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the Welshman Henry Morgan, who succeeded in 1664 to Admiral Mansfelt in command of the pirate fleet. He raided the Isthmus, captured with a part of his fleet the castle of San Lorenzo, and took the town of Panama in January, 1671. As a result, its citizens bodily moved their homes, and built a new city of the same name in a locality more easily defended. But even here they were again imperilled. The corsairs, a little later, having plundered Porto Bello and Santa Maria, followed the river courses inland,

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Note. — The bird's-eye view (on the preceding page) of the Chateau of Monsieur le Général de Poincy at St. Christophers is reduced from a plate in César de Rochefort's Isles Antilles (Rotterdam, 1665). — KEY: 1, Le Chasteau. 2, Le Jardin. 3, La Basse cour. 4, La Chapelle et les offices. 5, Les Escuries. 6, La Tour des Munitions. 7, La ville d'Angole. A good deal relating to the history of the island is to be drawn from the Calendar of State Papers, Colonial series, vols. i. and v. (down to 1668). The island was given up to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713).

From the print in the English version (3d ed.) of Exquemelin's History of the Bucaniers (London, 1704). This and portraits of other leading buccaneers appear in some of the editions of Exquemelin. Cf. Cassell's United States, i. 397, 409, etc.

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From Staat van Amerika (Amsterdam, 1766), i. 350. There is also a plan of the castle of San Lorenzo in

Gentleman's Mag., 1740, p. 350, showing Vernon's attack, March 24, 1740. Jefferys' Description of the Spanish Islands (London, 1762) has a map of the town and harbor.

and then, descending to the South Sea in canoes, added to their armament some piraguas when they reached deeper water, and appeared in the bay of Panama prepared for their usual fiendish sports. Captain Bartholomew Sharp, in command of a light flotilla, essayed to surprise the new Panama; but word of his coming had reached the town in advance, and surprise was impossible. The Spanish admiral, Jacinto de Barahona, appearing in the bay with a fleet, an obstinate battle took place before Panama, and the pirates later sailed south and gathered an abundance of treasure. Dampier in the mean while, who had been with the corsairs, recrossed the Isthmus and joined his ships on the north side. It would be tedious to enu. merate all these piratical excursions in these latter years of the eighteenth century, which included, however, so considerable an event as the taking

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Dampier began his manhood experience in he sided with a party opposed to serving under Spanish America, among the logwood cutters that commander (he and Wafer being of this dis. of Campeachy; but after a visit to England he affected crew), who crossed the Isthmus to rejoin came again in 1679 to Jamaica, and soon joined the fleet, which after many trials they did. The the buccaneers, when, having aided in Sharp's next two years were spent by him under the bucexpedition across the Isthmus to attack Panama, caneer flag

Note. — The above map of Porto Bello is from Staat van Amerika (Amsterdam, 1766), i. 308.

The attacks of Parker (1601), Morgan (1668), the pirates (1679), and Vernon (1739) gave an interest to Porto Bello which occasioned frequent maps of the bay during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, – like those in Coreal's Voyages (Amsterdam, 1722), vol. i. ; Prévost's Voyages (xiii.); the Allg. Hist. der Reisen (ix., xi.); Ulloa's Voyages; the Geog. Descp. of the Span. West Indies (London, 1740); that of the town and harbor in a Geog. Description of the Coasts, etc., of the Spanish West Indies (London, 1740); a rude plan with a key of Vernon's attack, in The Newsman's Interpreter (Manchester, Eng., 1741, 2d ed.); one by the Eng. lish geographer Jefferys, in A Description of the Spanish Islands (London, 1762); Homann's Portus Pulchri, showing Vernon's attack. Tomas Lopez's map is in the Atlas Geographico de la Amerika (Madrid, 1758),

p. 58.

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Note.– From Oexmelin's Histoire des Avanturiers Flibustiers, Nouvell ed. corrigée (Trevoux, 1744), vol. ii. Cf. the “Map of the Country and Citty [sic] of Panama” in the English version of Exquemelin's Hist. of the Bucaniers, 3d ed. (London, 1704).

A map of the Isthmus in 1597 is given ante, II. 190. The times of the buccaneers produced other maps than those mentioned above. Dudley included it in his Arcano del Mare (1647). Wafer's map in 1699 is given herewith. The Scots' settlement at that time produced various other maps, like those by Hermann

of Cartagena in 1697, the last great exploit of this maritime license, for the Peace of Ryswick, in that same year, practically closed the period of the buccaneers.

A new complication with England arose, when, at the close of the century, William Paterson led a colony of Scots to settle at Darien. The company had left Leith with great jubilation. Money without stint had fig wed in to furnish the colony. The headlong zeal of those who strove to go was not abated by any knowledge of the climate they would have to encounter,

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and dreams of the great opportunity for amassing fortunes by virtue of securing the transit trade of the Isthmus were too impressive to let the eager youths who had embarked think of obstacles. They had a warrant from William III to plant where they could, if they disturbed no civilized settlers, and they could bargain for land with the savages. But not so

1 See post, ch. 5.

Moll (1699), and in his Atlas (1729), no. 27, and the Covens and Mortier's Isthmus ou Darien. Early in the eighteenth century, Ottens at Amsterdam published several: Nova isthmi Americani tabula (1717). D'Anville dates an Isthmus de Panama April, 1730 (given in Charlevoix's Espagnole, Amsterdam, 1733) ; and the King's Maps, Brit. Mus. (i. 288) shows a MS. map, 1743. Jefferys' Description of the Spanish Islands (London, 1762) gives another. There is a Kaart van de Landengte van Panama, volgens de Spaansche aftekeninge opgemaakt in Staat van Amerika (Amsterdam, 1766). James Burney's Hist. of the Buccaneers of America (London, 1816) gives a map compiled from Dampier, D'Anville, and the Spanish survey of

1791.

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