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to this class of books are scant, and even the interest throughout Europe which instigated the allied publications of Green in England, of Prévost in France, and of the Allgemeine Hist. der Reisen in Leipzig had no corresponding issue in Spain. This lack must be supplied by the editorial work of José Terrer de Couto and José March y Labores upon the Historia de la Marina Real Española (Madrid, 1849, 1854), by the voyage of Drake, by the maritime expeditions up the California coast, and by other literary aspects of Spanish
American naval history. The Nuevo Viajero Universal of N. Fernandez Cuesta (Madrid, 1859) covers the later times.
The distinctive missionary efforts in Guatemala of the later period came through the founding of the Bethlehemite order in 1673, and the labors of their founder are described in the Storia della Vita, Virtú, Donni e Grazzie del Pietro di S. Giuseppe Betancur, fondatore dell'ordine Betlemitico nelle Indie occidentali (Rome, 1739), and the vicissitudes of the order are followed in José Garcia de la Concepcion's Historia Bethlehemitica (Seville, 1723).
1 Cf. ante, Vol. I., Introd.
The provinces of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are still best represented in the list in Bancroft's Central America, vol. i. (particularly pp. xlvi, liv, lvii, lxv, lxxi). The early documentary sources are best gathered in the Coleccions of Peralta and Fernandez. The descriptive travels of Gage, Coreal, Uring, and Cockburn afford us the observations of their time. The latest survey of the history of the Balize is in A. R. Gibbs' British Honduras: an historical and descriptive account of the colony from its settlement, 1070. Compiled from original and authentic sources (London, 1883).
Macaulay, in his Hist. of England, gives a readable account of the unfortunate Scotch colony at Darien, based largely upon the numerous contemporary publications.4 1 Ante, II. pp. ix, 398.
Darien, where the Scots colonie is settled, from 2 Thos. Gage, The English-American, his tra- a gentleman who lives there . . and a mapp of vail by sea and land, first issued in London, 1648, the Isthmus (Edinburgh, 1699). and often later in various tongues (Carter-Brown, A description of the Province and Bay of Daii. p. 612; Sabin's Dictionary). François Co- rien, by 1 [saac] B[lackwell] (1699). real, Voyages aux Indes occidentales (Paris and A short account from, and description of the Amsterdam, 1722). Captain Nathaniel Uring's Isthmus of Darien, where the Scots' collony are History of [his] Voyages and Travels (London, settled, with a map ... according to our late 1726), with a map of the Bay of Honduras. John news and Mr. Dampier and Mr. Wafer (EdinCockburn's A journey overland from the gulf of burgh, 1699). Honduras to the great South Sea. Performed by Observations of a person of eminence and worth John Cockburn, and five other Englishmen, viz., in Caledonia (Mr. Patterson) written to his friend Thomas Rounce, Richard Banister, John Hol. in Boston, N. E., on their Scots' settlement, New land, Thomas Robinson, and John Ballman Edinburgh, at Darien in America. St. Andrews, [etc.], 1731 (London, 1735). It was reprinted as Feb. 18, 1698-99 (Boston, 1699). The Unfortunate Englishman (London, 1740, Samuel Sewall's Letter Book (i. 227, 242) 1779).
shows a letter which he wrote to the ministers 3 Cf. also Bancroft's Cent. America, ii. ch. 31; of the colony, and also the Latin contract of sur. Berthold Seeman's Hist.of the Isthmus of Panama render later imposed upon the colonists by the (Panama, 1867); Retrospective Review, n. s., ii.; Spaniards. Burney's Chronol. Hist. Disc. in the South Seas ; The humble address to his majesty, 12th Feb., and Edward Cullen's Isthmus of Darien ship 1699 (London, 1699). canal ; with a full history of the Scotch colony of Letter from the Commission of the general as. Darien, several maps, views of the country, and sembly of the Church of Scotland to the Honoraoriginal documents, 2d ed., enlarged. (With Ap- ble Council and inhabitants of the Scots Colony of pendix.] (London, 1853.)
