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edition, Bucaniers of America, or a true Account of the most remarkable Assaults committed of late years upon the Coasts of the West Indies, by the Bucaniers of Jamaica and Tortuga, both English and French, wherein are contained more especially the unparallel'd Exploits of Sir Henry Morgan, our English Jamaican Hero, who sacked Puerto Velo, burnt Panama, etc. (London, 1684), purported to be translated from the Spanish of Alonso de Bonne-Maison. We find here for the first time added to the Exquemelin text, and with a separate title, The Dangerous Voyage and Bold Attempts of Capt. Bartholomew Sharp and others, written by Mr. Basil Ringrose, who was all along present (London, 1685). Sharp's own journal of his expedition is also in William Hacke's Collection of Original Voyages (London,' 1699). There are numerous other editions of the English text of Exquemelin, thus augmented.

During the first half of the eighteenth century, Charles Johnson's General History of the robberies and murders of the most notorious pyrates 8 (London, 1724, 1726, 1736; Birmingham, 1742; New York, 1724) was the most popular record of the buccaneers. The subject had been surveyed in Russell's Hist. of America (London, 1778), and in Johann Wilhelm von Archenholtz's Geschichte der Flibustier, 4 before Burney made his History of the Buccaneers (London, 1816) a part of his Chronological History, etc. This last is the best of all the accounts up to that time, and still remains the chief of the later treatments on the subject. 5

1 Wm. Hacke, who was with Sharp, also en- 2. The Dangerous Voyage and Bold Attempts of tered marginal notes in a MS. South Sea Waggon- Capt. Sharp and others, in the South Sea. 3. er, a description of the sea-coasts on the South Sea Journal of a Voyage into the South Sea by the of America, from the port of Acapulco to the Freebooters of America, from 1084 to 1689. 4. ReStreights of Lemaire, made about 1690, which lation of a Voyage of the Sicur de Montaubon, CapQuaritch held at £72 in his Catalogue, June, tain of the Freebooters, in Guinea, in 1695, etc. 1885, no. 28,234. This MS. seems to have The whole translated into English (London, been bought for the South Sea Company two 1699), the first English edition, because apparor three years after 1690, as appears by an ac- ently its reissue in 1704 is called a second edicompanying letter, which describes it as "full tion. A "third edition ” is also dated 1704. A of curious mapps and platts of ye South Seas, "fourth,” 1741, is said to be a different translabeing ye long experience of ye famous buckanere tion, with new plates (abridged by H. W. DilCapt. Barth. Sharpe and of an antient French worth, London, 1759); reprinted as a "fifth " captain that hee took with his booke, mapps and (Dublin, 1741). Two Glasgow editions are dated papers, who used those seas 70 yeares, being all 1762, 1773. The "fifth” edition is London, in the said Booke composed and depicted by one 1771, and with a new title, 1774. After this Sa. Captain William Hack, deceased, of whom I bin despairs of a full enumeration, but cites Lon[Wm. Hill] about 18 years ago purchased the don, 1800, 1810; Dublin, 1821 ; N. Y., 1826, said booke and paid him £70 for ye same.” 1836, 1840; Boston, 1853, 1856. Cf. Burney,

Cf. on the Waggoner maps in the British Mu- Chronol. Hist. iii., and Retrospective Rev. iii. seum, Calvo, Recueil des Traites, x. 324.

3 There was a French translation (Utrecht, Quaritch (ibid. no. 28,227) held at £10 1os. 1725), and it is included in the Trevoux (1744) an unpublished MS, atlas, South Sea Waggoner, edition of the French Exquemelin. There is showing the making and bearing of all the coasts some material in the New History of Jamaica to from California to the Streights of Le Maire, done the taking of Porto Bello by Admiral Vernon from the Spanish originall by Basil Ringrose (London, 1740 ; Dublin, 1741 ; French transl., (1680-85?). Cf. Bancroft, Central America, ii. Londres, 1751). 758.

