« AnteriorContinuar »
Plane and con-A & B
Plane and con- A cave. 15 ii with hinge movement.
22° and i in.
Conden si ng Ioiih on stand.
Co n d c n s i ng
Stage micrometer, con densing lent* on stand, cam era lucida & com p r essori urn.
50 to 430
Mirror on curved arm as above.
Co n den sing lens to limb.
Co 11 d e n s i ng lens to limb, camera lucida. stage micrometer, & compressor!. um.
HIBERNATION OF THE JUMPING MOUSE.
BY PROF. SANBORN TENNEY.
On the 18th of January of the present year ( 1872), I went with Dr. A. Patton of Vineennes, Indiana, to visit a mound situated about a mile or a mile and a half in an easterby direction from Vineennes. AVhile digging in the mound in search of relics that might throw light upon its origin and history, we came to a nest about two feet below the surface of the ground, carefully made of bits of grass, and in this nest was a Jumping Mouse (Jacuhts Hudsonius Baird) apparently dead. It was coiled up as tightly as it could be, the nose being placed upon the belly, and the long tail coiled around the ball-like form which the animal had assumed. I took the little mouse into my hand. It exhibited no motion or sign
of life. Its eves and mouth were
shut tight, and its little fore feet or hands were shut and placed close together. Everything indicated that the mouse was perfectly dead, excepting the fact that it was not as rigid as perhaps a dead mouse would be in the winter. I
Jumping Mouse (Jaculut Iludtonius Halrd.)
tied the mouse and nest in my handkerchief and caried them to Vineennes. Arriving at Dr. Patton's office I untied my treasures, and took out the mouse and held it for some time in my hand; it still exhibited no sign of life; but at length I thought I saw a very slight movement in one of the hind legs. Presently there was a very slight movement of the head, yet so feeble that one could hardly be sure it Was real. Then there came to be some evidence of breathing, and a slight pressure of my fingers upon the tail near the body was followed by an immediate but feeble movement of one of the hind legs. At length there was unmistakable evidence that the animal was breathing, but the breathing was a labored action, and seemingly performed with great difficulty. As the mouse became warmer the signs of life became more and more marked; and in the course of the same afternoon on which I brought it into the warm room it became perfectly active, and was as ready to jump about as any other member of its species.
I put this mouse into a little tin box with holes in the cover, and took him with me in my journeyings, taking care to put in the box a portion of an ear of corn and pieces of paper. It ate the corn by gnawing from the outside of the kernel, and it gnawed the paper into bits with which it made a nest. On the, fourth day after its capture I gave it water which it seemed to relish. On the "23d of January I took it with me to Elgin, Illinois, nearly three hundred miles farther north than the region where I found the specimen. The weather was intensely cold. Taking the mouse from the box, I placed it on a newspaper on a table, and covered it with a large glass bell, lifting the edge of the glass so as to admit a supply of air. Under this glass was placed a good supply of waste cotton. Soon after it was fairty established in its new and more commodious quarters, it began to clean every part of its body in the most thorough manner, washing itself very much in the same manner as a cat washes. On coming to the tail it passed that long member, for its whole length, through the mouth from side to side, beginning near the body and ending at the tip. At night as soon as the lights were put out the mouse began gnawing the paper, and during the night it gnawed all the newspaper it could reach, and made the fragments and the cotton into a large nest perhaps five or six inches in diameter, and established itself in the centre. Here it spent the succeeding day. The next night it was supplied with more paper, and it gnawed all it could reach, and thus spent a large part of the night in work. I could hear the work going on when I was awake. In the morning it appeared to be reposing on the top of its nest; but after watching it for some time, and seeing no motion, I lifted up the glass and took the mouse in my hand. It showed no signs of life. I now felt that perhaps my pet was indeed really dead; but on remembering what I had previously seen, I resolved to try to restore it again to activity. Bjr holding it in my hand and thus warming it, the mouse soon began to show signs of life, and although it was nearly the whole day in coming back to activity, at last it was as lively as ever, and afterward, on being set free in the room, it moved about so swiftly by means of its long leaps, that it required two of us a long time to capture it uninjured.
