Imagens das páginas

American Spanish provinces, but the titles are included in the lists in the first volumes of his Mexico and Central America, and at intervals in the progress of the movements he gives long notes to the matter, as for instance where (Mexico, iv. 64) he discusses the mass of contemporary publications on the deposing of Iturrigaray. Of this last kind, the books of Juan Lopez Cancelada, the editor of the Gazeta de México, and among them chiefly his Verdad Salida y Buena guardada (Cadiz, 1811), which was answered in a vindication of Iturrigaray by José Beye de Cisneros, and in Cancelada's reply, Conducta del Exmo. Senor Iturrigaray (Cadiz, 1812), we find the chief official documents on the fall of that ruler. He found another defender in Servando Tereso Mier y Guerra (pseud. José Guerra), who, having narrowly escaped arrest, fled to London and there published in 1813 his Historia de la Revolucion de la Nueva España (1808-1813), in which, while he defended Iturrigaray, he bitterly denounced Cancelada. He continued the story of the revolution down to the date of publication, and depended largely for the material for the period subsequent to his own escape upon the documentary evidence. As Mier went on in his narrative he swung to the republican side, and made Hidalgo his hero, which led to the distrust of Mier by Iturrigaray, so that, his allowance being stopped, he was put to straits. But a few copies of his book were distributed, as the bulk of the edition was lost on a vessel bound to Buenos Ayres. Bustamante's Martirologio de algunos de los primeros insurgentes (Mexico, 1841) is concerned with the revolutionary and later careers of those implicated against the viceroy in 1811.

Bancroft points out the difficulty of securing from contemporary documents very trustworthy testimony of the career of Hidalgo. The press was in the hands of the royalists, and did not hesitate to circulate false statements for political effect.8 Hidalgo's period has been treated among later writers in a single volume which was published of the Memorias para la historia de las Revoluciones de México (Mexico, 1869) by Anastacio Zerecero, a violent advocate of the revolution. Of the more comprehensive writers notice will be given later.

The earliest account of Mina's expedition in 1817 is in William Davis Robinson's Memoirs of the Mexican Revolution, in which the author made use of the journal of Brush, the commissary-general of Mina. Robinson knew the field, and had had some experience with Spanish methods in trading operations that brought him into the custody of the law, from which he escaped to tell all he could to injure the Spanish name. Some part of his denunciation was omitted in the Spanish translation, and Bustamante finds not a little to refute and something to add. Bancroft (Mexico, iv. 686) tells how he has collated the rival accounts, and gathered other details from different sources, in the account which he gives of the expedition (Ibid. iv. ch. 28).

The literature illustrative of the Iturbide period is extensive, and naturally groups itself round his own Memoirs, which, with an appendix of documents, was published in London in 1824.5 Beside the Historia of Bustamante, elsewhere mentioned, we have the Iturbide of Cárlos Navarro y Rodriguez (Madrid, 1869), a Spanish and monarchical view, and the Apuntes históricos sobre D. Augustin Iturbide of José Ramon Malo (Mexico, 1869), a companion of the emperor, and prompted to say what he could in his defence, as does José Joaquin Pesado in his El libertador de México (Mexico, 1872). When Iturbide's remains were removed in 1838 to the Cathedral in Mexico, José Ramon Pacheco made the Descripcion de la Solemnidad (published by order of President Herrera, Mexico, 1849) the vehicle of an interpretation of such a patriotic intent of Iturbide as was hardly recognized in his day.

1 Bancroft speaks of Diaz Calvillo's Noticias 2 Bancroft's Mexico, iv. 452. para la Historia de Nuestra Señora de los Reme- Mexico, iv. 287, where he gives a long list of dios (Mexico, 1812) as an emphasized rescript miscellaneous references. of the versions of events given in the Gazeta 4 Philad., 1820; London, 1821 ; in Spanish, (Mexico, iv. 374). On the opposing journalistic London, 1824. phases of the movement in Spain at this time, 5 Cf. Mémoires autographes (Paris, 1824), and see Ibid. iv. 450.

Denkwürdigkeiten (Leipzig, 1824).

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For the period following the consummation of the movement for independence, and through all the revolutionary changes, Bancroft's foot-notes still are the completest record of sources, and he occasionally masses his references, as in vol. v., pp. 67, 147, 249, 285,

344, etc.

