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AITSWEIiS TO Cdrres?0nde:j"t3.

M. B.. Milwaukee. Wis. —The e;irt'i sent in tlu box wis so dry when re:e!red th-t the l;irv;e stihl t:> be there cml t not Ik* found. Th \v were prol<:ibly I n-vre of a s-mrM IK-. Tie n pij *o of jrnu/,3 nm 1.1 t.ie flower pot an.I u,jo:i the stem of Lie plant, and cat :'\ som ) o.' tle i.ise "U when t icy d -wli(>.

A.IATlii'.i. 1'uiiiblu'i. — N it iinlu-s you -fiul bntte:- specimens, neatly put up. Ni'.l aad i w* lia.»oei t > re.'.o'jn'ze. I, /'<•//./•*•</t umn t'ir'iit'uljn-r*iin Nutt. 2, Cttm^pterits rjfnmemiuaTtC. lint t icy suuuU be collated nfier tlie IVult ia fji'incU. baine of 3, w.iieh is Cuitx jUifUki Xuft.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

The Bird Fancier's Companion, lfimo. 1871. New York and Boston.

Fifth Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries of the State of Maine, for the year ending 1871. Svn pamph. 1872. Augusta.

The Development of Limtilu* Polyphemus. By A. S. Packard, Jr. 4to. M p.iges. 3 plates. lfCS.

Contribution* to the Fauna of the New York Croton Water. Microscopical observations during the years 1870-1. By Charles F.GUsler. Svo. pp. 23, woodcuts and 5 platen. New York. 1871,

Vegetable Parasites and the Diseases caused by their growth upon man. By James C. White. 8vo." pp.50. Boston. 1872.

Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club. \o. 18. Apr„ 1872. Loudon.

Nora Acta Regit? Societatis Scientarum Upsatiensis. 4to. Scr. 3. Vol. vll. Fasc. L-ii 1869-70. Upsalfie.

Astronomical and Meteorological Observations made at the United States Naval Observatory during the year I8H!». 4lo. 1M72. Washington.

Philosophical Transartiotis of the Royal Society of London. 4to. Vol. 1G0. Parts I-II, 1870. Vol. 161. Part I. 1871, Loudon.

The Royal Society List, 3<>lli Nov., 1870. 4lo pamph.

Second Annual Report of the Commissioners of Fisheries of the State of New Jersey. Svo paiuph. 1872. Trenton.

On Organic Physics. By Henry Hartshomc. 8vo. Read before the American Philosophical Society, Jan. I'.nh, 1872.

Discovery of Additional Remains of Ptcrosauria, with descriptions of netr species. Discovery of the Dermal Scutes of Mosasauroid Reptiles. (From the Anier. Jour*, of Science and Arts. Vol. 111., April, 1872.) By O. C. Marsh. 8vo pamph. New Haven.

Report of the Geological Survey of tlie State of New Hampshire. By C. H. Hitchci»ck. 1871. Svo pttniph. Nashua.

On the Mode of the Natural Distribution of Plants over the Surface of the Earth. (Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.; First Walker Prize Essay.) tiy Albert N. Prentiss. 8vo'pamph. 1K72. Ithaca.

Notice of a Neir Species of Ifadrosaurus. By O. C. Marsh. Received March 2Ist#li*72.

The General Principles of Organization and the Evolution of Organic Forms, Flr>t annnal address before the Alumni Society of the medical department of the University of Nashville. Delivered Feb. 23,1N70. By Jerome Cochran. 8vo pumph. 1871. Nashville.

Remarks on a paper entitled " On Some Phases of Modern Philosophy^ by Eli K. Price. By Edward 1). Cope. Svo paiuph. 1872.

On the Mineral Retources of North Carolina. By Frederick A. Genth. 8vo pamph. 1871. Philadelphia.

Eleventh Annual Report of the Educational Department of Kansas. 8vo. 1871. Topeka.

Preliminary Description of Hesperornis regalis, with notice* of four other new species of cretaceous birds. By Prof. O. ('. Marsh. (From (he Am. Jour, of Science and Arts, May, 1873.)

Oeotogischen Reichsanstalt. Band xxl. No. 3. Jull, August, September. 4to. 1871. Wlen.

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 8vo, No. 126. April, 1872. Philadelphia.

Vcrhandlungen der k. k.geotogischen Reichsanftalt. 8vo. No. 11. 1871.

