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being from a survey made in 1770. Long had cartography of the subject is in an enumeration lived in Jamaica as a judge, and his book was by H. Ling Roth in the Supplemental Papers (vol. readily recognized as an important one.

ii.) published in 1887 by the Royal Geographical The Negro problem in Jamaica fast becoming Society, and for the maps alone in the section serious, William Beckford (not the author of on Haiti in Uricoechea (pp. 70-79). Benzoni Vathek) published his Negroes in Jamaica (1788), (1565) gives one of the best early descriptive and two years later printed his Descriptive Ac. accounts. Gomara (1568) is an early historian, count of the island of Jamaica (London, 1790), in to say nothing of the rest. D’Anville, in his two volumes. The negro slaves of the Span- maps, endeavored from his study of Herrera iards, when deserted by them at the conquest and Oviedo to place the earliest of the Spanish of 1655, had fled to the mountains; and for a settlements, and these maps are found in the hundred and forty years they carried on an har- Paris edition (1730) of Charlevoix's Histoire de assing warfare upon the settlements of the Eng- l'isle Espagnole, on de St. Domingue, ecrite parlish. The story of their final subjugation is told ticulièrement sur des mémoires, MSS., de P.J. in R. C. Dallas's History of the Maroons from B. Le l'ers, jésuite, missionnaire à S. Domingue, their origin to the establishment of their chief tribe et sur les pièces originals qui se conservent au at Sierra Leone, with a succinct history of Jamaica dépôt de la Marine. There were later editions: (London, 1803). The book is accompanied by Paris, 1731 ; Amsterdam, 1733, all of which a map to illustrate the Maroon War, and another give much help in the cartography of the time of the “ Cockpit,” the principal seat of that war of its publication. This is the earliest monoin 1795-96. Cf. Bryan Edwards' three books: graphic history of the island, helpful in the British Colonies in the West Indies (London, study of the early periods; but to be supple1803); Proceedings of the Governor and associ- mented for later ones by B. Ardouin's Études ates of Jamaica in regard to the Maroon Negroes sur l'histoire d'Haiti (Paris, 1853–1861), in (London, 1796); Historical Survey of St. Do- eleven volumes, covering the period 1784-1843; mingo (London, 1801); Lord Brougham in the Barbé-Marbois's Histoire des désastres de Saint Edinburgh Rev., ii. 376; Once a Week (1865); Domingue, précedée d'un tableau de régime et des Col. T. W. Higginson on “The Maroons of progrès de cette colonie, depuis sa fondation jusqu'à Jamaica” in the Atlantic Monthly (v. 213), and d'Époque de la Révolution Française (Paris, in his Travellers and Outlaws (Boston, 1889), 1796 ?); Antonio del Monte y Tejada's Historia where will also be found a similar treatment of de Santo Domingo, desde su Descubrimiento hasta the “ Maroons of Surinam."

nuestras Dias (Madrid, 1853–1860); Jonathan The later general accounts of Jamaica are: Brown's History and Present Condition of St. Robert Renny's History of Jamaica (London, Domingo (Philad., 1837); Thomas Madiou's 1807); An account of Jamaica and its inhabi- Histoire d'Haiti (Port-au-Prince, 1847–48), in 3 tants, by a gentleman long resident in the West volumes, covering 1492-1807, but chiefly eluciIndies (London, 1808, 1809; Kingston, Jamaica, dating the revolutionary period 1789-1807; and 1809); Drouin-de-Bercy's Histoire civile et com- Baron V. P. Malouet's Collection de Mémoires merciale de la Jamaique (Paris, 1818); Cynric sur l'administration des Colonies (Paris, R. Williams's Tour through Jamaica, 1823 (Lon. 1802), in vol. iv., gives us the administrative don, 1826, 1827); J. Stewart's View of the past aspect of its history towards the close of the and present states of Jamaica (Edinburgh, 1823); eighteenth century. James Hakewell's Picturesque Tour of Jamaica Champlain, in his Voyage to the West Indies (London, 1825); G. W. Bridge's Annals of fa- (1599–1600), gives us some of the earliest graphic maica (London, 1828), etc.1

helps for the period following the era of disA large part of the interest, early and late, of covery and colonization. It was not till thirty West Indian history centres in that island where years later that the little island of Tortuga the Spaniards founded their first city, Hispa- (Tortue, as

the French called it), adjacent niola, and the best key to the bibliography and to Hispaniola, received (1630) from St. Kitts

1 See a list of anonymous publications on Jamaica in Sabin's Dictionary, vol. ix.

2 Cf. Sabin's Dictionary, xviii. p. 260. There is a collection of Hayti tracts given to Harvard College Library by Obadiah Rich ; and the “ Hunt Collection” in the Boston Public Library is a full survey of Haytian history.

