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MAPA DE LA CALIFORNIA, 1757.*
* Reduced from the map in Venegas' Noticia (Madrid, 1757). Other engravings of the same map will be found in the English (1759), French (1767), and German (1769-70) translations of Venegas. Cf. Bancroft's No. Mexican States, i. 471; his Arizona, 370.
same volume, and again with more detail in some respects in the California Pastoral, ch. 22.
Of the narratives or description pertaining to California previous to the Spanish occupation in 1769, Bancroft can only count eight books which supply independent information, though he gives fifty-six that, with more or less of borrowing, in some way concern the country, though of not one is that region the sole subject.
From the time when Cortés began the cartography of the Pacific Coast in his map of the southern end of the peninsula of California, there is a succession of views as to its contour, based on knowledge or theory, running down the history of the region till its thorough occupation by the Spaniards. This has been traced in another volume, and it involves a series of maps from that of Castillo in 1541 down.2
At the time that the Noticia de la California, y de su conquista temporal, y espiritual hasta el tiempo presente. Sacada de la historia manvscrita, formada en México año de 1739, por el padre Miguèl Venegas; y de otras noticias y relaciones antiguas y modernas. Añadida de algunos mapas was published in Madrid in 1757,8 the name of California was applied generally to the peninsula now known as Lower California, and it was under other names - New Albion, for instance, to the English — that the upper regions were known previous to the Spanish occupation, and almost wholly through the maritime explorers of the coast,* whose reports were embodied, more or less at length, in the great collections of
1 Cf. ante, II. p. 442. This map has been also Prof. George Davidson, of San Francisco, in the reproduced on a larger scale and in colors in the pursuit of his studies to identify the landfalls of Congrès des Américanistes, Madrid meeting, ii. the earliest maritime observers. He first pub330, with a notice by Fernández Duro.
lished a summary of his conclusions in the Bul. 2 Cf. ante, II. pp. 444, etc. The wild discus- letin of the California Academy of Sciences (ii. sion over the supposed Straits of Anian is in- 325), and then at length in his Voyages of Discovcluded (p. 455), but reference also may be made ery and Exploration on the Northwest Coast of to a paper by Novo y Colson in the Congrès des America, 1539-1003, which makes Appendix vii. Américanistes, Madrid, p. 122, Nordenskjöld's of the Report for 1886 of the U. S. Coast and GeVega, ii. 214, and a recent paper by W. Barrows odetic Survey, with a chart illustrating the landin the Mag. Amer. History, March, 1889, on falls of Cabrillo and Ferrelo. He places Drake's “America the world's puzzle.” The discussion Bay under Point Reyes. (Cf. ante, II. 444.) also involves the question of the insularity of The first Mappemonde engraved in Russia was California, which by no means confined the insu- the work of Basile Kiprianoff in 1707. (Cf. Lalarizing to what we know now as Lower Califor- banoff's Cartes géographiques, no. 51.) The nia, but the island was made to extend its north- tracks of Russian explorations before 1763 are ern verge some distance above San Francisco also shown in a map published at St. Petersburg Bay. One of the earliest discussions of this in 1775. question was in the Hist. of the works of the 3 Ante, II. 461. For editions see Carter. learned (London, 1699). Cf. Sabin, viii. no. Brown Catalogue, iii. nos. 1179, 1239, 1309, 1601, 32,728. Since the statement was made in Vol. 1710, 3637. The Venegas manuscripts which II. p. 464, the editor has been favored by Pro- Father André Buriel (ed. 1762) used in preparing fessor C. A. Joy, now resident in Munich, with a this work are preserved in the University library description of the original MS. of the Arcano and in the college of Saint Gregory at Mexico. del Mare of Dudley, which is preserved in the Leclerc, no. 1035. The Jesuit William Gordon royal library in that city. The drawn maps are began at La Paz in 1734, and ended at Santiago in three large parchment-bound volumes, and a in 1737, a MS. Historia de las Misionas Jesuitas few of the drawings are on vellum. The collec- en la California baja, des de su establecimiente tion is called Dudleo dele 4 parti del Mondo, tom.  hasta 1737, which is priced in Quaritch's i., iž., iii., and the third volume contains maps of Catalogue, Jan., 1888, at £63. “ Henrico Hudson, 2do viago, 1613,” “ America 4 Like Francis Drake, Linschoten (ante, II. Australe,” “ Honduras," 'Nicaragua,” and 457), Dampier, Woodes Rogers, Shelvocke, etc. “ Mexico." Mr. Charles A. Schott has used Of Drake and the early books on him, and of these maps in Bulletin, no. 5, of the U. S. Coast Linschoten, there is sufficient said in another Survey, to establish the variation of the needle volume (ante, Vol. III.). Dampier's New Voyin 1646. From a copy of the edition of 1661 in age was published in London in 1699-1709; the royal library at Munich (Quaritch, in 1885, Woodes Rogers' Cruising Voyage round the no. 28,212, held a copy in three vols., 291 maps, World at London, 1718; George Shelvocke's at £625) photographs were taken for the use of Voyage round the World, 1719-1722, at London, VOL. VIII. -17
voyages, in the general histories of Spanish America, and in the comprehensive descriptive works, as well as in the maps of the professional geographers and cartographers.
