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Che Publishers' Weekly.

FOUNDED BY F. LEYPOLDT.

JULY 12, 1890.

The editor does not hold himself responsible for the views expressed in contributed articles or communications.

All matter, whether for the reading-matter columns or our advertising pages, should reach this office not later than Wednesday noon, to insure insertion in the same week's issue.

In case of business changes, notification or card should be immediately sent to this office for entry under "Business Notes." New catalogues issued will also be mentioned when forwarded.

Publishers are requested to furnish title-page proofs and advance information of books forthcoming, both for entry in the lists and for descriptive mention. An early copy of each book published should be forwarded, to insure correctness in the final entry.

“Every man is a debtor to his profession, from the which, as men do of course seek to receive countenance and profit, so ought they of duty to endeavor themselves by way of amends to be a help thereunto."-LORD BACON.

SINCE the "pirating" reprinters have hauled down the black flag, at least to half mast, and entered the English market as buyers from English authors of advance sheets or such " rights" as they could sell, the tables have been turned in several cases, and houses having long-established relations with English writers have met "authorized editions" by reprisals of unauthorized reprints. Naturally, English authors rejoice in the advent of new competitors for advance sheets. who raise the price above the old honorarium, and as they have much less loyalty to their publisher than American writers and are indeed quite in the habit of scattering or alternating their books among several houses, the Lovell combination in particular has succeeded in divorcing several English writers from their old relations. The latest instance in point is that of Mr. Jas. Payn, whose letter to Messrs. Lovell is printed in a communication from them. The Harpers, who had been Mr. Payn's authorized publishers for thirty or forty of his novels, including those best known, sent him the usual honorarium for "The Burnt Million," and the check was not received back until after the appearance of the statement in The Critic as to its sending. Of the thirty-four books which this house had published by authorization of Mr. Payn, seven at least had been reprinted on them recently, hence the reprisal in the case of "The Burnt Million." Such reprisals are nevertheless unfortunate, to say the least, in the present advanced stage of copy

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THE UNITED STATES BOOK COMPANY.

On the 8th inst. was consummated a movement that has been on foot for months-the capitalization of the Lovell Company on a new basis and its transformation into The United States Book Company. The new concern, which filed articles of incorporation with the Secretary of State of New Jersey at Trenton, will have a capital of three and a quarter million dollars, and have its headquarters in New York City. The Board of Directors will be Horace K. Thurber, Samuel Thomas, Chester W. Chapin, Edward Lange, and John W. Lovell, of New York City; Michael A. Donohue, of Chicago; James D. Safford, of Springfield, Mass.; James A. Taylor, of Plainfieid, N. J., and Erastus Wiman. At a meeting to be held in Jersey City on the 12th, the organization will be completed and the officers elected. It is expected that H. K. _Thurber will be President, John W. Lovell Vice-President, and Edward Lange Treasurer.

The company will carry on the business of the Lovell Company, as noted above, with increased capital, which, we understand, has all been paid made with Hurst & Co., Worthington Co., in. Arrangements, it is claimed, have been W. L. Allison, the Alden Book Co., G. W. Dillingham, Dodd, Mead & Co., the Empire Publishing Co., Estes & Lauriat, De Wolfe, Fiske & Co., the Aldine Book Publishing Co., J. B. Lyon of Albany, Donohue & Henneberry, Belford, Clarke Co., J. B. Lippincott Co., the National Publishing Co., and Frank A. Munsey & Co., to stop publishing certain lines of non-copyright books for a certain time. In every other respect the business of publishing will be carried on on the lines laid down by Mr. Lovell during the last six months.

THE USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF

SIGNATURES.

MR. WM. BLADES, previous to his death, commenced a series of "Bibliographical Miscellanies," the first of which is devoted to" The use and development of Signatures in Books." Besign or mark which printers place beneath certain ginning with the definition : Signatures are the

Published by Blades, East & Blades, 23 Abchurchlane, London. 32 pp. dem. Price is 6d.

