Methodist Church of the Maritime Provinces (Halifax, 1877); Memoirs of William Black, Wesleyan (Halifax, 1839), by Dr. William Ritchie; History of Methodism in Canada (Toronto, 1862), by George F. Playter; Case and his contemporaries (Toronto, 1882), by John Carroll, D. D.; Fifty years with Baptist ministers of Maritime Provinces (St. John, N. B., 1880), by Rev. I. E. Bill; Howley's

1 [The Canadiana (March, 1889) recognizes (Toronto, 1885). The first Canadian woman the value of this work. Professor Bryce has con- who went to the Red River region was Marie tributed a paper on the “ Five Forts of Winni- Anne Gaboury, who is commemorated by the peg" to the Roy. Soc. Canada, Proc. iii. (2) p. 135. Abbé G. Dugast in La Première Canadienne du Cf. also G. M. Adam's Canadian Northwest nord ouest (Montreal, 1883). — Ed.]

From the Colonial Journal (London, 1816), vol. ii.

Ecclesiastical History of Newfoundland (Boston, 1888); Abbé Chaudonnet's Notre Dame des Canadiens (1872); Gosselin's Histoire populaire de l'Eglise du Canada (1887); History of the Guibord Case (1875); Henri Têtu's Les Évêques de Québec (Quebec, 1889).

The field of political history and biography has been by no means neglected in Canada. The public men of Canada have been treated by several writers in general biographies. Most notable of these is Sketches of Celebrated Canadians (Quebec, 1862), by H. J. Morgan, including nearly one hundred biographies. Another of these is The Canadian portrait gallery (Toronto, 1875, 1882), by J. C. Dent, with letterpress description, and in many cases well-executed portraits, of one hundred and fifty of Canada's prominent men. Still another is Portraits of British Canadians (Montreal, 1865), by Fannings Taylor; and a more extended series of biographies than any is Cyclopædia of Canadian Biography (Toronto, 1886), by G. M. Rose. A work of ethnographic importance, and reflecting credit

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on its author for marvellous industry, is the Dictionnaire généalogique des familles Canadiennes (1871-1887, in 4 vols.), giving, it is said, the descent of upwards of a million of the French Canadians. This has been the Magnum opus of the patient Abbé Tanguay. The learned Abbé Casgrain published in French, Biographies Canadiennes (1873), and three years later, L. O. David followed with Biographies et portraits (Ottawa, 1880).

Of the lives of the governors there are G. L. Scrope's Memoir of Lord Sydenham (London, 1844); Letters and Journals of Lord Elgin (London, 1872), a very interesting work, by Theodore Walrond ; 1 John W. Kaye's Life and Correspondence of Lord Metcalfe (London, 1854, 1858), and Uncle Ben's Life of Governor Metcalfe (1846) (a pamphlet).

The Clergy Reserve struggle has a considerable literature which may be found in the ecclesiastical histories just given, as well as in Charles Lindsey's History of the Clergy Reserves (Toronto, 1851), and in the lives of the great politico-ecclesiastical leaders of the time. The Story of my Life (Toronto, 1883) is by one of these leaders, Egerton Ryerson,

1 [Cf. Condition and Prospects of Canada in tations on all who differed in opinion with his 1854, as portrayed in the Despatches of the Earl hero." - ED.) of Elgin (Quebec, 1855). — ED.)

3 [Some of the documentary illustrations will 2 (Sir Francis Hincks (Polit. Hist., 1877) be found in Papers relative to Clergy Reserves, speaks of this life as “casting the vilest impu- presented to parliament, February 11, 1853, in Sir

* After a cut in The Mirror, February 11, 1837.

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