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insurrection of the negroes in St. Domingo, made to senté à la Convention Nationale par les Commisthe Nat. Assembly, by the deputies from the gen. saires de Saint Domingue sur la demande des comieral assembly of the French part of St. Domingo tés de marine et des colonies, réunis après en avoir (London, 1792). Dévellopment des causes des donné communication aux colons résidens à Paris, troubles et désastres des Colonies Françaises, pré le 11 Juin, 1793. Of Saint Amand's Histoire des
Révolution d'Haïti (Paris, 1860), apparently only Soon after the news of the execution (Jan. 21, the first volume, covering 1789-1792, was pub. 1793) of Louis XVI reached the island, the lished. The early years of the revolution are also blacks abandoned the French part and went dealt with in Boisrond-Tonnerre's Mémoires pour over to the Spaniards, when Jean François was servir à l'histoire de Haiti (Port-au-Prince, 1804), created a general, and Toussaint a colonel, in which with other matter and an Étude historique the Spanish army. At the same time (May, par Saint Remy, was republished at Paris in 1851. 1793), war breaking out between England and
In 1792, an army of 6000 troops was sent by France, the governor of Jamaica was directed the ruling powers in France to control events in
to capture such ports in St. Domingo as he could, St. Domingo. They were joined by the mulat- and to hold them in the British interest. Thus toes, who thus separated their fortunes from the the English and Spaniards joining, the adherents blacks. The commissioners who accompanied of the French Republic were soon driven into the troops came empowered to recognize no one corner of the island. distinction of color in free men. The French On the 14th of June, 1794, the English captroops captured Port-au-Prince, and the negroes tured Port-au-Prince. Events now moved rapwere subdued.
idly. The French, under Levaux, were besieging
the British at Port de Paix, when Toussaint The black chief soon tranquillized the island, with his negroes deserted his new masters, the and only a small section was held by the French Spaniards, and joined forces with Levaux. republicans under Rigaud ; but this region finally
The next year (1795) the Peace of Basle gave succumbed. the French the entire control of the island, and The Spaniards, who had not been prompt in the Spaniards evacuated it, and carried with them carrying out the treaty of 1795, finally, on Jan. 2, to Havana and from the city of Saint Domingo 1801, opened the gates of the city of Saint Do. the remains of Columbus.
mingo to Toussaint, and in July the island was There are two contemporary narratives of declared independent, under a constitution with events up to this period. Dalmas wrote while Toussaint as chief. in the United States in 1793-94, a fugitive from When the war with England had ceased under the revolution of the blacks, a Histoire de la Ré- the peace of Amiens, Bonaparte, then first convolution de Saint Domingue depuis le commence- sul, turned his attention to Saint Domingo and ment des troubles, which was not printed for sent a large force under Leclerc, his brother-insome years (Paris, 1814); and M. E. Descourtily's law, to reoccupy it; England agreeing to be neuHistoire des désastres de St. Domingue (Paris, tral, and Holland lending the ships. With it 1795).
went Rochambeau (the son of the soldier of Toussaint now found his army increasing Yorktown) in command of a division, and Vilround him. His people trusted him. The laret as the admiral of the fleet. French perceived him to be a man who con- In Jan., 1802, the French descended upon the trolled himself and his people. So the prospect island in three places, captured the city of Saint brightened. “Cet homme fait l'overture par- Domingo, and secured Cape François, but not tout,” said some one. It seemed prophetic, and till Christophe, the negro chief in charge of its Toussaint became L'overture. The grateful garrison, had set it on fire and fled. Toussaint home government of France in 1797 made him resisted all bribes and persuasions, and entered general in chief, and the next year he forced the upon an active campaign against the invaders. English general off the island, and effected a It ended, however, in his submission, after his treaty that was to keep Saint Domingo indepen- trusted adherents had deserted him, and in a dent during the war.
peace by which the power of France was re
* From the close of an autograph document given in Rainsford's Hist. Acct. of the Black Empire of Hayti (London, 1805).
stored throughout the island. Toussaint was Lemonier - Delafosse's Second Campagne de treacherously seized and sent to France, where Saint Domingue, Dec., 1803-July, 1809; précédée he died in durance, April, 1803.
de souvenirs historique de la première campagne :
expédition du général-en-chef, Leclerc, Dec., 1801Toussaint is the central figure of a large body Dec., 1803 (Havre, 1846). of historical writings, and the following titles in John R. Beard's Life of Toussaint L'Ouvertheir chronological order will indicate the growth pure, the negro patriot of Hayti: comprising an of interest and the development of knowl. account of the struggle for liberty in the island, edge:
and a sketch of its history to the present period Charles Esmangart's Des Colonies Françaises et (London, 1853). en particulier de l'ile de Saint-Domingue (Paris, Joseph St. Remy's Vie de Toussaint L'Overture 1801).