3 Ramusio's map (1556) is given ante, Vol. II. p. 188. After the eighteenth century came in the chief maps are those of Delisle (1722-1725, etc.); that in Labat (v. 55); those of D'Anville (1730-31); in Prévost (xv.) and Allg. Hist. der Reisen (1759), xvii. ; Bellin (1764, etc.); Jefferys (1762, etc.); Juan Lopez (Madrid, 1784); Bryan Edwards (1797); that in Ducæur-Joly's Manuel des habitans des S. Domingue (Paris, 1803); and J. B. Poirson's (1803, 1825) in Métral's Expéd. à St. Domingue (Paris, 1825).

4 These are said to be in existence, and Le Pers is said not to have been satisfied with Charlevoix's use of them.

NOTE TO OPPOSITE CUT. – From Long's Jamaica (London, 1774), vol. ii.

(Saint Christopher's) the remnants of the com- the confederated foe on the island once more bined settlements of French and English in that (1638), and hardly any escaped except those who island, who had Aed before the attacks of the chanced to be absent on their marauding expeSpaniards. Here the fugitives found some Dutch ditions ; but these were sufficient in numbers to who had been already driven from Santa Cruz by return and reoccupy the little island. the same common enemy; and the three could The French meanwhile reëstablished themwell combine as they did in using the little island, selves at St. Kitts, and sent a French governor, which had welcomed them, as a vantage ground Le Vasseur, to Tortuga, when the English to renew their depredations upon Spanish com- among the settlers there retired to Jamaica, merce. A few years later the Spanish routed which had in 1655 fallen into English hands, settlers a negro insurrection (1678); and when away much plunder. The scales soon turned, Governor De Cussy came in 1684 he found that for the English and Spaniards joined forces and Tortuga had been deserted for the advantages captured Cape François. This retaliatory warof the larger island. The compacting of the fare ceased when the Peace of Ryswick (1697) French was opportune, for when war broke out confirmed France in her possession of the westbetween France and Spain in 1689, both sides ern end of the island, which now under peaceful rallied round their national flags in their marches French domination entered upon a career of and conflicts on the island. At the battle of prosperity. Sabana Real, Jan. 21, 1691, the Spaniards from At the Spanish end the times were after a the easterly end overcame the French and sacked while more stirring. The hostilities between Cape François. The French were soon re. Spain and England in 17402 exposed the comcruited from St. Kitts, when the English drove merce of the English to many hazards in these the French thence; 1 and in turn Du Cosse, now waters, and the town of Santo Domingo gained made governor, attacked Jamaica and brought importance by the accessions to its resources

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HARBOR IN SAN DOMINGO.*

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under the attack of Penn and Venables, after possession in 1664, and began to settle the ad. their failure at Saint Domingo. Cf. Carvallido jacent coast of the larger island of Saint Doy Losada's Noticia de las invasiones (Madrid, mingo. It was not long before the French and 1655) and the reference elsewhere given. The Spaniards drifted into disputes over the line that years which followed were varied with alternate should separate their provinces, accompanied fates. The Spaniards recaptured Tortuga; De with predatory contests which ended with a gain Rossy and De la Place again took it; and then of territory to the French. A little later the the West India Company under Ogeron gained buccaneers were called upon to quell for the

1 Cf. a later page. * From Champlain's own sketch as reproduced in his Narrative of a Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico (Hakluyt Soc.), 1859. Drawn in 1599 or 1600.