The condition of Mexico since its independence was confirmed has been the subject of a few books of good character, which may supplement the story in Bancroft. Such are the Mexico of H. G. Ward (London, 1829), who was the representative of England in the capital in 1825-27; Brantz Mayer's Mexico as it was and as it is (Philad. 3d ed., 1847), Mr. Mayer having been the secretary of the American legation, 1841-42; the Die äusseren und inneren politischen Zustände der Republik von Mexico (Berlin, 1854, 1859) of Emil Karl Heinrich von Richthofen, at one time Prussian minister in Mexico, but he only slightingly follows the course of political events, giving rather a commentary on their results. The Méjico en 1842 of Luis Manuel del Rivero (Madrid, 1844) takes that date as a point to glance back over American history, not confining the survey, however, to the later period. The revolution which resulted temporarily in the placing of Maximilian on the throne produced, and was in part instigated by, sundry publications, which for those political ends ran over the course of Mexican independence.

The period of the presidency of Anastacio Bustamante, from 1836 to the elevation of Santa Anna, is covered in a somewhat impetuous way in C. M. Bustamante's El Gabinete (Mexico, 1842).

The period of Santa Anna, with his ups and downs, is traversed in part (1821-1833) in Juan Suarez y Navarro's Historia de México y del General Santa Anna (Mexico, 1850), - the author being a partisan of that leader ; and C. M. Bustamante also specially treats a later period in his Apuntes para la historia del gobierno de Santa Anna, 1841-44.1

The story of the revolution in the Central American provinces, with their later changeful destiny, is told in the third volume of Bancroft's Central America, with a full complement of references.

Justin tornister


1 Cf. titles in Bancroft's Mexico, i. p. c.




THERE were two histories of the West Indies The book which is usually attributed to César in the seventeenth century, not without some de Rochefort, though by some to Francisco mark in their day. The Père J. B. Du Tertre Raymundo, and published at Rotterdam in 1658, published first in 1654 a Histoire générale des under the title of Histoire naturelle des iles isles de Saint Christophe, de la Guadeloupe, de la Antilles de l'Amérique (cf. Sabin, xviii., 7231 4. Martinque, which he later enlarged into a His- etc.), has not escaped a suspicion of being a toire générale des Antilles habitées par les Fran- mere compilation, as was the opinion of Buckçois (Paris, 1867-71), in four volumes. The ingham Smith. A second edition was printed maps and plans in the work are of much in- in Rotterdam in 1665 (reissued with new title, terest.

dated 1716), and a third edition at Lyon, in duced a mass of pamphlets.1 Oldmixon in his. 1 Carter-Brown Catalogue, iii. pp. 137, 143, 147, 150, etc.

1667. A Dutch version, by H. Dullaert, ap- of State Papers, Colonial series, vol. i., ending peared also at Rotterdam in 1662. The English with 1660, and continued in vol. v. to 1668. translation by John Davies (London, 1666) is In the eighteenth century the islands were called a History of the Caribby islands. There mainly viewed in collective way according to is also much relating to the history of the West the domination they were under. The French Indies in the seventeenth century in the Calendar islands were thus subjected to examination by

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Moreau de Saint Méry in his Loix et Consti- In the first half of the eighteenth century the tutions des Colonies françaises de l'Amérique cultivation of sugar in the British islands drew (Paris, 1784), and a part of Raynal's well-known home capital in a large degree to what were work was also published separately as a Histoire known as the Sugar Islands, and the division of philosophique et politique des isles françaises dans opinion as to legislation concerning them proles Indes occidentales (Lausanne, 1784).

* From the Nouveau Voyage (Paris, 1742), vol. i.

compilation, The British Empire in America judgments, as appeared in William Preston's (London, 1708), had caught the popular inter- Letter to Bryan Edwards (London, 1795). There est; but in his later edition, in 1741, he much are later histories of the islands by Captain improved his account. G. M. Butel-Dumont's Thomas Southey, Chronological Hist. (London, Histoire et Commerce des Antilles Angloises 1827); by R. M. Martin (London, 1836); and the (Paris, 1758; in German, Leipzig, 1786), and Histoire générale des Antilles (Paris, 1847-48) of Bellin's Description géographique des isles An- Adrien Dessalles, in five volumes. This author tilles possedées par les Anglais (Paris, 1758), with used material in the Archives de la Marine. its maps, denotes the interest with which the One of the most interesting observers of the French were watching the English development. early years of the eighteenth century was the The most considerable account, however, of these author of the Nouveau Voyage aux isles d'Amé English possessions came in Bryan Edwards' rique, the priest Labat, - a book originally pubHistory, Civil and Commercial, of the British lished at La Haye in 1724, but issued in a more Colonies in the West Indies (London, 1793), in complete form at Paris in 1742.2 It has maps

of the principal islands.