Caledonia in America, Glasgow, July 21, 1699 4 An act of the Parliament of Scotland for (Glasgow, 1699). erecting an East India Company (Edinburgh, A just and modest vindication of the Scots' de. 1695; London, 1695).
sign for the having established a colony at Darien Act for a company trading to Africa and the (London, 1699). Indies, June 26, 1695 (Edinburgh, 1696).
A Defence of the Scots' Settlement at Darien, Constitution of the Company of Scotland trad with an Answer to prove that it is the Interest of ing to Africa and the Indies (Edinburgh, 1696). England to join with the Scots and protect it; to
Some seasonable and modest thoughts, partly which is added a Description of the Country, and occasioned by and partly concerning the Scots East a Particular Account of the Scots' Colony (EdinIndia Company (Edinburgh, 1696).
burgh, 1699). A letter from a member of the Parliament of The Defence of the Scots' Settlement at Darien Scotland to his friend in London, concerning their answered Paragraph by Paragraph, by Phila late act for establishing a company of that king. Britain (1699). dom, trading to Africa and the Indies (London, A Letter giving a Description of the Isthmus of 1696). .
Darien (where the Scots' Colonie is settled, from Two discourses concerning the affairs of Scot- a gentleman who lives there at present) with an land, written in the year 1698 (Edinburgh, 1698); account of the Fertilness of the Soil, the Quality one concerns the Scots' company.
of the Air, the Manners of the Inhabitants, and Information touchant l'affaire de Darien the Nature of the Plants and Animals, &c., and (1699), – the Spanish protest against the colony. a particular Map of the Isthmus and Entrance 10
A letter giving a description of the Isthmus of the River of Darien (Edinburgh, 1699).
There have been published of late years two considerable repositories of documentary material respecting the revolutionary period of the Spanish-American provinces. The first of these is Juan E. Hernandez y Dávalos' Coleccion de documentos para la historia
The history of Caledonia, or the Scots' colony affairs during the late Revolution, etc. (London, in Darien in the West Indies : with an account 1703). of the manners of the inhabitants and riches of Speeches by a member of the Parliament, which the country (London, 1699).
began at Edinburgh the 6th May, 1703 (EdinA short and impartial view of the manner and burgh, 1703). the occasion of the Scots' colony coming away from Account of a conversation concerning a right Darien (1699).
regulation of governments for the common good A Defence of the Scots abdicating Darien, in- of mankind (Edinburgh, 1704). cluding an answer to the Defence of the Scots set- A Collection of State Tracts (London, 1705–7), tlement there (1700).
vol. iii. An Enquiry into the causes of the miscarriage A full and exact account of the Proceedings of of the Scots colony; or an answer to a libel inti- the court of directors and council-general of the tuled a Defence of the Scots abdicating Darien Company of Scotland trading to Africa and the (Glasgow, 1700).
Indies (London, 1706). A short vindication of Phil. Scot's Defence of Representation of the Council and Company of the Scots' abdicating Darien (London, 1700). Scotland trading to Africa and the Indies (Edin
Scotland's present duty: or a Call to the nobil- burgh, Nov. 7, 1706). ity to be duly affected with and vigorousiy to A letter concerning the union with relation to act for our common concern in Caledonia, as a trade from several Scots gentlemen, merchants in means to enlarge Christ's kingdom (1700). England, to their countrymen in Scotland (Lon.
Scotland's right to Caledonia (formerly called don, 1707). Darien), and the legality of its settlement, as- A state of Mr. Paterson's claim upon the equivserted in three several memorials presented to his alent, with original papers a.id observations relatmajesty in May, 1699 (1700).
ing thereto (London, 1712). Scotland's Grievances relating to Darien Report of the committee ufon the petition of (1700).
William Paterson, Esq. (1712). Certain propositions relating to the Scots plan- An account of the Colony of Darien, with a tation of Caledonia (Glasgow, 1700).
