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Baron Pamphile de la Croix's Mémoires pour tions : Reflexions politique sur les noirs et les servir à la histoire de la revolution de Saint Do- blancs ... le Royaume d'Haiti (Cap Henry, mingue (Paris, 1819).

1816). Reflexions politiques sur quelques ouvrages

et journaux français concernant Hayti (Sans It may be well now to run down the succes- Souci, 1817 ; in English in The Pamphleteer, sion of the chief and most characteristic histories London, xiii. 165); and Essai sur les causes de of the island, especially for its later periods, the la révolution et des guerres civiles d'Hayti (Sans writing of which was in the main instigated by Souci, 1819; in English, Exeter, 1823). the events that made part of the long revolution- Antoine Metral's Histoire de l'insurrection des ary history of St. Domingo : J. B. J. Breton's His- esclaves dans le Nord de Saint Domingue (Paris, toire de l'Isle de Saint Domingue (Paris, 1802). 1819), and his Histoire de l'Expédition des FranDrouin de Bercy's De Saint Domingue, de ses çais à Saint Domingue (Paris, 1844). History of guerres, de ses revolutions, etc. (Paris, 1814). the island of St. Domingo to the present period

The Baron de Vastey abandoned the French (London, 1818). Du Pradt's Pièces relatives à republic in 1795, and went over to the Spaniards. Saint Domingue et à l'Amérique (Paris, 1818), a He was killed in 1820. His successive publica- supplement to his work on America. L. J. ClausCf. Calendar of State Papers, Colonial series, tion against the Caribs in St. Vincent, in 1772, vol. v. (1661-1668).

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Note. - From a print in Du Tertre's Antilles (Paris, 1667).

son's Précis historique de la révolution de Saint and the foreign and civil Wars in St. Domingo Domingue (Paris, 1819). Pamphile de la Croix's (N. Y., 1840). Wilhelm Jordan's Geschichte der Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de la révolution insel Hayti (Leipzig, 1846-49). Documents relade St. Domingue (Paris, 1819), in two volumes. tifs à touts les phases de la Révolution de Saint Charles Malo's Histoire de l'isle de Saint Domin- Domingue, recuellis et mis en ordre par Edmond gue depuis sa découverte jusqu'à l'année 1818 Bonnet (Paris, 1864). (Paris, 1819); jusqu'en 1824 (Paris, 1825). Civique de Gastine's Histoire de la République de The best work on Porto Rico is Inigo Abbad's Haiti (Paris, 1819). Justin Placide's Histoire Historia, geografica, civil y politica de la isla de politique et statistique de l'ile de Hayti, écrits sur S. Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico (Madrid, 1788), des documents officiels et des notes communiquées edited by Villadores de Sotomayor, and repar (Sir] James Barskett (Paris, 1826). It has printed with a collection of documents in P. T. convenient maps for showing the respective ter- Cordova's Memorias de Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico, ritories of King Cristophe and President Pétion, 1831), in two volumes. and the range of the French rule. Jonathan The principal books on Antigua are John Brown's History and Present Condition of St. Luffman's Brief account of Antigua (London, Domingo (Philad., 1837), in two volumes. Peter 1789), and Antigua and the Antiguans from the S. Charotte's Hist. Sketches of the Revolution time of the Caribs (London, 1844), in two vols.

VOL. VIII. — 19

are contained in Papers laid before the House of Guadaloupe came into prominence with the Commons (London, 1773). Cf. Sir William attack of the British upon it, Jan. 23, 1759, the Young's Account of the Black Charaibs in the forces under General Barrington and the fleet island of St. Vincents, with the Charaib Treaty under Commodore Moore. The attack is de- of 1773, and other original documents (London, scribed, with a map, in Mante's Late War (Lon. 1795). don, 1772), and there is a contemporary map of the attack in the London Mag., 1759, p. 287, and The English took possession of the depopua larger one in Jefferys' Atlas.1 Cf. E. E. Boyer- lated. Barbadoes in 1625. The rival claims of Peyreleau's Les Antilles françaises, particulière. Carlisle, Montgomery, Marlborough and Courment la Guadeloupe, depuis la découverte jusqu'au teen are traced in the Calendar of State Papers, jer Nov. 1825 (Paris, 1825), in three volumes. Colonial series, vol. i.; and later history in vol. v. Labat has maps of the early part of the last (1660-1668). century.

There was in these earliest days some tranOn Dominica see Thomas Atwood's History sient connection with New England (cf. N. E. of Dominica, the conquest by the French and its Hist. Gen. Reg., xxxix. 132; Narragansett Reg., restoration to the British Dominions (London, iii. 230, 282). Nicholas Darnell Davis goes 1791). Cf. Calendar of State Papers, Colonial over the early history in his Cavaliers and series, vol. v. (1660-1668).