The period of about fifty or sixty years following the first occupation (1769) of Upper California by the Spaniards, and coming down to 1824, as Bancroft divides it, constituting an era of inland exploration, of the founding of missions, of the establishing of the military presidios and the civil pueblos, is covered in Bancroft's list by about four hundred titles, of which sixty are of printed books, and of these only three relate exclusively to California. The first of these is Miguel Costansó's Diario histórico de los viages de mar y tierra hechos al Norte de California (Mexico, 1776). It is an important document for the first expedition from Mexico to San Diego and Monterey in 1769-70, as is also the Extracto de Noticias of Monterey, published at Mexico in 1770. The third is what Bancroft calls “the standard history of California down to 1784," the Relacion historica de la vida de Junípero Serra (Mexico, 1787)? of Francisco Palou, the Franciscan next in place to Junípero, and who acted as president at times when that important character was absent from his post. 8
Another work of Palou, his Noticias de la Nueva California (1768-1783), covers the history of the missionary explorations and settlements during that period. The text is left to us in a copy made in 1792 by a royal order to preserve copies of important manuscripts for the archives of Spain, the original having disappeared from the college of San Fernando where it was deposited,' and where it probably shared the fate of the convent at the time of its destruction. From a copy preserved in the Mexican archives 10 it was printed in 1857 (Doyle says 1846), somewhat imperfectly, in the Diario Oficial, whose twenty volumes contain many other documents relating to Sonora, Chihuahua, New Mexico, and California; 'l it was also printed as a part of the Documentos para la historia de México (IV. serie, vols. vi., vii.), and has also been edited by John T. Doyle for the California Historical Society (Publications, 1874, in four volumes).12
As in the case of the earlier period, the published narratives of navigators who had been on the coast,13 and the comprehensive works of some Mexican and European writers, touching America in general, or the Spanish parts of it, serve to fill out the range of material.1
1 Like Ramusio, Hakluyt, Purchas, Hacke, English encroachments on the Spanish posses. Saeghman, Harris, Van den Aa, Prévost and the sions, Gottfriedt's Newe Welt (1655), Montanus, varieties of his collection, Dalrymple, Churchill, Dapper and Ogilby (cf. ante, IV. 390), Luyt's and the later ones. See Introduction, Vol. I., Introductio ad Geographiam (1692), and Heyante; and James Burney's Chronological History lyn's Cosmography. of Discovery in the South Sea (London, 1803–16). 4 Like Ortelius, Mercator, Löw, Wytfliet, and
2 Like Acosta, Herrera, etc. Lorenzana in Blaeuw. his Hist. de la Nueva España enumerates the 6 Cf. Bancroft's California Pastoral, ch. 5. expeditions to California down to 1769. Other 6 An English version, Historical Journal (Lonmore or less comprehensive accounts of this don, 1790). Cf. California Pastoral, p. 754, and early period are in J. G. Cabrera Bueno's Nave- Carter-Brown Catalogue, iii. 3377. gacion Especulativa (Manilla, 1734); Campbell's ? Also, Mexico, 1832, in a volume of the BibConcise Hist. of Spanish America ( London, 1741), lioteca Nacional y Estrangera. Bancroft, Calicalled later (1747) The Spanish Empire in Amer. fornia, i. 670, has a long note on the MSS. ica; José Antonio Villa Señor's Theatro Ameri- which he has on José Francisco Ortega, an active cano (Mexico, 1746; Eng. transl. Statistical Ac- companion of Junípero. count of Mexico (1748) (cf. Bancroft's Mexico, 8 Bancroft, California, i. 418; California Pasiii. 510); Allgemeine Geschichte der Länder und toral, 754. Völker von America (Halle, 1752); the Apostólicos 9 California Pastoral, 756. afanes dela Compañia de Jesus (Barcelona, 1754); 10 Making vols. 22, 23 of the Archivo general, Spanische Reich in America (1763); Staat von in thirty-two volumes, a collection of similar Amerika (1766-69).