Vindication of King William's honor and justice Caledonia, or the Pedlar turn'd merchant. A therein, included in Memoirs of North Britain tragi-comedy as it was acted by his majesty's sub- (London, 1715). jects of Scotland in the King of Spain's Province Rev. Francis Borland's Memoirs of Darien ... of Darien (London, 1700).
with an account of the attempts of the Company of A full and exact collection of all the considera Scotland to settle a colonie in that place. Written ble addresses, memorials, petitions, answers, proc. in 1700 while the author was in the American relamations, letters, and other public papers, relat- gions (Glasgow, 1715, 1779). ing to the Company of Scotland, 1695-1700 (1700). Part of a Journal kept from Scotland to New This contains the proclamations of Bellomont at Caledonia in Darien, with a short account of New York and Boston, and of the governors of the country, by Dr. Wallace, included in Miscel. Barbadoes and Jamaica against the colony. lanea Curiosa, 2d ed., revised by W. Derham
The original papers and letters relating to the (London, 1723-27 ; 3d ed., 1726–27). Scots' company trading to Africa and the Indies, Dr. Houstoun's Memoirs of his own life-time from the memorial given against their taking [with] the Scotch settlement at Darien (London, subscriptions at Hamburgh by Sir Paul Ricaut to 1747), repeated in The Works of James Houstoun, their last address sent up to his majesty in Dec., M.D. (London, 1753). 1699. Faithfully extracted from the Companies Darien papers: being a selection of original Books (1700).
letters and documents relating to the establishment A Speech in Parliament on the roth January, of a colony at Darien by the Company of Scotland, 1701, by the Lord Belhaven, on the affairs of the 1695-1700 (Edinburgh, Bannatyne Club, 1849). Indian and African Company and its Colony of J. H. Burton's Narrative of Criminal trials Caledonia (Edinburgh, 1701).
in Scotland (London, 1852). An Enquiry into the Caledonian project, with The principal sources of the bibliography of a defence of England's procedure (London, 1701). the Darien colony are Sabin's Dictionary, v.:
A new Darien artifice laid open, in a notable Carter-Brown Catal., ii., iii.; Brit. Mus. Catainstance of Captain Maclean's name being used to logue, sub Darien, etc. There are several lives vouch for the Caledonian Company (London, of William Paterson (cf. Allibone, ii.). Cf. Eliot 1701).
Warburton's Darien, or the Merchant Prince, for A choice collection of papers relating to state an historical romance.
de la Guerra de Independencia de México de 1808 á 1821 (Mexico, 1877, etc.), which has been the work for thirty years of a treasury clerk. The second is Emilio del Costillo Negrete's México en el Siglo xix. (Mexico, 1875, etc.), in which the historical narrative is broken by documentary material. Reference may also be made in the American Monitor, a periodical devoted to South American affairs (London, 1824-25), and to El Repertorio Americano (Londres, 1826-27), in four volumes.
Bancroft, in working up the most complete account which we have in English of this later period, and of the succeeding constitutional period, finds the works of Lúcas Alaman the most important contribution which any Mexican historian has made. Alaman was a youth of sixteen when he witnessed the fall of Iturrigaray in 1808, and he was present at Guanajuato during the memorable scenes of 1810. As he went to Spain to pursue his studies in 1814 and remained there till 1820, he had no personal contact with the events of that interval; but he had a half-brother, a canon of Mexico, Dr. Arechederreta, who kept a diary in that city from 1811 to 1820, and this document was of much use to Alaman in his historical work, which is republican rather than democratic in its tone.? As a member of the Ateneo Mexicana, he had begun his Mexican studies and gathered the results in his Disertaciones sobre la historia de la República Mexicana, desde la i Bancroft's Mexico, iv. 624-25.
? Bancroft's Mexico, iv. 823, for references. * Frontispiece of his Historia de Méjico (Mexico, 1849), vol. i.