Notice of the Address of T. Sterry Hunt before the American Association at Indianapolis. By James D.'Dana. (From the Am. Jour, of Science and Arts.) Feb., 1872.

Annual Report of the Minnesota Historical Society to the Legislature of Minnesota for the year 1871. 8vo. 1872. St. Paul.

Conrhological Memoranda. No. Ix. By R. E.C.Stearns. (From Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Scl. Sent. 4, 1871.)

iiecord of a few Molds in the Collections of E. C. Howe found in N. V. 1872.

Rotanical Notes. By Thomas Median. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia.) 1872.
Le Naturaliste CanaUien. Vol.lv. Nos. 1,2, The Field. Nos. from Jau. to May. 1872.

3, 4 and b. 1872. Quebec London.

The Canadian Entomologist. Vol. lv. No. 2. The Lens. Vol. 1. No. 2. 1872. Chicago.

1872. London. Fcuille des Jeunes Naturatistes. Nos. 15, 17,

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. No. 18 and 19. Ib72.

92. Jan., 1872. London. La Revue Scientifique. Serie 2. Nos.34-45.

The Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, 1872. Paris.

New Series. Vol. I. Nos. 109-11J. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Vol.

The Canadian Naturalist and Quarterly Jour- 11. No. 12. Vol. Hi. Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4. Jan.

nat of Science. New Series. Vol. vf. Nos. to Apr. 1872. New York.

2 and 3. American Journal of Conchology, Vol. vll.

The American Journal of Science and Arts. Part3. 1871-'72. 'Philadelphia.

Third Series. Vol.111. No. 15. 1872. New The Scottish Naturalist. Vol. 1. No. vl. 1873.

Haven. Perth.

Nature. Nos. to May 2, 1872. London. The Geological Maaacine. Vol. ix. No. 4.

The Academy, Nos. for March and April, 1872. April, 1872. Loudon.

Loudon.
Land and Water. Nos. from Jan. to May.

1872. Loudon.

THE

AMERICAN NATURALIST.

Vol. VI.-JULY, 1872.-No. 7. THE FEDIAS OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES.

BY PROF. THOS. C. PORTER.

About thirty 3'ears ago, two Fedias with fruits of singular shape were discovered by Mr. Sullivant, near Columbus, Ohio, and published by him as new species under the names of F. umbilicata and F. pntellaria. They soon disappeared from their original station, and no botanist seems to have met with either of them again until the Rev. S. W. Knipe of the Delaware Water Gap collected, in the spring of 1870, a few specimens of F. patellaria, in Westmoreland County, Pa., and early in Juue, 1871, a large supply in the neighborhood of Columbia on the Susquehanna Hiver, where it grew in great profusion along with the F. radiata of Miehaux.

Specimens of this plant, placed in my hands by the collector, exhibited such diversities in the fruit as to suggest the idea that both it and F. umbilicata might in the end prove to be forms of F. radiata. 'Dr. Gray, to whom the conjecture was communicated, kindly furnished fruits from Mr. Sullivant's plants, to complete the chain of evidence, and the information that F. umbilicata had also been rediscovered, last summer, on the Hudson River.

The Manual of Dr. Gray contains five species of Fedia; one an introduction from Europe (F. olitoria Vahl.), and four indigenous. All of them are much alike in general appearance, and amongst the latter especially the resemblance is so great that their specific characters are derived from the fruit alone ; but how far these char

Entered according to the Act of Congress, In the year 1*72, by the Pkabody Acadkmy Of Science, In the Office or the Llbrariun of Congress, at Washington.

AM EH. NATURALIST, VOL. VI. 25 (385)

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acters are constant and reli ible, it will now be mjr endeavor to show, aided by illustrations from the p ncil of Mr. Knipe.

Fedia olitoria Vahl., Fig. 102. Fruit; a, side view ; 6, cross section with the confluent empty cells shaded. The spongy mass (c) on the back of the fertile cell clearly separates this naturalized foreigner from our native species. It differs also Fig. 103. in its more humble and diffuse habit, and the FiK. 10a. pale blue color of its corolla. Fedia Fayopyrum Torr. and Gray. Fig. 103. Fruit (from r West Penn.); a, side view; b, cross section, with the two empty cells shaded. Despite 4 the smaller number of stigmas, » the structural plan of the ovaFedta oiuoria. ry, as seen in the five well-de- * fined dorsal sutures (103 6, s), is quinary. A single ovule is developed and fills up the cavity of Fedia nwoprmm. the three posterior confluent cells. The two anterior sterile cells are compressed laterally, until they almost meet in a sharp angle, making the fruit triquetrous like a grain of buckwheat. Between the sharp edges of the angle a narrow groove (103 6, a) runs from base to apex. In a considerable number of matured fruits examFig, Km. ined, from VVr. Penn. and W. N. York, this groove was found uniformly present. All, too, were Fig^iw. more or less downy under a lens, and in no case were the sterile cells confluent. These are variations from the typical plant as characterized in Gray's Manual, and yet the peculiar shape of the fruit and its large size (two lines in length) will probably enable it to hold its place as a distinct species.