copies, vol. I of which has been lost. Bancroft, 3 Like Davis's Worldes Hydrographical De California, i. 419. scription (London, 1595, — of which a third li Cf. Bancroft's Mexico, iii. 529. copy, held at $1,000, has become known since 12 Cf. H. C. Ford, Etchings of the Franciscan the statement was made in Vol. III. p. 205), the Missions of California. With the outlines of hisWest indische Spieghel (Amsterdam, 1624), De tory, description, etc. (New York, 1883). Laet, Davity's Monde (Paris, 1637), N. N.'s 13 F. A. Maurelle, Journal of a Voyage, 1775 America (1655), apparently written to incite (London, 1780, — cf. D. Barrington's Miscellanies). J. D. F. de la Perouse, Voyage autour du cals. Poole’s Index and Supplement guide the Monde, 1783-88 (Paris and London, 1798; Bos. inquirer to the periodical literature, mainly, howton, 1801), with some historical material inter- ever, of a later date. spersed. Etienne Marchand, Voyage autour du 3 Kotzebue, New Voyage, 1823-26 (London, Monde, 1790-92 (Paris, in six vols.). Vancouver, 1830-31 ; French in Montemont, xvii.). F. W. Voyage of Discovery to the Pacific Ocean (London, Beechey, Voyage to the Pacific, 1825-28 (London, 1798; in French, Paris, 1800), with other infor- 1831 ; Philad., 1832). B. W. Morrell, Narrative mation than his own experience. The Relacion of four Voyages (N. Y., 1832). W. S. W. Rudel viage hecho por las galetas Sutil y Mexicana schenberger, Voyage round the World, 1835-37 (1802). G. H. von Langsdorff, Voyages and Trav- (London, 1838). Abel de Petit-Thouars, Voyage els, 1803–7 (London, 1813-14). William Shaler's autour du Monde, 1836–39 (Paris, 1840-44), which Journal of a Voyage, 1804, appearing in the Amer- Bancroft holds to be the best of the seaman acican Register (iii. 137), was the earliest extended counts. Edw'd Belcher, Voyage round the World, account of California which Bancroft could find 1836–42 (London, 1843). Richard H. Dana, among those published in the United States (Cal. Two Years before the Mast (N. Y., 1840, 1857 ; ifornia, ii. 23). Otto von Kotzebue, Entdeckungs- Boston, 1873, 1880). A. Duhaut-Cilly, Viaggio reise in die Süd See, 1815-18 (Weimar, 1821; intorno al Globo (Turin, 1841; French, Paris, English transl., London, 1821), including Cha: 1835). C. P. T. Laplace, Campagne de Circummisso's Bemerkungen, also in the latter's Werke. navigation (Paris, 1841-54). Eugene Duflot du C. de Rocquefeuil, Voyage autour du Monde, Mofras, Exploration du territoire de l'Oregon, 1816-19 (Paris and London, 1823). Louis Cho- des Californies (Paris, 1844). Charles Wilkes, ris, Voyage autour du Monde (Paris, 1822). Some United States Exploring Expedition (Philad., of these and others can be found collectively in 1844, 1845; London, 1845). John Coulter, Adthe collections of voyages made by La Harpe, ventures on the Western Coast (London, 1847). Berenger, Pinkerton, Kerr, etc., — as already Sir Geo. Simpson, Journey round the World enumerated (ante, Vol. I., Introduction). Cf. (Lond., 1847). Richard J. Cleveland, Narrative also the histories of maritime discovery by J. of Voyages (Cambridge, 1842; Boston, 1850). R. Forster (1786) and Burney (1803), elsewhere 4 James O. Pattie, Personal Narrative (Cin. described (ante, chap. 2).
The final period of California, so far as the present history covers it, and as indicated by Bancroft, is that from 1824 to the discovery of gold in 1848. He enumerates in this list 700 titles, 180 of which are books and 475 other printed matter, including documents printed in California (55 in number), beside newspapers (70) and periodicals (20).
The narratives of voyages still serve us, but not so exclusively. There are a few land travels, which begin to be of interest, and a few of the books first printed in California, of which the most important is Figueroa's Manifesto a la República Mejicana (Monterey, 1835).5 To these may be added certain official documents printed in California, some of the Mexican government and others of the United States, all published in these years (1824-1848), and about one hundred and fifty titles concerning the same period, but printed later.7
cinnati, 1833). John Bidwell, Journey to Cali1 Antonio de Alcedo, Diccionario geog. hist. de fornia (1842). Farnham, Travels in the Califorlas Indias occident. (Madrid, 1786). F. X. Cla- nias (N. Y., 1844, etc.). Alfred Robinson, Life vigero, Storia della California (Venice, 1789), of in California (N. Y., 1846). B. Bilson, Hunters which Bancroft notes an English translation of Kentucky, etc. (N. Y., 1847). Edwin Bryant, printed in San Francisco. J. D. Arricivita, Voyage en Californie (Paris), or in English, What Crónica Seráfica y Apostólica (Mexico, 1792). I saw in California (N. Y., 1848, 1849). WilAnquetil, Universal History (London, 1800). liam Kelly, Excursion to California (London, Humboldt, Essai politique sur la royaume de la 1851). Nouvelle Espagne (1811). R. H. Bonnycastle, 5 Bancroft was the first to bring these few Spanish America (London, 1818). G. T. Ray- early Californian prints to notice, the earliest of nal, Histoire Philosophique (1820–21). Julio Ro- all being Reglamento provisional para el gobierno signon, Porvenir de Vera Pas (Guatemala, 1861, interior de la Disputacion (Monterey, 1834). cited by Bancroft).
