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come an issue between the Viceroy Gelves and the archbishop, and the secular ruler (1624) had gone to the wall. Not so easy a matter was it for the prelate to deal with the Jesuits, who, despite their adversaries, grew in numbers, and labored and strove as Jesuits will.
* Reproduction of a map in the annual Calendario Manual y Guia de forasteros en México para el año de 1800.- KEY: A, Laguna de Tescuco. B, Idem Chalco. C, Idem de Xochimilco. D, Idem de San Christobal. E, Idem de Zumpango. F, Idem de Xalcocan. G, Idem de Oculma. H, Refuerzo para estrechar las aguas. I, Real Desague. J, Union del Desague con el Rio Gueguetoca. K, Comunicacion para el Desague de las Lagunas. L, Loma de los Abrojos. M, Idem de la Visitacion. N, Laguna. - Cf. maps in the British Museum noted in Calvo, Rec. des Traités, x. 368.
A serious obstruction to the shipment of treasure to Spain came in the capture of Jamaica by Cromwell's expedition in 1655, and the establishment there of a nest of English pirates; for an attempt (1657) of the Spaniards to drive the English out completely failed. So the buccaneers continued to ravage the Gulf coast; and even after a treaty with Spain in 1670, the governor of Jamaica, off and on, was suspected of giving clandestine aid to the marauders. In time, banding together irrespective of nationality, the freebooters controlled fleets and even armies. It was such a joint force -
*From the map in the English translation (Black's) of Humboldt's Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain (London, 1822). The map "was sketched on the spot in 1804 by Don Louis Martin, and corrected in 1807 from the trigonometrical operations of Don Joaquin Velasquez, and the astronomical operations and barometrical measurements of Humboldt, by Jabbo Oltmanns."
KEY: "The canal of Huehuetoca conducts the waters of the Rio de Guantitlan by the Rio de Tula or Moctezuma and the Rio de Panuco to the Atlantic. The canals of Zumpango (D, F) and San Christobal (B, F, C) were added in 1796 and 1798. The small canal of Vertideros (D, E) serves to throw the Desague dry. The canals (A, B) were projected to remove the danger to which the City of Mexico is still exposed of inundations from the south and east" (Humboldt).
the soldiers under Van Horn and the seamen under Lorencillo that by a ruse came before Vera Cruz in 1683, laid it under contribution, and put its people under torments to disclose the hiding-places of their treasures.1
NOTE. The above map is taken from one given in connection with the capture of the place by Van Horn, from Oexmelin's Hist. des Avanturiers, etc. (Trevoux, 1744), vol. i. Cf. Bancroft's Mexico, iii. 193, 213.
herewith reproduced. D'Anville also included one in his series of maps; and others are in the Gentleman's Mag., 1740, p. 242; in A Geog. Description of the Coasts, etc., of the Spanish West Indies (London, 1740); and in Jefferys' Description of the Spanish Islands (London, 1762). The popular geographical collections also furnish maps, generally much the same, as in Prévost's
Voyages (Paris, 1754), xii.; the Allg. Hist. der Reisen (Leipzig, 1755), xiii. pl. 9; and the Staat van America (Amsterdam, 1760), i. 150, 156.
In 1786 we find one of a larger scale in Tomas Lopez's Plano del Puerto de Vera Cruz, and a few years later (l'an ix) another, published by the Marine in Paris. Uricoechea notes that of Ponzoni (Madrid, 1816), an English edition of
The French pirates had their rendezvous at San Domingo, and the viceroy sent a force (1689) to devastate the least inhabited parts of the island; and with a turn of fortune, which easily came in those days of many hazards, the English were found ready to join the Spaniards, in 1695, in an attack on the stronger posts of that island. It proved successful, and the best. French forts were demolished.
Towards the end of the century, events in the north began to have new significance by the attempts of the Jesuits in Lower California to effect
what force had already failed in, the pacification of the native tribes. This was brought about under the adroit management of Fathers Salvaterra and Kino. Meanwhile, the neighboring ocean was as much infested as ever with the audacious sea-rovers. Dampier was cruising there in 1686, and again in 1704. During his latter cruise, he tried, without much success, to capture the Acapulco galleons. A few years later (1709) Captain Woodes Rogers, sent on a cruise against the French and Spaniards in the Pacific, picked up Alexander Selkirk on Juan Fernandez; and, while he gave a
the official "Marine " map (London, 1838); one showing the attack of the French, Nov. 27, 1838, given in the Annales Maritimes de 1839, as well as the maps made by Vice-Admiral Baudin's orders, which were published by the Marine in 1841;
and a map of the London hydrographical office, based on this French survey, and printed Spanish maps (London, 1847). Cf. Bancroft's Mexico, iii. 193; v. 198.
*From the map in Black's English version of the Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, by Humboldt (London, 3d ed., 1822), vol. i. Cf. maps in the British Museum noted in Calvo, Recueil des Traités, x. 366.