Roundheads of Barbadoes, 1650-52 (Georgetown, The island of Martinique has been frequently Brit. Guiana, 1887). Cf. A Brefe Relation of the point of struggle in the West Indian war. the late horrid Rebellion acted in the island of fare. Labat describes it early in the eighteenth Barbadoes, - acted by the Waldronds and their century, and gives us maps and plans of the abettors, 1650. Written sea by cholas Foster Ville Royal, with its forts and the Fort St. Pierre. (London, 1650). R. Ligon's True and exact hisThe attack of the English upon the French tory of the Barbadoes (London, 1657, 1673), with there and elsewhere in the Antilles is particu- a large folding-map, showing the houses of the larly described, with a plan of the naval and planters. Cf. the map in Henri Justel's Recueil land attack, in Captain Richard Gardiner's Ac- de divers Voyages (Paris, 1674). Samuel Clark's. count of the expedition to the West Indies against True and faithful Account of the four chiefest Martinico, with the reduction of Guadelupe, etc., plantations of the English in America ; to wit, of subject to the French king, 1759 (Birmingham, Virginia, New England, Bermudas, Barbados 1762; also in a French translation, 1762). Cf. (London, 1670). Blome, in his Jamaica (1672), London Mag., 1758. Martinique with St. Lucia also told of Barbadoes. In the next century we and St. Vincent were again taken by the British have the narrative of Labat, with his map (vol. in 1762, under Rodney and Monckton. Mante iv.). Some Memoirs of the first settlement of gives a map taken before its attack, and there the island of Barbados, to 1741 (Barbados, 1741). is another in the London Mag., Apr., 1762. The The Voyage of Robert in Green's Voyages (vol. island reverted to France under the treaty of i.). Defence of the Conduct of Barbadoes during Paris, 1763. Of the later capture by the British in the late expedition to Martinique and Guadeloupe 1794, we have a large folio by Cooper Willyams, (London, 1760). George Frere's Short History An account of the Campaign in the West Indies, of Barbados to 1767 (London, 1768). Frere is in 1794, under Sir Charles Grey and Sir John called partial and unfair in Remarks on his book Jervis, with the reduction of Martinique (London, (Barbados, 1768). JefferysFrench Dominion. 1796). The Peace of Amiens (1802) carried the John Poyer's History of Barbados from the first island again to the French, and in 1815 the discovery in 1605 till 1801 (London, 1808). R. H. English put down a Bonapartist revolt there and Schomburgk's History of Barbadoes (London, confirmed the French rule.

1848). The first actual English settlement at St. Lucia was in 1638. Cf. Calendar of State Papers, Labat will serve us again for Grenada in the Colonial series, vol. v. p. lxvi. We must also early part of the eighteenth century, with text refer to the Memorials of the English and French and maps. Later we have help in John CampCommissaries (London, 1755; see ante, V., 476), bell's Considerations on the Sugar Trade (Lonand the war scenes as narrated in Mante's Late don, 1763). Beside the general histories we find War (London, 1772). The history of St. Vin- an account of the French successes in their cent runs in part parallel with that of St. Lucia. naval attack on the island, July 6, 1779, in the Cf. Calendar of State Papers, Col. series, vol. v. Relation du combat naval de la Grenade (Gre(1660-1668). There is an Historical account of nade, 1779), pp. 4, and Relation de la prise de la the island of St. Vincent, by Charles Sheppard Grenade (Grenade, 1779), pp. 44. There are (London, 1831). Papers concerning the expedi- also some minor contemporary accounts of the

i Cf. also the map in Gardiner's Acc. of the exped., etc. (1762).

revolt in 1795: Gordon Turnbull's Narrative of Of Trinidad we have a recent history in P. G. the revolt of the French inhabitants in the island L. Borde's Histoire de l'ile de la Trinidad sous le of Grenada (Edinburgh, 1795; London, 1796); gouvernement Espagnol, 1498–1797 (Paris, 1876), A brief inquiry into the quelling of the insurrec. in two volumes. Cf. also W. H. Gamble's tion in Grenada (London, 1796); and John Hay's Trinidad, historical and descriptive (London, Narrative of the insurrection in the island of 1866); E. L. Joseph's History of Trinidad, 1498Grenada, 1795 (London, 1823).

1837 (Trinidad, 1838). Of Tobago we find several accounts : César de Rochefort's Tableau de l'isle de Tobago (Leyden, Two years

before Lima was established as the 1665; Paris, 1666; in German, Hamburg, n. d., capital of the Spanish viceroyalty in South and 1717) ; Capt. John Poyntz's Present Pros. America, Carthagena, the first Spanish city on pect of the famous and fertile island of Tobago the continent, was founded by royal authority in (London, 3d ed., 1695) ; J. C. P.'s Tobago, insu- 1533, and it speedily became, and for a long time la Caraibicæ in America (Hagæ Comitis, 1705?; remained, the centre of Spanish-American prowGroningæ, 1727). Cf. Calendar of State Papers, ess and commerce on the Spanish main. The Col. series, vol. v. (1660-68).

three signal events in its history were the attack

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11 Valter de Cartagene

upon its fortifications by Drake in 1585, the 26, 1884, p. 62. There are two contemporary French plunder of it in 1697, and the futile at- engraved plans of the attack, differing from each tack of the English in 1741.