(Paris, 1850), using material in the French arLouis Dubroca's La Vie de Toussaint Louver. chives ; and his Mémoires du Général Toussaint ture ; suivie de notes sur Saint Domingue ... et L'Ouverture, écrits par lui-même, pouvant servir des opérations militaires du Général Leclerc à l'histoire de sa vie, précédés d'une étude his(Paris, 1802), upon which was based a Histoire torique et critique, suivis de notes et Renseignede Toussaint Louverture par Charles Yves Cousin ments, avec un Appendice contenant les opinions de d'Avalon (Paris, 1802).
l'Empereur Napoléon jer sur les bvènements de The successive books of Captain Marcus Saint Domingue (Paris, 1853). Rainsford: A Memoir of Transactions that took Hannah F. Lee's Memoir of Pierre Toussaint place in St. Domingo in the spring of 1799, afford (Boston, 3d ed., 1854). ing an idea of the present state of that country, Charles Wyllys Elliott's Saint Domingo, its the real character of its black governor, Toussaint revolution and its hero, Toussaint L'Ouverture L'Ouverture, and the safety of our West India (N. Y., 1855). islands from attack or revolt (London, 1802, 31 An address on Toussaint Louverture, by Wenpp.) ; St. Domingo, or an historical, political and dell Phillips, delivered Dec., 1861, and included military sketch of the Black Republic, with a view in his Speeches, Lectures, and Letters (Boston, of the life and character of Toussaint L'Ouver. 1864). ture, and the effects of his newly established do- Gragnon de Lacoste's Toussaint Louverture, minion (London, 1802, 2d ed., pp. 63); An His- écrit d'après des documents inédits et les torical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti, papiers historiques et secrets de la famille Louvercomprehending a view of the principal transac- ture (Paris et Bordeaux, 1877). tions in the revolution of St. Domingo (London, A few minor references: An article by S. H. 1805, pp. 477). This last has a long appendix Swiney in Macmillan's Mag., lvi. 311; by H. of historical documents, with a plan of Cape Adams on Napoleon and St. Domingo in Revue François as it was before its destruction." A historique, xxiv. 92 ; a dramatic poem on TousGerman translation was published at Hamburg saint by Lamartine; and Harriet Martineau's in 1806.
novel, The Hour and the Man (N. Y., 1841). René Perin's L'Incendie du Cap ou le Régne de Toussaint Louverture (Paris, 1802).
The fate of Toussaint once more inflamed the F. C.'s Soirées Bermudiennes, ou Entretiens sur passions of the blacks, and they rose under Des. les évènements qui ont opéré la ruine de la partie salines, Cristophe, and Clervaux. Leclerc had française de l'isle Saint Domingue (Bordeaux, died, and given place to Rochambeau, who was 1802).
now cooped up in Cape François (1803), where Colonel Charles Chalmers' Researches on the he was besieged by Dessalines. War again late war in St. Domingo (London, 1803).
breaking out between England and France, a The Life and military achievements of Tous- British fleet blockaded the port at the same saint Louverture, from the year 1792 to the fall of time. On Nov. 19, the French surrendered the 1803 (Philad. ?, 1804; 2d ed., 1805).
town and went aboard the ships, and going out Augustin Régis' Mémoire historique sur Tous. the harbor lowered their flags to the English saint Louverture, suivi d'une notice historique sur admiral. Alexandre Pétion (Paris, 1818).
The way was again open for an independent Antoine Métral's Histoire de l'expédition mili- government, and the three black generals detair des Français à Saint Domingue, sous Na- clared the island to be subject to no external poléon Bonaparte ; suivi des mémoires et notes power, and Jean Jacques Dessalines was made d'Isaac Louverture sur la même expédition, et governor-general for life. Power, thus consur la vie de son père (Paris, 1825; again, 1841). firmed to him, awoke his baser nature, and he
James Franklin's Present State of Hayti (Lon- entered upon a murderous career against the don, 1828).
French part of the population, which was cer. 1 Cf. the earlier plans in Charlevoix's Espagnole (1733, etc.), and in Bellin's Desc. des Débouquemens au nord de St. Domingue (Versailles, 1773).
tainly not undeserved, in the view of their own ex- Domingo, and put Ramirez in command. In cesses, and he crossed (May, 1805) the mountains 1814 the treaty of Paris confirmed the Spanish with 25,000 men to besiege St. Domingo, from possession. which he was obliged to retire on the appearance Meanwhile disquiet and revulsion of one kind of a French fleet. He next declared himself and another so succeeded each other in the west, emperor, under the title of Jacques I. Of the that with the Emperor Cristophe and the Presi. 4,000,000 souls now on the island, a large pro- dent Pétion in the midst of the turmoils, life portion were women, and an army of 15,000 men, to each became a burden. Pétion finally died of which Dessalines organized, was a good deal mortification in March, 1818, and Cristophe was of a strain upon the population. His excesses assassinated in October, 1820. brought him the hate even of his own soldiers, and he was ambushed and shot, Oct. 17, 1806.
The special treatment of this period is found as follows:
Louis Dubroca's Vie de Dessa. lines, avec des notes sur les chefs des noirs depuis 1792 (Paris, 1804; in German, Leipzig, 1805).