4 In French (Paris, 1804); in English, trans2 The edition of 1684 was abridged the same lated by Geo. Mason (London, 1807). Cf. J. F. year, and a

"second ed.," "corrected and en- André's Histoire des flibustiers (Paris, 1812-13), larged,” bears also the same date ; but with a in nine volumes. new title, though still called a "second edition,” 6 The most popular of the minor accounts are it was reissued in 1695. Bancroft, by some mis- those in the Family Library, published in New conception, calls an edition entitled History of the York in 1846: Lives and Voyages of Drake, Cav. Bucaniers of America. From their first original endish, and Dampier, including an introductory down to this time. Written in several languages view of the earlier discoveries in the South Sea and now collected into one volume, containing: and the history of the Bucaniers, and Walter 1. Esquemeling's Exploits and Adventures of Le Thornbury's Buccaneers, or the Monarchy of Grand, Lolonois, Bas, Sir Henry Morgan, etc. the Main (London, 1858). There is a suc

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The best resource we have for the beginning of the French occupation of their part of St. Kitts is Pierre Margry's Origines transatlantiques : Belain d'Esnambuc et les Normands aux Antilles d'après des documents nouvellement retrouvés (Paris, 1863). Belain, who was born in 1585, had established himself here, sharing the island with the English, in 1626. He and Captain Baillardel acted for a French Compagnie de Commerce, and they also took possession in 1636 of Martinique and Dominique, and Belain died the same year, leaving his nephews to gather the fruits of his enterprise.

The interest in the seventeenth-century maritime adventurers centres in the exploits of Henry Morgan, and in the expeditions of Dampier and Sharp, while the rovings of Woodes Rogers and of George Anson are of the most interest on the side of the Pacific.3

The bibliography of Durango, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Sonora is given more extensively than elsewhere in Bancroft's North Mexican States (vol. i.), and a similar recourse for Texas will doubtless be found in a volume in the same series yet to be given to those regions. At the present writing (April, 1889), the last received volume of the Bancroft series is that on the history of Arizona and New Mexico, treated together, and he prefixes his usual list of the sources on which he has depended, the best enumeration for the student of the bibliography of this region, which is helpfully supplemented by the foot-notes throughout the volume. Being by the latest writer, with more ample resources than any other, this single volume is much the best survey of the field. He notes his dependence, among the earlier writers, upon Torquemada, Vetancurt, Mendieta, Oviedo, Gomara, Beaumont, Mota Padilla, Villaseñor, — not to name less important specific authorities, - and also upon the standard collections of documents published in Mexico and Madrid, and on that of Ternaux-Compans.1 It is upon these collections, as well as upon the versified chronicle of one of Oñate's companions, Gaspar agra's Historia de la Nueva Mexico (Alcalá, 1610), that he depends for the main thread of his narrative of the Spanish Conquest by Oñate, placed, as he dates it, in 1595-98 (ch. 6), instead of in 1591, as earlier writers, like Prince and Davis, had determined. Bancroft places more reliance upon the metric evolutions of Villagrá than they perhaps deserve; and, with the exception of some use made of them by Luis Cabrera de Córdoba in his Historia de Filipe Segundo (Madrid, 1619), he does not find that any writer had recognized the value of this poem as an historic source till Fernández Duro, in his Peñalosa, gave a résumé of it in 1882.4

cinct account in Viscount Bury's Exodus of the Magellan's Straits. The Voyages and Adven. Western Nations, ii. ch. 3. The student can tures of Captain Bartholomew Sharp (London, probably profit most from the foot-notes to Ban 1684) is the vindication of Sharp by a friend. croft's treatment of the subject in his Cent. There are other editions of the whole in 1776 America, ii. ch. 26, 28, 29, 30, etc. Arber's Eng- and 1790 ; and a German complete version (Leiplish Garner, ix., has a collection of tracts relat- zig, 1703, 1704, 1708). Dampier's career is pleasing to the pirates, 1588–1600.

antly sketched in C. R. Markham's Sea Fathers 1 For his raids on the Isthmus, see Bancroft's (London, 1884). Cent. Amer., ii. ch. 28 ; and J. T. Headley in 3 Rogers, Cruising Voyage round the World, Harper's Mag., xix. Cf. references in Poole's 1708-1711 (London, 1712, 1718, 1726; French Index and Supplement, under Buccaneers and ed., Amsterdam, 1716). An abridged edition is Morgan. There is much on Morgan and his in Arber's English Garner, vol. ix.

Cf. Life companions in A New Hist. of Jamaica from the aboard a British Privateer in the time of Queen Earliest Accounts to the taking of Porto Bello by Anne, with notes by R. C. Leslie ; and the Voyage Vice-Admiral Vernon (London, 1740); and the to the South Sea, 1708-11, of Captain Edward popular story of the time is told in Sir Henry Cooke, who was of the Rogers expedition. Morgan's Voyage to Panama, 1670 (London, Anson's Voyage round the World, 1740-44, 1683).

