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plundered here and there along the Gulf coast; in 1578 he appeared on the Pacific coast, and in 1586 he burned Saint Augustine in Florida; while both the French and English marauders of the sea gave the shore people little quiet for the rest of the century. Floods, the fearful scourge of dis

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ease, and the introduction of the Inquisition, added other horrors to the time. Archbishop Montúfar had regularly established in Mexico the scru

1 Cf. ante, Vol. II. 453; III. 64. De Bry's in the Coquina edition of C. B. Reynolds' Old Drake's Attack on St. Augustine is reproduced St. Augustine.

* After a plate in Holland's Herologia Anglica, 1620.

tiny of the Inquisition in 1571, the year before he died, when he was succeeded by Bishop Landa of Yucatan, who had used its terrors against the heathen of Yucatan as early as 1562, and was now, in 1574, to institute the earliest auto da fé in Mexico.1

It was not long before the devastations of the marauding fleets of rival nations endangered the free passage of the rich trading ships that plied

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between Acapulco and Manilla, and the treasure vessels that bore revenue from the Gulf ports to Spain. In 1581 it had become necessary to give these carriers of bullion a convoy of war-ships. In 1584, Francisco de Gali, seeking to avail of the Japanese current and of the trade-winds 2 in coming from the Asiatic ports, had turned to the north, and first sighted the Cali

1 On church government in Mexico, 1550-1600 see Bancroft's Mexico, ii. ch. 31; on the religious orders, ch. 32. The Franciscans had come in 1524, the Dominicans in 1526; but not till 1572 the Jesuits, in 1585 the Carmelites, and in 1589 the Benedictines.

2 The dictionaries seem to err in deriving the

meaning of trade-wind from their availability for commerce. The early navigators (Hakluyt, ed. 1600, iii. 849; Dampier's Voyages, Lond., 1705, ii. pt. 3, pp. 1, 2) used the phrase to blow trade," which meant to blow in a fixed path (Professor William M. Davis).

From Hulsius, Sammlung, xvii, being the Reiss und Schiffart of Spilbergen (Franckfurt am Mayn, 1620). Cf. also Spilbergen's Speculum (Lugduni Batavorum, 1619), and the Journal van de Nassausche Vloot (Amsterdam, 1626). In the next century we find plans in Ottens' Grand théâtre de la guerre en Amérique (Amsterdam, 1717); in Anson's Voyages (reproduced herewith); a later Spanish survey in 1791, published by the British Admiralty in 1818; and later ones, enumerated by Uricoechea.

A view of the port from Montanus is given ante, II. 394, and modern travels will furnish later aspects, like J. R. Bartlett's Personal Narrative, vol. i.

fornia coast under 37° 30'; then he coasted south to Acapulco.1 This brought to mind the prevailing unacquaintance with a coast so neighboring, and the desirability of availing of any harbors it might have, into which the hunted merchantman could slip to avoid hostile ships, and from which the enemy could be watched. The career of Cavendish on the coast soon made such harbors a necessity,2 and the forced loans imposed upon New Spain for the benefit of the mother country rendered the protection of its trade essential to the meeting of such exactions. Whatever the more northerly parts of the interior country could yield was thus made worth the seeking, and the regions which Coronado had traversed, and which had been forgotten for nearly forty years, were threaded by the expeditions of Ibarra, Oñate, and others,3 from the south, and by that of Governor Diego de Peñalosa, marching east from Santa Fé, as is claimed by some.4

The voyage of Viscaino in 1602 had given new knowledge of the northern coast region; 5 and the intermittent presence of hostile fleets served to keep the attention of the authorities of New Spain intent on their maritime interests. The Dutchman Spilbergen was raiding here in 1614, and ten years later, and in the years following, the Dutch admirals, to distract the attention of Spain while the patriots of Holland were struggling for their independence, hovered here and on the Gulf coast with their fleets; damaging towns, intercepting Spanish ships, and sometimes making a great capture, as when Admiral Heyn captured the silver fleet near Matanzas, Cuba, in 1628.6 When war was declared between Spain and France in 1633, it was no small misfortune for the province that its taxes were increased to help Philip IV carry on his campaigns, at the time when the French cruisers were rendering it more difficult to convey treasure and products across the sea.

