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favorably inclined were the corporated companies who had rival schemes of aggrandizement, and the poor colonists found themselves jealously watched by the Spaniards on the one hand, and denied succor by the neighboring English of Jamaica on the other. It took but a few months before the remnants of the colony, diminished by disease and misfortunes, sailed away as best they could. A succoring but belated accession of

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recruits, with some, though inadequate, supplies, came to make another trial on the deserted ground; but these were in due time starved into surrender by the Spaniards, and allowed to depart, enfeebled and dismayed. So the project that teemed with promise to the unsuspecting came to a miserable end, as did another, some years later, — the notorious South Sea scheme, which used but as a pretext the trade of the South Sea to sustain it. The

1 The literature of this subject, by virtue of performed the voyage, is still made a conspicuits business name and of the single ship which ous class in the collector's library of Americana.

* From Lionel Wafer's New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America (London, 1699).

16

VOL. VIII.

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its directors still later. the causes which, by abridging the chances for gain, imperilled the plans of Treaty of Utrecht (1713) and the later war with Spain were but some of

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The treaty which England, France, and Spain made at Seville in 1729, wherein they covenanted for mutual forbearance and protection, was not enough to prevent capture and retaliation among their respective marines in these treacherous waters. England seemed the greater sufferer, and Spain, forced to a promise of indemnity, failed in the obligation, and a British fleet was sent to the scene. This was in 1739, and Admiral Edward Vernon was in command. He attacked Porto Bello and captured it, and then assailed the castle of San Lorenzo, at the mouth of Chagres River, which had been rebuilt since Morgan destroyed it in 1671. His attempt to reduce Cartagena failed.2 Commodore George Anson, in another fleet, had been sent round to the Pacific to coöperate beyond the Isthmus, but hearing on the South American coast of the repulse of Vernon at Cartagena, Anson steered for Manilla, and reached England by the Cape of Good Hope in 1744

If the Scots had not got their hoped-for commercial vantage from possessing the Isthmus route, the events we have been following, by increasing the hazards of the transit and approach, sensibly affected its value to the Spaniards, and the commercial importance of this route steadily declined.

The local annals of the southern provinces are not free from a monotonous flow of events that mean little to the foreigner, though Guatemala had grown to be the city of the most importance after Mexico in Spanish America; and this in spite of the many earthquakes which in succession nearly destroyed it, noticeably those of 1751, 1757, and 1765, and finally that of 1773, which induced its people to seek a safer site for their habitations.

In the last days of the Spanish rule, the same spirit that fired the priest of Dolores, farther north, raised counter-movements in these southern districts, and Dambrini essayed, but ineffectually, to fall upon the rear of Morelos. By equal steps, independence came at last to the south as to the north, and for a while these lower provinces were a part of the Mexican government, — not, indeed, with full assent, for there were some regions that the fair promises of Iturbide did not stir with enthusiasm, and Costa Rica kept herself aloof. Such union as there was with Mexico lasted fifteen months, after which the Central American Confederation had its own constitutional government. The period whích followed was characterized in part by the ins and outs, the ups and downs, of civil war, ending with a dissolution of the union, with each separate state left to the perils of internecine war, varied with reciprocal distrust and reprisal.

Cf. Carter-Brown Catalogue, sub 1711-20. See inal Papers relating to the Expedition to Panama the account in Ewald's Sir Robert Walpole, (London, 1744), and the New Hist. of Jamaica

ch. 5.

(London, 1740; Dublin, 1741; French transl., 1 His maps are noted in the King's Maps in London, 1751). the British Museum, ii. 201. Cf. Vernon's Orig- 2 See post, ch. 5.

NOTE TO MAP ON THE PRECEDING PAGE. - From Oexmelin's Avanturiers Flibustiers (Trevoux, 1744), vol. ii. For other plans, mainly in connection with Vernon's expedition in 1740, see a later page.

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NOTE.— From Gage's Voyages (Amsterdam, 1720), vol. ii. Sanson's map of the Audience de Guatemala is also in Ibid. vol. ii.

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