other, in the Expeditio Francisci Draki (Leyden, The measure of Drake's success in his preda. 1588), and in the English version of it, Sumtory expedition of 1585 (ante, Vol. III. p. 73), in marie, etc., published at London in 1589. It which not only Carthagena, but Saint Augustine was included in the first collected edition of the and San Domingo were made to experience the Drake narratives, Sir Francis Drake revived English audacity, was reckoned by the bullion (London, 1652-53). See ante, III. 79, 80. A which, on his return to London, he delivered at narrative is also included, with a plan, in Gott. the Tower. An enumeration dated Dec. 26, friedt's Newe Welti (p. 352). 1585, was found among the Salisbury MSS., and Of the French attack on Carthagena, in 1697,2 is noted in the Historical MSS. Commission Re. we have an account by the commander of the port, iv. 223. A plan of Carthagena at the expedition in Baron Jean Bernard Louis Destime of Drake's attack was discovered in 1884, jean de Pointis's Relation de l'expédition de Carin the Archives of the Admiralty at Whitehall, thagene faite par les Français en 1697 (Paris and marked " Johannes Baptista me fecit, 1586,” Amsterdam, 1698), which has a large plan of the and is described in the London Athenæum, June town. An English version was published in i Cf. the view from Montanus, ante, Vol. II. p. 192.

2 Bibliography in Sabin, xv. p. 234. * Reduced from Coreal's Voyages (Amsterdam, 1722), vol. i.

London in 1699, Account of the taking of Cartha- It was over forty years before Carthagena gena by the French, which also had a plan of the again became the centre of naval interest, and in harbor and forts (Carter-Brown, ii. no. 1547). this interval we find frequent reminders of its Soon after appeared Monsieur de Pointi's [sic] earlier experiences in the plans and views of the Expedition to Cartagena, being a particular rela. town and bay. Cf. Coreal's Voyage ; Charletion, etc., Englished from the original (London, voix's Espagnole (Amsterdam, 1723), vol. iv. p. 1699). Forty years later, when the English in 318; Laval's Voyage de la Louisiane (Paris, 1728), their turn were contemplating an attack, the same p. 68; D'Anville's Plan de la Baye de Carthagene, narrative was twice reprinted :

tiré d'une carte espagnole (1730). A genuine and particular account of the taking The campaign, which the English Admiral of Carthagena by the French and buccaniers, in Vernon undertook in the interests of a home 1697. With a preface, giving an account of the faction, when he sailed to the West Indies in original of Carthagena in 1532, to the present 1739, was in the end a disgraceful failure. War time (London, 1740); An authentick and partic. had been declared in 1739 against Spain, to punular account of the taking of Carthagena by the ish her for the way in which she had permitted French, in 1697 [etc.]. 2d ed. (London, 1740). her cruisers in the West Indies to disturb BritIt was also included in Daniel Coxe's Collection ish commerce. Vernon had boasted in the of Voyages (London, 1741). Cf. ante, Vol. V. 69. British Parliament that he could capture Porto

Bello with six ships, and he made good his word, as has elsewhere been shown. This success led to more ambitious schemes, and he was entrusted with a large fleet in order to capture Carthagena, and Anson was dispatched with a coöperating fleet to the Pacific to assail the Spanish possessions on that side. Disabled by a storm, Anson was delayed in reaching the upper coasts of South America and the Isthmus, only to learn that Vernon had been worsted at Carthagena, and he returned home, as already related, by the western route. Vernon, who had made his way into the great bay of Carthagena with his powetful armament, failed largely through the want of harmony which existed between him and Wentworth, the commander of the land forces, and this led to a war of pamphlets. These contemporary publications are as follows:

The Conduct of Admiral Vernon examined and vindicated (London, 1741).

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Original Papers relative to the Expedition to

Carthagena (London, 1744).
ADMIRAL VERNON.*

Authentic Papers relative to the Expedition

against Carthagena (London, 1744). The affair was not without rivalries, and sides An Account of the Expedition to Carthagena, were taken by the adherents of Pointis and of with explanatory notes and observations (London, Du Casse, the leader of the buccaneers. Pointis 1743, three eds.,; Dublin), and an answer called was defended in a Relation de ce qui s'est fait d A Journal of the Expedition to Carthagena la prise de Carthagene, scituée aux Indes Espag. (London, 1744, two eds.; Dublin, 1744). Tobias noles, par l'escadre commandée par M. de Pointis Smollett, the novelist, who as a surgeon's mate (Bruxelles, 1698), which was written by an officer took part in this expedition, has left some graphic of the fleet. The defence of Du Casse, who was descriptions in his Roderic Random, and fur. governor of San Domingo, was undertaken in nished an account of it in his Compendium of Relation fidele de l'expédition de Cartagene (1699). Voyages (1756), which is usually printed in his Cf. C. B. Norman's Corsairs of France (London, Miscellaneous Works as “ An account of the ex1887), p. 110

pedition against Carthagena." 2

1 Ante, ch. 4.

2 Of the English colonies to the northward, Virginia and Massachusetts furnished 500 men each to the military force which was engaged. Only about 50 of the Massachusetts men returned. Ellis Ames has given an account of the part of Massachusetts in the business, — Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., March, 1881.

From a cut in The Englishman's Evening Post (London, May 15-17, 1740).

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