Internally, at this time, the condition of New Spain was not encouraging, though time and circumstance had forced upon its rulers a more humane policy toward the natives. There was enough oppression still to make the Indians join the negroes in occasional revolts. The capital city, if not occupied with the commotions of the remoter districts, found that successive inundations rendered the question of some relief by engineering works imperative, to quiet the growing feeling that it might be necessary to abandon the lake region and build a new capital on higher ground. Works were

1 Cf. II. pp. 455, 462.

2 Cf. Vol. III. p. 84; also Bancroft's Mexico, ii. ch. 33, and references, p. 745. On the voyages up the coast, 1540–1600, see North Mexican States, ch. 6; and Vol. II. of the present work.

8 Cf. Bancroft, North Mex. States, i. ch. 14, and New Mexico and Arizona, the latter not yet to be availed of, because at present unpublished.

4 On the connection of this expedition with La Salle's expedition to Texas, see ante, Vol.

IV. Cf. North Mexican States, i. 386, 393, 396, 399.

5 See, on the cartography of this coast during this period, ante, Vol. II. p. 457, etc.; and on Viscaino, p. 460. Cf. North Mex. States, i. ch. 7, on maritime explorations, 1601-1636.

6 This capture occasioned a large number of congratulatory pamphlets. Cf. Muller's Catal. (1872), nos. 938, etc., and Asher's Bibliog, and Hist. Essay on the Dutch books (Amsterdam, 1854-67). A medal in commemoration is described in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., xi. 296.

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This is the main portion, reduced, of the map in Joseph Francisco de Cuevas' Mexico y su Valle (Mexico, 174), made by Carlos de Siguenza. The cartography of Mexico, city, lakes and valley, has been elsewhere sketched (ante, 1. 143; II 375, 37% The maps and supposed topography of the time of the Conquest has Other of been represented in the map of Cortes ante 11 14), and the comped sketch of He'ps (11) the views of its relations to the lakes in the sixteenth century may be seen in the sketch in Bordone's eario, 1547 lb i p. x, and in Ramusto reproduced, ante, 11. 179. There is a "Pourtrait et Description de la

begun to drain the encroaching waters in 1607.1 The increase of wealth brought its natural evils, - pernicious luxury in the upper, and vice in the lower classes. Robbers infested the highways. Amid it all, there had

1 Again, in 1627 and 1629, new efforts at engineering were made. Large numbers of people perished in these inundations, and those that

fled from the city swelled the populations of Puebla and other places. See Bancroft, Mexico, iii. 96, for references.

grande Cité de Temistitan, ou Tenuctatlan, ou selon aucuns Messico ou Mexico," measuring 64 inches square, in Antonio Du Pinet's Plantes, Pourtraites et Descriptions de plusieurs Villes et Forteresses tant de l'Europe, Asie et Afrique, que des Indes et terres neuves (Lyon, 1564).

A relic of the engineering efforts to save the city from inundation exists in maps of a Dutch engineer, much in its service from 1613 to 1640 (Bancroft's Mexico, iii. 10, 86). A sketch of the valley by Boot exists in manuscript in Harvard College library, Regionis circa lacum Mexicanum descriptio ab Adriano Boot, and is reproduced further on. There is much information, with plans of the various efforts to drain the valley of Mexico, in the Boletin of the Instituto Nacional de Geografía (Mexico, 1852, etc.).

There is a map in Gottfriedt's Newe Welt, p. 607.

