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man of little intellectual training, but possessed of a vigilant turn for affairs, while his commanding eye and energetic spirit gave him a considerable power over his followers. So, with dependence on Morelos, the revolutionary spirit was still active enough in certain regions to keep Calleja in the field. In February, 1812, Morelos made a stand at Cuautla (Guautla), where he repelled the royalist attacks so vigorously that Calleja settled down at last for the protracted work of a siege. Disease was weakening the forces both within and without, but famine was added to the perils of the besieged camp, so that Morelos in May resolved to extricate himself by bursting upon a single point of the circumvallating lines. He succeeded,
but not with any organized force, for his men scattered in the act. The victory of Calleja was a doubtful one, and he stained his arms by the devastation which he permitted in the town after the rebels had escaped.
By August (1812) Morelos had gathered about 3,600 men at Tehuacan, where he continued to threaten some of the lines of communication with the capital, and sought to pursue a guerrilla warfare. In October he captured Orizaba, and in November he was before Oajaca with 5,000 men, and speedily entered the place. Thence, in April, 1813, he advanced upon Acapulco, and though he took the town, the capture occupied so much time that Calleja, who had become viceroy, was enabled, after having subdued A congress of revolutionists in this region had already entrusted high powers to Morelos, and it proclaimed independence on November 6, 1813.
opposition elsewhere, to turn upon the rebellious southern province.2 1 Alaman (ii. 495) gives a plan.
royalists and rebels in 1813, with the marches of ? Alaman (vol. iii.) gives a map showing the Morelos. parts of the country held respectively by the
* After a print in Alaman's Méjico, iv. 329.
Morelos, with all the force he could muster, appeared in November before Valladolid, the capital of Michoacan. Thence, hearing that the royalists under Llano and Iturbide were marching to attack him, he detached Ramon Rayon to intercept them; but the plan failed, and Morelos received
the onset of the royalists while he was pressing his attack upon the city. The insurgents were routed and the city was saved, and while Morelos was retreating he barely escaped capture at the hands of Iturbide and his cavalry. In January, 1814, Morelos made a final stand at Puruaran, but Iturbide still drove him. Disaster followed upon disaster, till finally Morelos was deposed by his own congress. This body had adherents enough to
* After a print in Alaman's Méjico, iji. 327.
make it necessary for Calleja to appeal to the home government for a reinforcement of 8,000 troops. Ramon Rayon with a small force still held out at Cóporo Hill, near Zitácuaro, and Llano and Iturbide had dashed against his works in vain.
Morelos, meanwhile, commanding an escort which was protecting the migratory congress, was intercepted and captured by a force of royalists, and, after the forms of a trial, he was executed December 22, 1815.
The campaign of 1816 was sustained by the insurgents against a force of 80,000 men which Calleja had collected, and these were mainly directed against a few thousands which kept the field under Manuel Miel y Teran. Neither side had much success, and the war was simply tedious. At last, in August, a new viceroy, Juan Riaz de Apodaca, succeeded to Calleja, and uniting a more humane policy with vigor in disposing his forces, the leading rebel officers, Teran and Osorno, surrendered in January, 1817, and Ramon Rayon likewise succumbed a little later.
A certain quixotic interest is lent to the closing months of the revolution by the adventurous exploits of Espoz y Mina. He had fitted out a small expedition in the United States, which, landing on the Gulf coast, for
* After a print in Alaman’s Méjico, iv. 347.
a while swept victoriously inland. Mina's force was soon checked, however, at Sombrero, and he himself escaped to the camp of Torres, a revolutionary general sixty miles off. The two endeavored to make way together; but Mina was finally surprised and executed.
Other vagrant rebel leaders fell one by one into the hands of the royalists ; but Guadalupe Victoria held out, and concealed himself in the wilds
for two years.
The aspect of affairs was now changed by the news of the revolution in Spain and the swearing of Ferdinand VII to the Constitution framed by the Cortes, — tidings of which reached Mexico in April, 1820. The old revolutionists were awaiting the hour, and now, conferring together, they turned, probably not without knowledge, to the old enemy of the cause, Augustin de Iturbide. He on some pretence secured from the viceroy a command in the south, where he was defeated, and it is not sure that he was not willingly beaten, by Vicente Guerrero, who in return received him into his cause, and gave him command of a revolutionary army of five or six thousand men. Iturbide now made to Apodaca the offer of the presidency of the junta, if the viceroy himself would desert the royal cause ;
* After a print in William Walton's Spanish Colonies (London, 1810), vol. i., following a portrait owned by Admiral Apodaca.
but the offer was rejected, and measures of resistance were planned. It was, however, too late. The revolution was on its headlong way, and Apodaca gave place to a successor who recognized the cry of independence, and opened the capital's gates to Iturbide in September, 1821. At this juncture the royal standard was nowhere to be seen in Mexico but at Vera Cruz, Perok, and Acapulco, and at all these it speedily fell.
Iturbide in the capital and in possession of power, his influence was exerted to advance his own ambitious schemes. The people were divided
into monarchists and republicans. Congress and Iturbide fell into opposition on the question of supporting an army in the City of Mexico, when Dávila, a leading monarchist, tried to force Iturbide into a counter-revolution. Iturbide, however, chose rather to await his time, though he did not make any progress in coercing congress. In his proclamation issued (1821) at Iguala, the now paramount leader had planned a limited monarchy for the future; but the republican view was apparently fast overthrowing in the popular mind any monarchical scheme. Iturbide now and
1 This document is in all the collections of of the common books, like G. D. Abbot's Mex. documents of this time. It can be found in some ico and the United States, 248.
After a print in Alaman's Méjico, v. 51. VOL. VIII. — 15