A. P. M. Laujon's Précis historique de la dernière expédition de Saint Domingue depuis le départ de l'armée des côtes de France, jusqu'à l'évacuation de la colonie (Paris, 1805).
Philippe Albert de Lattre's Campagnes des Français à Saint Domingue et réfutation des reproches faits au Capitaine Général Rochambeau (Paris, 1805).
Miss Hassal's Secret history of the horrors of St. Domingo, written at Cafe François during the command of Gen. Rochambeau (Philad., 1808).
Cristophe early succeeded in the north to Dessaline's power, but his rule farther south was disputed by Pétion, a mulatto, who had been educated at the military academy in Paris. In the internal dissensions which ensued Pétion was defeated, January, 1807, and fled; but he succeeded in maintaining about him such adherents as backed his pretensions in the south, and finally, in 1812, the rivalry of Boyer, a dark mulatto, who joined to a love of the two leaders had settled down into a sort of show too much laxity of purpose, found neveragreement that each was to govern in their re- theless the opportunity in the death of Cristophe spective strongholds, — Cristophe at Cape Fran- to strengthen the power to which he had been çois and Pétion at Port-au-Prince. The French elevated on the death of Pétion. So he sucforces still held the city of Saint Domingo, but ceeded in reuniting the provinces of the west, not peacefully, for the Spaniards revolting under and soon became president over all; while in Juan Sanchez Ramirez, they defeated the French 1822, having succeeded in pacifying the entire general, Ferrand, who had marched out against island, he entered Saint Domingo, and estabthem, but only to shoot himself in his chagrin at lished the Republic of Hayti, - a government defeat. The French were now shut up in Saint which was to last for an unwonted term of Domingo and Samana. In November, 1809, the years. France refused to recognize the new English took Samana and handed it over to the power, and sent a fleet under Baron Mackau, and Spaniards, and they had also captured Saint compromised her claims under an agreement
Note. The above cut is reproduced from the Leben des J. J. Dessalines (Leipzig, 1805).
(1825) by which France was to enjoy some com- Hayti (London, 1830), with a fac-simile of one of mercial privileges and receive a large money in Cristophe's proclamations. The author was demnity, failing the payment of which last the consul-general for Great Britain, and had faciliisland was to become once more a colony of ties for securing information. C. C. Robin's France.
Voyage dans l'intérieur de la Louisiane, ... de St. Boyer continued in office till 1843, when he Domingue, etc. (Paris, 1807). Haytian Papers: a was deposed. The separation of the Spanish collection of the very interesting proclamations end of the island followed, under an independent and other official documents ; together with some government, Juan Pablo Duarte leading the re- account of the rise, progress, and present state of volt, which ended in the declaration of a separa- the Kingdom of Hayti, with a preface by Prince tion from Hayti, February 27, 1844.
Sanders, agent for the Haytian Government [of
Cristophe] (London, 1816). W. W. Harvey's This later period and the last of the present Sketches of Hayti, from the expulsion of the survey has found special treatment by observer French to the death of Christophe (London, 1827). and student: Charles Mackenzie's Notes on A paper on Cristophe in Blackwood's Edinburgh
Note. — From Staat van Amerika (Amsterdam, 1766), iii. 172.
Mag., vol. x. (1821) p. 545. Jos. St. Remy's Pé- tary to the expedition which captured the city of tion et Haiti ; étude monographique et historique Saint Domingo, and he gives a plan of the cam(Paris, 1854-58), in five volumes. Gilbert Guil- paign. History of the Island of St. Domingo lermin de Montpinay's Journal historique de la from its discovery to the present period (London, Révolution de la partie de l'est de Saint Domin. 1818; N. Y., 1825; in French, 1829), — mainly gue, commencée le 10 Août, 1808 (Philad., 1810, concerning the events of 1814, etc. M. Wallez's Paris, 1811); and his Précis historique depuis le Précis historique des négociations entre la France 10 Aont, 1808, jusqu'à la capitulation de Santo Do- et Saint Domingue ; suivi de pièces justicatives et mingo (Paris, 1811). This last volume contains a d'une notice biographique sur le général Boyer “ Plan des environs de St. Domingue avec les (Paris, 1826). Inginac's Mémoires (Kingston, positions et retranchments des révolté, 27 Nov., Jamaica, 1843). He was secretary under Boyer. 1808-July 3, 1809," and a portrait of General The military events of this revolutionary period Ferrand. Dorvo-Soulastre's Voyage par terre de are touched with more or less fulness in Mathieu Santo Domingo au Cap François (Paris, 1809). Dumas' Précis des Evénéments militaires, 1799William Walton, Jr.'s Present State of the Span- 1814 (Paris, 1817-26), in nineteen volumes, and ish Colonies, including a particular report of His- in Jomini's Guerres de la Revolution (Paris, 1820paniola (London, 1810). The author was secre. 24), in fifteen volumes. Cf. Lt.-General the