Of the maps of the eighteenth century, we have a common map, given elsewhere, from the Coreal of 1722 (ante, I. 145), which continued to be copied for many years, and will be found with little change in Johann Friedrich Schröter's Algemeine Geschichte der Länder und Völker von America (Halle, 1753), vol. ii., in Prévost's Voyages (xii. 325), and in the German Allg. Hist. der Reisen, 1755; but still another map is also found in these same works (respectively xii. 441, and xiii. no. 15). The map of Cuevas, of about the same time (1748), is given herewith. The map of New Spain given in Robertson's America (1773) is by Kitchin, and it has a marginal map of the city of the usual type. Later we find a good plan of the city in Chappe d'Autoroche's Voyage to California to observe the Transit of Venus (London, 1778). An attempt seems to have been made to make some considerable advance on all these efforts in the maps which Tomas Lopez was instrumental in making known or devising in 1783-85. One of them is a large map in four sheets, Plano geométrico de la imperial, noble y leal ciudad de Mexico, for Don Ignacio de Castera, año de 1776. Dale á luz Don Tomas Lopez, año de 1785. The other is a Mapa de las lagunas que circundan à Mexico for D. Tomas Lopes, which was prepared for the history of Solis. There is a Mapa de las cercanas de México por D. Juan Lopez, 1785. Uricoechea (Mapoteca Colombiana, Londres, 1860) does not note this, but he gives A Plan of the City of Mexico by Lt. Col. Count Diego Garcia, 1793. (Cf. a French ed., 1824, and that in Bullock's Six Months in Mexico, London, 1825, 2d ed.) A Calendario map of 1800 is given herewith. A decided improvement appeared in the Neue Charte des Thales von Mexico, based by Jablo Oelmans on the surveys of Louis Martin in 1804, and of Joaquin Velasquez in 1807, and upon the astronomical observations of Humboldt, which was published at Weimar (1810, 1814, etc.), of which a portion is given herewith from the English edition. Arrowsmith also included it in his New Map of Mexico (Lond., 1810).

The war with the United States (1840) caused new surveys by the American engineers Lieut. M. L. Smith and Captain Hardcastle. Cf. U. S. Senate Ex. Doc., 30th Cong., 2d session, i. no. 19, and 31st Cong., 1 st session, vi. no. 11, and reproduction in Brantz Mayer's Mexico, Aztec, etc., ch. xiii.; and the map reproduced ante, II. p. 374. In 1862 the French engineers made a new study of the valley, during Maximilian's career, and their map is shown ante, II. 375. Cf. the map showing the relations of the town to the present lakes given in W. H. Bishop's Old Mexico and her lost provinces (N. Y., 1883).

An early view of Mexico from Montanus is given ante, II. 377. The views of the eighteenth century generally puzzle one to reconcile them with the descriptions which we have. Cf. that in Hermann Moll's West Indies; that in Schröter's Alg. Gesch. von America (Halle, 1753), ii. 16. Supposable views of what the town was before the Conquest and after it was rebuilt are in some of the chief descriptive geographical repositories of this period, as in Prévost's l'oyages, and the German corresponding Allg. Hist. der Reisen (Leipzig, 1755, vol. xiii.). They do not convince one of their genuineness. Of the later town there are more trustworthy views, and such appear frequently in books of travel, like Ward's, Bullock's, etc.

We must look in Ortelius, De Bry, and Herrera for the principal maps of New Spain in the sixteenth century (ante, II. pp. 359, 392, 472). By the middle of the seventeenth century we begin to have the maps of Sanson, Blaeuw, and then come those of Coronelli; and for the beginning of the eighteenth century we have De Fer, Delisle, and Homann. The map of the bishoprics which Joseph Antonio de Alzate y Ramirez constructed in 1768 is given in Lorenzana's Cortes, and is reproduced ante, II. p. 408. Maps by D'Anville and Tomas Lopez were the other most important ones of that century. With those of Arrowsmith (London, 1810), Humboldt (Paris, 1811), and Delamarche a new series begins, and later come the maps of Tardieu, Brué, Dufour, Ward (1827, who complains in his Mexico in 1827 that few places have had their latitude and longitude definitely settled), Mariano Torrente (in his Revolucion Hispano-Americana, Madrid, 1830), not to name later ones. Cf. Uricoechea, under Mexico, nos. 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 33, 36, 52, 53, 56, 71, 74, 78, 79, 96, 104, 113, 116, 138, 175, 203.

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