What is now considered the best history of Cuba is that of Jacobo de la Pezuela, Historia de la isla de Cuba (Madrid, 1868); though Ramon de la Sagra's Historia de la isla de Cuba (Habana, 1831; Sabin, xviii. pp. 240– 42) was for a long time a principal source. The student cannot neglect the observations of Humboldt in his Essai politique sur l'isle de Cuba (Paris, 1826). The lesser ones are E. M. Masse's L'isle de Cuba et la Havane (Paris, 1825), and M. M. Ballou's History of Cuba (Boston, 1854). Cf. José Antonio Saco's Coleccion de papeles sobre la isla de Cuba (Paris, 1858), and V. de Rochas's “Cuba sous la domination Espagnole" in the Revue contemporaine (vol. Ixx., Ixxi.).4

The principal event of the war in 1762 was the siege and capture of Havana (Aug. 13) by the English fleet under Admiral Pococke and the Duke of Albemarle. The Spanish documentary source is a Recueil de documents sur la Havana ; Enquête faite par ordre du Roi au sujet de la prise de la Havane (cf. Leclerc, no. 1357), and the CarterBrown Catalogue (iii. p. 355) shows a collection of proceedings against the officers of the

place conducted in 1764. The leading conALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT.*

temporary English historians of the war, Entwo volumes, to which a third was added in tick and Mante, give the details, and the official 1801. There was an abridged edition of the accounts of the English (being beside in the first two in 1794 and 1798, and the whole was Gazette) may be found at the end of a conglomer. reissued in four volumes in 1806, at Philadelphia, ate Account of the Settlements in America (Edinand in five volumes in 1819, at London. A burgh, 1762). Cf. Atlantic Monthly, vol. xii. An French translation appeared at Paris in 1801. Authentic Journal of the siege of the Havana by The book did not fail to incite some conflicting an officer (London, 1762) has prefixed a plan,

1 There was a German translation at Lemgo, 1744.
2 There is a Dutch ed., Amsterdam, 1725; German, Nuremberg, 1782.
3 Cf. on Saco's works on Cuba, etc., Sabin's Dictionary, xviii. p. 212.

4 Bachiller, in an appendix to a literary history of Cuba, describes the books published in that island from the introduction of printing to 1840, — the earliest in 1724; but Harrisse (Bib. Amer. Vet., p. xxxviii) points out one dated 1720; but he disbelieves the statement of Ambrosio Valente that a book was printed as early as 1698.

* After a print in the Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden (Weimar, 1807). On Humboldt in the New World, see ch. 3 of Bancroft's California Pastoral.

"drawn by an officer on the spot,” one of Jef- the London Mag. (May, 1762), and Gentleman's ferys' publications, which shows the landing and Mag. (1762). subsequent movements. The cartographer Thomas Kitchin published a large plan of the After having been from 1509 in the possession attack, and other plans are in Entick, Mante, of the Spaniards, Jamaica, in 1655, fell into the

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hands of the English, by a combined attack of possessing the town of St. Jago de la Vega, with land forces under General Venables and a fleet the routing of the enemies from their forts and adunder Admiral Penn, sent out by Cromwell. We vance, and taking the said island, May 10, 1655 ; have the report of an eye-witness in a Brief and and of course the events of the capture enter perfect journal of the late proceedings and success into the official records and general and naval of the English army in the West Indies continued histories of England and the Commonwealth. until June 24, 1655, by I. S. (London, 1655), and There are various papers relating to the expedianother contemporary account in A brief description in the Calendar of State Papers, Colonial tion of the island of Jamaica, and a relation of series, vol. i., and on the subsequent history of

From Gage's Voyage (Amsterdam, 1720), vol. ii. Cf. view from Montanus (1670), ante, Vol. II. p. 202; and that on the map in An account of the Spanish settlements in America (Edinburgh, 1762).

VOL. VIII. – 18

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