On the evening of February 6th I reached my home in Williamstown, and on my arrival the mouse was in good condition. But the next morning it was again apparently dead; in the course of the day, however, being placed where it was warm, it gradually came back again to activity as before.
This mouse, then, when dug from the mound was in a state of the most profound lethargy, — if torpidity be too strong a term,— and it is safe to infer that it would have so remained till spring, had it not been removed into a warmer temperature; and this lethargy or torpidity was as intense, so far at least as regards external appearances, as that seen in other animals, not excepting reptiles and batrachians.
I may add that the observations above detailed show that this mouse is capable of passing into the deepest lethargic state in a single night, and of returning, when warmed, to activity again on the succeeding day.
The Jumping Mouse is very quiet in the daytime, but very active at night. When disturbed in its nest it vigorously repels the* attack by striking with its fore feet with the greatest rapidity. It apparently does not seek to bite me.
Since the above was written the mouse has repeated the exhibitions detailed above, and at least once since the beginning of April. A colder night than usual seems to furnish the occasion for it to go into a state of the most profound lethargy.
THE WHITE COFFEE-LEAF MINER.
BY B. PICKMAN MANN.*
The observations upon which I base the following history of that insect (Cemiostoma coffeellum) which is the greatest enemy to the coffee-culture of Brazil, were made in the autumn and winter of the year 1871, at the fazendas of Sao Sebastiuo and Secretario, in the township of Vassouras, Province of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
At Sao Sebastisio, to 'whose owner, my esteemed friend Siir. Lindorf Moreira de Vasconcellos, I return my most heartfelt thanks for his unbounded hospitality and kindness, my observations extended through the greater part of the month of March.
* A Report us Entomologist to the Government of Brazil.
At Secretario I continued my observations until the latter part of June, aided by the sympathy and cooperation of the proprietor, Dr. Christovao Correa e Castro, one of the most enlightened and progressive men whom I had the pleasure of knowing in Brazil.
The acknowledgment of my deep gratitude is due also to Col. Antonio Correa e Castro for his tender care of me during a month when I was prostrated by severe sickness.
I have arranged my account of the insect under headings, for greater convenience to the future investigator, and have added an explanation of the less familiar words used, for the benefit of those who are not acquainted with the science of entomology.
Food-plant, and Indications of the presence of the Insect.—The caterpillar (larva) lives in the leaves of the coffee-tree (Coffea Arabica), where the injury done by it is shown by the presence of rust-colored blotches on the upper surface of the leaf. These blotches are sometimes almost black in the centre. .
After the larva has stopped feeding, and changed to a chrysalis (pupa), the slender, white chrysalis-case (cocoon) covered with its silken web may easily be found in a fold of the leaf.
The moths (imagos) whose beautifully ornamented, silvery wings hardly cover the breadth of the little finger nail, rest upon the leaves and branches of the tree when quiet, but are easily disturbed. Then they fly actively with a jerking flight.
Scientific Name.— The name of the genus (Cemiostoma) is derived from the Greek words /<>;,'/<;-, meaning muzzle, and nroita, meaning mouth, so that it may be translated muzzle-mouth. This name was given by Zeller, in the year 1848 (in the "Linnsea Entomologica," vol. iii, p. 273), because the hairs on the side of the face are so long as to cover up the mouth. It should be accented on the antepenultimate syllable. Since it is neuter in gender, because (rri/ia is neuter, the specific name must be neuter also. The specific name is taken from the scientific name of the food-plant, with a termination indicating the small size of the insect.
Synonyme.— The insect was called Elachista coffeella by GuerinMeneville in his memoir (to which I shall often refer hereafter), because at the time when he described it, the genus Cemiostoma had not been established, and the genus Elachista was still considered of such extent as to include this species.