compiled from his papers [by Peter Robbins and 2 The best edition of William Dampier's Voy- Richard Walter] (London, 1748, 1756, 1769 ; ages, etc., is that in four volumes, London, 1729. French transl., 1751 ; German, 1749). Other ilVols. i. and ii. have Dampier's voyages on the lustrations of the voyage are in Pascoe Thomas's coasts of Chili, Peru, and Mexico, and they are True and impartial Journal (1745); Chaplain reprints of his earlier editions, 1697-1709. Vols. Richard Walter's narrative (1748); and two iii. and iv. contain the New Voyage (London, books about the experiences of some of the com1699, 1704) of Lionel Wafer, who was left pany on board the “Wager,”- one by J. Mor. wounded among the Isthmus Indians, - of which ris, Narrative (1751), and the other an Affecting there are French (1706) and Dutch (1714) ver. Narrative (1751). A midshipman's History of sions ; the Voyage round the World (London, Anson's Voyage was published later (London, 1707) of William Funnell, who was with Dam- 1767). Cf. Carter-Brown Catal., iii. nos. 754, pier (1703-4) ; Cowley's Voyage round the World 791, 864, 865, 892, 923, 940, 958, 965, 1560, 1648, (1699) ; Sharp's expedition over the Isthmus to 1099, 1100; and John Barrow's Life of George the South Sea, and Wood's voyage through Anson (Lond., 1839).

It does not comport with the condensation of the present chapter to enlarge upon the details of the many expeditions to this region, the main sources for which have been indicated elsewhere ;5 but the student of details will find them in Bancroft (chapters 4 and 5), where that writer goes over those between 1540 and 1596, and then enlarges (ch. 6) on the Conquest by Oñate, using Villagrá, as well as the documents in Pacheco's collection (vol. xvi.), and giving a map of Oñate's route (p. 123). For the period next following, 1599-1679, Bancroft (ch. 8) complains of the great lack of data, the archives at Santa Fé before that period having been for the most part destroyed in the revolts near the end of the seventeenth century.

What purports to be an account of an expedition made in 1662 by Peñalosa," though given by Prince in his History of New Mexico (1803) as a genuine recital, was exposed by Shea in his Expedition of Peñalosa, in 1882, as a fraudulent story, and the alleged account has been held to be simply a narrative of the Oñate expedition twisted to serve Peñalosa's purpose with the French king in his designs upon the Spanish holders of the mines. The book by Duro, already cited, also took in the same year a similar view as to the fraudulent character of this narrative, deriving the grounds mainly from the Informe of Posadas, in the Doc. Hist. Mex. (3d ser., iv. 211), — where, however, that document is quoted as by Paredes, a name followed by Bancroft in dealing with the matter in his North Mexican States (i. 386, 393, in 1884; also No. West Coast, 109), but corrected by him in his Arizona (p. 170).

Bancroft then, in subsequent chapters (9, 10), follows the story of the revolts against the Spaniards in 1680–1691, and of the reconquest by Diego de Vargas in 1692-1700, – which brought to a close the recalcitrant efforts of the natives, except in some minor instances. The later periods are not possessed of much interest, but the story, as far as it can be told for the eighteenth century, is given by Bancroft. He finds little to show (p. 307) that the commotions of the revolutionary period (1811-1821) farther south had much or even any perceptible effect in New Mexico; but it is to this time, or to the years closely following, that he traces the beginning of the Santa Fé trade, and he points out by a map (p. 331) the direction of the trail used by the merchants. Then, after tracing the current of events during the period when this region was a Mexican province (1825-1845, - ch. 14), he takes up the story of the American occupation during the Mexican war, and under the succeeding military rule (1846-1850, — ch. 17, 18), bringing down the narrative to the close of the period which it is the purpose of this chapter to cover; and of course, also, beyond to the present date.

1 Ante, Vol. II., Introduction.

6 Bancroft (p. 19), in a note, points out how 2 This book is rare. There is a copy in Har- the remaining records have been badly cared for vard College library. After you have made the even after the United States government obproper allowance for the compulsions of his tained possession; though amid this loss somemetre, and for the padding of his method, his thing considerable is preserved to us in a "Carverse still remains a not unimportant illustration ta," written in 1778 by Father Escalante, coverof the events which he chronicles.

ing what he could glean from the records for the 3 An edition by order of the Spanish govern- years 1680–1692, and even to 1717, if we credit ment, with an introduction, was printed in four to him what seems to be a continuation of his folio volumes at Madrid in 1876, etc. Cf. its studies, both of which are printed in the Doc. second volume, pp. 679, 680.

Hist. Mex., 3d series, part iv. (1856). 4 Ante, Vol. II. p. 503.

7 Ante, Vol. II. 503. Cf. J. W. Savage in New 5 Ante, Vol. II. p. 503.

braska Hist. Soc. Trans., ii. II4.