Fedia radiata Michx. Fig. 104. Fruit; radiala. a, side view; 6, cross section, with the two empty cells shaded; c, cross section of another fruit, with the two empty cells confluent. The fruit of this species is much smaller, about a line in length, and usually quite downy, but sometimes smooth.. The quinary structure of the ovary is not so apparent. As in all these Fedias the bracts are more or less strongly ciliated, or perfectly

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Fig. 107.

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naked. In one particular the description should be amended. Under favorable circumstances it often attains the height of thirty inches, and its range of stature is about that of F. Fcujopyrum, one to two feet.

Fedia radiata Michx., var. pnteUaria (F. patellaria Sulliv.). Fig. 105. Fruit (from Columbia, Pa.); a, side view; b, cross section, with the two slightly Fig. ioc>. divergent empty cells

shaded. This small form

varies but little in size

and shape from the fruit

of genuine F. radiqta as

seen in Fig. 104, a and b,

and appears to have been

derived from it by a mod-
erate extension of the

F. radiata v«r.patellaria. Walls of the empty Cells.

Fig. 106. Fruit (from Columbia, Pa.); a, side view; b, cross section, with the two widely di- '• TM*'».w-P'"'''«"«. vergent empty cells shaded. Here the abnormal lateral extension of the walls of the empty cells is carried to an extreme, and they are so flattened in the centre and curved up on the margins as readily to suggest the image of a miniature platter. This is exactly the form of fruit in Mr. Sullivant's plant in Dr. Gray's herbarium. Fig. 107. Fruit (from Columbia, Pa.); a, side view; b, end view I above; c, cross section, with the empty cells shaded. One specimen of Mr. Knipe's last collection has this markable form of fruit throughout, seems to have been produced by the doubling of that represented in Fig. 10G. Two fruits have coalesced by the union of their anterior empty cells, and the dissepiments vanishing have left a single large cell in the middle. On one side the usually fertile cell is empty; on the other, it contains a seed but in some cases all the cells are sterile.

Fig. 108.

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/'. radiata, var. vmbilirata.

Fedia radiata Michx., var. umbilicata (F. umbilicata Sulliv.). Fig. 108. Fruit (from Columbus, Ohio); a, side view; b, another side view, showing the cruciform opening caused by the tendency of the cell in the abnormal expansion of its walls to split along the sutures; c, cross section of the same; r7, side view of a more mature fruit, showing a further enlargement of the opening into the empty cell; e, another side view. As the fruit of the former variety came probably from that of F. radiata, with two empty cells, as seen in Fig. 104 b, so this*may have been derived, by the operation of the same cause, from that of Fig. 104 c, with the empty cells confluent.

In view of the decided disposition toward monstrosity evident in Fig. 107, and the differences of the fruits in size and shape, it is questionable whether F. patdlaria and umbilicata are worthy to stand even as varieties of F. radiata; but, since no typical fruits of the latter have been observed intermingled with the aberrant forms on the same stalk, they may for the present be recognized as such.

MIMICRY IN THE COLORS OF INSECTS.

BY DR. H. IIAOEN.

Having observed that in treating of the interesting phenomena of mimicry, writers have used indiscriminately very different factors, I shall try to give some preliminary ideas which I do not find .published, and which I believe will be useful in explaining this interesting subject.

It will be best to consider the color and pattern separately. There are three different kinds of colors: viz., colors produced by interference of light, colors of the epidermis, and colors of the hypodermis. All three may either be wanting, or all three, or two of them may occur together in the same place.

Colors produced by interference are produced in two different ways; first by thin superposed lamellae, as in the wings of Diptera, Neuroptera, etc., without any other color, as in hyaline wings, or connected with other colors as in the scales of Entiinus and others.

There must be at least two superposed lamella; to bring out

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