Conquista hasta la independencia (Mexico, 1844-49, in three volumes), which proved a preparation for his elaborate Historia de Méjico desde los primeros movimientos que prepararon su Independencia en el año 1808 hasta la época presente (Mexico, 1849-52), in five volumes. Alaman survived its completion only to June 2, 1853, when he died. The book is in the main one of scholarly impartiality, though he manifests little regard for revolutionary excesses, and is inclined to belittle the actions of those not of pure Spanish blood. His appendixes are fortified with documentary proofs, which he obtained in large part from the public archives. He stopped short of his promised end, and finished his work with the events of 1830.
Little of a similar conspicuous character belongs to the Méjico y sus revoluciones (Paris, 1836) of José Maria Luis Mora, likewise a native Mexican. He was thirty-six when in 1830 he set himself to his task, and conducted it in a not very orderly manner as to the arrangement of his periods, his first volume, for instance, describing the Mexico of his day, the second never appearing at all; the third goes over the history of Mexico from the Conquest to 1810, and volume four covers the opening years of the conflict under Hidalgo and the early patriots. Some of the later periods, however, find elucidation in his political papers which appeared in his Obras Sueltas (Paris, 1837).
The student of the history of Mexico hardly confronts a more prominent name than that of Cárlos Maria Bustamante. He has done good work as an editor in publishing a variety of the early writers; and as a commentator on the political events of his own day (born in 1774, he died in 1848), he has left a great mass of publications, somewhat ephemeral often, but warmly expressive, and touched, however wildly at times, with an historian's instinct. Perhaps the best enumeration of his writings is in the list of authorities in Bancroft's Mexico, where a considerable quantity of his MSS. is noted as having fallen into Bancroft's hands. Bustamante's fervid nature almost necessarily carried him over to the revolutionists when the crisis came in 1810. He organized a regiment under Morelos, and published his Campañas del Gen. F.M. Calleja in 1828 ; but his activity and criticism were best in other fields than military ones, and he experienced the trials and privations of a political outlaw before the completed revolution in 1821 suffered him to return to the capital, from which be had been excluded for nine years, only in due time to be imprisoned by Iturbide, and to be released upon that emperor's fall.
It was in the heat of the early days of the revolution that he began to make that record of its progress which was later published as his Cuadro histórico de la revolucion de la América Méxicana, Comenzada en 1810, in six volumes, between 1823 and 1832. The book, written from time to time as material accrued, is somewhat disjointed, and his variable states of mind as he went on make the book a rather curious study of a nature unstable, if not at times almost thrown off its balance, — all of which perturbations enable Lorenzo de Zavala, in his Ensayo histórico de las revoluciones de Megico (Paris, 1831), to accuse Bustamante of many slips and perversions, to say nothing of darker charges, which Bustamante was not slow in resenting. His sixth volume seems to have been suppressed, or at least it was not included in the “Segunda edicion aumentada,” which appeared in five volumes in 1843-46. Bancroft's list (Mexico, i. p. xxxiii) shows a volume of MSS. which he says was intended by Bustamante to continue his Cuadro histórico; but he does not inform us whether it contains the matter which Bustamante included in what he published as a continuation, his História del Emperador D. Augustin de Iturbide (Mexico, 1846).
Bancroft gives in no one place the bibliography of the revolutionary period of the North
1 Vol. i. pp. xxxii, etc.; and some characteri- catecas. His other MSS. fell into the charge of zations, v. 804; where also he cites (p. 806) the Andrade, Maximilian's collector; and when that account of Bustamante in Manuel Larrainzar's emperor was shot, the collection was carried to Algunas ideas sobre la historia.
Europe and sold, when Bancroft bought most of 2 Bustamante's diary, which was the basis of the MSS. (Mexico, v. 806). much of his printed works on contemporary 3 Bancroft, Mexico, iv. 825; v. 804. events, was placed by him in the college at Za