California Pastoral, 759, 760; and Major 2 The Mexican newspapers were forty in num- Ben: Perley Poore's Descriptive Catal. publ. U. S. ber, the Californian ten. Bancroft calls Niles' government. Register the most useful of the Eastern periodi- ? California Pastoral, 761, 762.
Frémont, who had already made an expedition westward in 1842, began a second in 1843, and was in California for the first time in 1844. Bancroft's foot-notes (California, iv. chap. 19), here as elsewhere, track the sources through all the varying changes, the Bear Flag revolt (Ibid. v. ch. 5) and the subsequent events, down to the final possession by the United States.1
Bancroft's first volume on California was published in 1884, and what had been done earlier in a general way is easily gone over. For thirty years before 1850 Bustamante bad been printing his monographs, and Bancroft, who has that writer's MSS., says that these last are more complete than the printed pages. Ayala published his Estadistica of the Mexican empire in 1822. J. M. Burmudez's Verdadera Causa de la Revolucion (Toluca, 1831) threw some light on the progress of opinions in California. Alexander Forbes' History of California (London, 1839) was the earliest English account and one of the best.? The survey in Greenhow's Oregon (1844, etc.) extended down the coast, and something will be found in Muhlenpfordt's Republik Mexico (Hanover, 1844), and in F. Fonseca's Historia general de real hacienda (Mexico, 1845-53). In 1847 we have an early American history of the Conquest of California and New Mexico (Philad.) by James Madison Cutts; and in 1848 John T. Hughes first published his California at Cincinnati. The best Mexican account is found in Alaman's Historia de Méjico (Mexico, 1849–52). Shortly after the great American immigration took place, Alexander S. Taylor began his fragmentary contributions.3 Edward Wilson endeavored to meet the growing interest in The Golden Land at Boston in 1852, while L. W. Hastings in a New History of Oregon and California (Cincinnati, 1849), John Frost in his History of California (Auburn, 1853, etc.), and Elisha S. Capron in his Hist. of California (Boston, 1854) did little more than essay to catch the curious reader. John W. Dwinelle, and a little later John T. Doyle, as is shown in Bancroft's list, did something to keep alive the local antiquarian interest. The first native chronicles of any considerable merit were Dr. Franklin Tuthill's History of California (San Francisco, 1866), and W. Gleeson's History of the Catholic Church in Califor. nia (San Francisco, 1872), — the last the work of a priest who had certain advantages in tracing the story of the missions. A book by Albert S. Evans, A la California, was published at San Francisco in 1873. Professor Josiah D. Whitney, who had been at the head of the Geological Survey of California, furnished the article in the Encyclopædia Britannica (1875). J. D. B. Stillman's Seeking the golden fleece. A record of pioneer life in California : annexed Footprints of early navigators, other than Spanish ; with an account of the voyage of the Dolphin (San Francisco, 1877), had in part originally appeared in the Overland Monthly.
The History of California (1884, etc.), by Hubert H. Bancroft, is based largely upon manuscript material not before used. He says that his collections of MSS. covering the period 1769-1848 are about eleven hundred in number, not counting minor and miscellaneous papers, and are about twice in number as compared with his printed books for the same period. Down to 1846, he considers his MS. sources superior in value to those in print. The main divisions of these manuscripts, as he says, are copies of the California Archives, 1768-1850, making 250,000 documents in all; full or condensed copies of many mission-records; public documents picked up in unofficial places, which include such papers as those of General Vallejo and Thomas 0. Larkin, some of these collections being formed by others and acquired in their entirety; a large mass of single papers, consisting of diaries, journals, log-books, stray mission and governmental papers, the correspondence of prominent persons, Spanish and Mexican officials, Franciscan friars and pioneers. In addition to this, there is a large collection of narratives taken down from the dictation
1 Cf. particularly for sources, Bancroft's Cali- nia, v. 100.) There are references also ante, Vol. fornia, v. 187, 233, 241. Josiah Royce's Califor- VII. (index). Another recent History of Calinia, from the conquest in 1846 to the second vigi- fornia is that by T. H. Hittell (San Francisco, lance committee in San Francisco. A study of 1885). American character (Boston, 1886), is a care- 2 Bancroft's Mexico, iv. 151. ful study of this period. (Cf. Bancroft, Califor- 3 Cf. Bancroft's California, i. p. lxxxii.