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from the Dutch and Danish trade, which was Santo Domingo. Hilliard d'Auberteuil published invited, and inducements were held out to immi- at this time his Considérations sur l'état present grants, when a considerable body came from de la Colonie française de Saint Domingue (Paris, the Canary Islands. Still later the Spaniards 1776–77), in two volumes. The condition of the did not neglect the opportunity for predatory island in the year just before the bursting of exploits when the war of 1762 followed in the the revolutionary passions is portrayed for us, train of events.

for the Spanish part, in Antonio Sanchez ValThe boundary disputes, which were a bar to verde's Idea del Valor de la isla Española pacification, were finally brought to a close by a (Madrid, 1785), the author having been long a treaty in 1777, under which the French and resident, and the inheritor of his father's collecSpanish parts of the island were satisfactorily tion of papers. For the French part, — M. L. E. separated. The treaty is given with “notice Moreau de Saint Méry published his Lois et Conhistorique " in Calvo's Recueil des traités, iii. 99, stitutions des Colonies Françaises de l'Amérique and in English in the appendix of Hazard's sous le Vent (Paris, 1784-85), in five volumes; but

1 Margry has given contemporary material respecting the early settlements of the French, 1692, in the Revue Maritime et Coloniale (Paris, 1862), pp. 794-1818. 2 D'Anville's war map of the West Indies at this time is a convenient accompaniment of the naval accounts.

* From a print in Du Tertre's Antilles (Paris, 1667).

the French Revolution breaking out he did not When the doctrines of the French Revolution complete the work till a Description topogra- began to be talked of, the rich French planters phique et politique de la partie Espagnole de l'ile thought their opportunity was come, and they de Saint Domingue appeared in Philadelphia began to organize to secure their independence. (1796, and a large map; also in English, by W. They called assemblies, but they denied the muCobbett, 1796), and a Partie Française (Philad., lattoes a share in their deliberations, which nat1797-98), a second edition of both parts coming urally drove the half-breeds into the support of out in Paris, 1875-76.

equal rights, while the governor and his party

drifted into open war with the whites and their assembly. The mulattoes prematurely rose under one of their number, James Ogè, who had been sent over by the National Assembly of France to present their decree establishing equal rights; but they were soon put down, while Ogè fled within the Spanish territory. He was given up on condition that his life should be spared; but the whites were faithless, and broke him on a wheel.

The passions of all sides were at once let loose. The wbites were di. vided among themselves, and this did much to help the negroes, who now rose in revolt, to carry out under great provocation their nefarious plans of murder and devastation. It was a curious spectacle, with the negroes embattled for the French king, and the whites in opposition. The blacks were not generally successful in the field till the mulattoes joined them, when at Croix des Bouquets, March 28, 1792, they defeated the white forces.

We have the French official reports on the causes and scenes of this period of horror in several forms: J. Ph. Garan-Coulon's Rapport sur les troubles de Saint Domingue (Paris, 1797-99), in four volumes. An inquiry into the causes of the insurrection of the negroes in the island of St. Domingo ; to which are added Observations of M. Garran-Coulon before the

Nat. Assembly (London, 1792). Pro There was a further contribution to the study duction historique des faits qui se sont passés dans of this period in the record of the visit to the la partie de l'ouest, depuis le commencement de la island of F. A. Stanislaus, the Baron de Wimpf- révolution de Saint Domingue jusqu'au premier fen, whose Voyage to Saint Domingo, 1788–1790, Février, 1792, présentée par les gardes nationales translated from the original MS., was first pub- du Port-au-Prince à Messieurs les Commissaires lished in London (1797), while the original text Civils (Port-au-Prince, 1792). A particular acappeared a few months later (Paris, 1797). count of the commencement and progress of the

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1 Carter-Brown, iii. no. 3554.

NOTE. — The above cut is reproduced from Charles Yves Cousin d'Avalon's Histoire de Toussaint-Louverture (Paris, 1802). Cf. other engravings in Antoine Métral's Hist. de l'Expédition des Français à Saint Domingue (Paris, 1825); in Louis Dubroca's Vie de Toussaint-Louverture (Paris, 1802). Marcus Rainsford, in his St. Domingo (London, 3d ed., 1802) gives a full-length back view, with profile head, in uniform, as sketched by Major Rainsford from life. Still another likeness is in Toussaint-Louverture's frühere Geschichte nach Englischen Nachrichten bearbeitet (Fürth, 1802).

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NOTE. – Reduced from a plate in Prévost's Voyages (Paris, 1754), vol. xii. There is a modern engraving of this same view in Hazard's Santo Domingo (N. Y., 1873), p. 62, and a plan (p. 219). Cf. other plans and views in Gottfriedt's Newe Welt (p. 350, in connection with Drake's voyage, 1585-86); in Otten's Grand the. âtre de la Guerre (Amsterdam, 1717), sometimes found also in his Nova Isthmi Americani Tabula (1717); Charlevoix's Espagnole ; Jefferys' Desc. of the Spanish Islands (London, 1762); and the Spaniard Lopez (1785).

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