This Bancroft volume renders the earlier books of Davis and Prince i wellnigh unnecessary to the student.2

The first permanent settlement in New Mexico was made in 1598, but was removed in 1605 to the present Santa Fé, and not another town was founded till after the reconquest, when Santa Cruz de la Cañada was established in 1695; and the third was that of Albuquerque in 1706. It is not probable that any existing architectural structure of the Spaniards in the country dates back of 1636, if even so far back, though there may be ruins of some of the eleven churches known to have been standing in 1617, while the ruins near Zuñi are not earlier than 1629. The oldest lapidary record seems to be an inscription recently found by F. H. Cushing, recording the excursion of Francisco Sanchez Chamuscado in 1581.3

Of the region now called Arizona, the history is covered in the same Bancroft volume (Arizona and New Mexico, 1889, ch. 15, 16, from 1543 to 1845), but it is almost entirely for a long period only a record of incursions, as the Spaniards had early made in only one small section any missionary or other occupation. These sites (1768-1846), as well as the routes of the early explorations, are shown in maps (pp. 347, 384).*

No other portion of the history of Spanish America has been studied with the minuteness that has been given to the chronicles of Upper California in the Bancroft series. The list which is prefixed to the first volume of the California includes sixteen hundred titles 6 pertaining in some way to that region, down to its cession to the United States, and this enumeration is thrown into a classification, with annotations in the second chapter of the 1 Ante, Vol. II. 502, 503.

more or less detail, though without much re2 Cf., however, W. H. H. Davis's Spaniards search, the earlier periods : Silvester Mowry, in Mexico (Doylestown, Pa., 1888); Wm. G. Arizona and Sonora (N. Y. 1864, 3d edition). Ritch's Aztlan, the history, resources, and attrac- Hiram C. Hodge, Arizona as it is (N. Y. 1877). tions of New Mexico (Boston, 1885, 6th ed.); Richard J. Hinton, Handbook to Arizona (San his Legislative Blue Book of the Territory of New Francisco, 1878). History of Arizona Territory Mexico (Santa Fé, 1887), with its Appendix of (San Francisco, 1884). S. W. Cozzens, Marvelannals; and James H. Defouri's Hist. Sketch of lous Country (Boston, 1874). Edward Roberts, the Catholic Church in New Mexico (San Fran- With the Invader (San Francisco, 1885). Patcisco, 1887).

rick Hamilton, Resources of Arizona (San Fran8 A. F. Bandelier in The Nation, March 28, cisco, 1884, 3d edition). 1889. Bancroft (Arizona and New Mexico, pp. 5 It is called complete to 1848, and practically 158, 790) places the founding of Santa Fé be- so to 1856. Reference is made to A. S. Taylor's tween 1605 and 1616.

list (1863-66) as the only one previously made 4 Bancroft, pp. 373, 593, commemorates the (see ante, I. p. ix), and it is said that of its one few modern books, mainly concerned with the thousand titles, Taylor could hardly have seen later history of the region, but touching with one in five.

NOTE. The opposite plate shows the main portion of the map in Venegas' Noticia de la California (Madrid, 1757), vol. iii. Cf. Bancroft's No. Mexican States, i. 463. The history of the exploration of Lower California and the Gulf has been sketched, ante, Vol. II. Cf. explorations 1636–1769, detailed in Bancroft's North Mex. States, i. ch. 8. We get types of these earlier views in Pieter Goos's Orbis terrarum nova tabula (Amsterdam, 1666) and Nicolas de Fer's map of


At this time (1698-1701) Father Kino was engaged in his explorations, which enabled him to publish a map in 1705 (Lettres Édifiantes, reproduced in the French Encyclopédie, Supplement, 1777 ; cf. Bancroft's Arizona, p. 360, and references, ante, Vol. II.). Consag's map (1747) was the next definite improvement, of which we see the influence in A Map of Lower California (1746) improved upon Consag and embodying other observations, in Jacob Bägart's Nachrichten von der Amerikanischen Halbinsel California (Mannheim, 1772). Cf. Bancroft's No. Mex. States, i. 479. Still better was that published by Venegas, given herewith. Ten years later came the explorations by the Jesuits, of which we have the results in Isaak Tirion's map in the Staat van America (Amsterdam, 1766), vol. i. 243; the map of the Jesuits (1767), reproduced in the French Encyclopédie, Supplement, 1777, and Vaugondy's of 1772, in Ibid. There is a map in Ignas Pfefferkorn's Beschreibung der Landschaft Sonora (Köln, 1794), and many later ones. Cf, modern sketch map, ante, II. 485.

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