pages for the convenience of binder, and to distinguish the sequence of the sections (sometimes styled quires or gatherings) which they print "he refers to the origin of these indications: "The doctrine of development and the survival of the fittest has thrown floods of light upon many dark places in the natural history of plants and animals, and I believe the same doctrine may be made equally useful in the study of bibliography. The half-penny newspaper of to-day, with its rotten material and blurred impression, seems, at first, to have nothing in common with the beautiful vellum manuscripts of the middle ages; and yet the one is the true descendant of the other, and it was only by slow degrees that the printer's progeny parted with their family likeness to the aristocratic products of the professional scribe. The survival of the fittest is plainly shown in the development of signatures. The simple consecutive number which is used by modern printers to indicate the sequence of the sheet, is the true survivor of various ways of signing books from the 9th to the 19th century. The chief use of signatures was and is for the binder. Binding is certainly as old as books. Signatures are certainly as old as binders. It is conceivable that the early monastic scribe, who made his own parchment, concocted his own writing ink, copied leisurely, with his own hand, the Bible or Psalter, and, lastly, bound them propria manu, might complete his work without wanting any signature to help him; or, at any rate, might be satisfied with placing a catchword at the end of each section as a guide to the sequence. But when the manufacture of books passed from the monk's scriptorium into the hands of trade guilds, and the increased demand for books caused a great subdivision of labor; and when, instead of one, a manuscript would pass through a dozen workmen's hands before completion, then signatures became a necessity, as much for the scribe as for the binder, as necessary for the collation of the early мs. as for the steam-printed novel of to-day. When printing was invented, no new method of signatures was at first adopted. The Mazarin Bible, for instance, which is a large folio, was printed page by page and signed by the pen at the foot of the first four rectos of each signature, just as if it had been a manuscript. Printers could not, without difficulty, copy the custom of the scribes, and print their signatures at foot, because two or three types at a distance from the body of the page would certainly be broken off by the pressure; so finding the MS. signatures troublesome and often hard to read, they tried the plan of stamping them in with types by hand at the extreme edge, nearly always at foot, though sometimes at the fore-edge. This development was scarcely an improvement, and is only found in a few books from the Italian press of the years 1465-76. Then the printers, instead of handstamping, tried printing them at the very foot, and by the same pull of the press. This plan had no life in it, and it was then that the bright and bold idea struck a Cologne printer to ignore the ugliness and place his type signatures close up to the solid page. The custom soon spread and became general, and curious it is to notice how this slight development has given rise to numerous mistaken arguments on the so-called 'invention of signatures." Mr. Blades therefore "concludes that the idea of books without signatures is a bibliographical delusion." The pamphlet contains much interesting information as to the ori

gin of the use of paper, of the sizes of books and their nomenclature, and the medieval method of signing different forms. He shows that "all sizes being signed alike, the signatures cannot with early printed books be any guide as to size." With the Miscellany are given two fac-simile illustrations-one of a printed book with a written signature, and one with a signature from a type, stamped in by hand.

Mr. Blades had himself put into type, to form four more numbers of the series, an expansion of the paper on "Chained Libraries," which he read before the Library Association last October, and which was then printed in the Library (vol. I, pp. 411-416). The first of these has just appeared, dealing with the well known chained library at Wimborne, which, indeed, suggested the subject to the author. It is illustrated with a woodcut of the library (from a photograph) and of the chains. The other parts, it is stated, will describe other chained libraries in the United Kingdom and elsewhere-particularly that at Hereford Cathedral and the Laurentian at Florence, and will be illustrated with seven photo-collotype plates. In this connection it may be noted that there is a small collection of some half-dozen chained books in the parish church at Minehead; and also a similar collection at Basingstoke, which the churchwardens' accounts show to have been chained as late as 1723. Mr. Blades' third paper in the Library, on Paper and Paper-marks" (pp. 217223), was also intended by him for independent publication in this series, and, it is to be hoped, will be added to it. G.

BOWDLERIZING.

THIS is a term used very frequently in contempt of a prudish attempt to "emasculate" a book. Many of our readers may not be aware of the origin of the expression, and the following from the Book-Lover may supply interesting information as to a term which has well been adopted into the technical vocabulary of the bibliophile. It is, however, somewhat unfair to connect with the word reproach on a man who, from the purest motives, rendered a great service to lovers of English literature and students of Shakespeare:

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Thomas Bowdler was an Englishman, born in 1754 and dying in 1825. He has a well-deserved place in the history of English literature by reason of his "Letters from Holland," published in 1788, a biographical work ("Life of General Villette") published in 1815, and essays "Liberty, Civil and Religious," published the following year. All this was before the publication (in 1818) of "The Family Shakespeare," in which, to quote his own words, nothing is added to the original text but those words and expressions are omitted which cannot with propriety be read aloud in a family." Whatever may be said by book-lovers and Shakespearian critics regarding the unnecessary prudery" of this edition, the fact is that this Family Shakespeare," and the more recent editions following its example, has enabled Shakespeare to be made the subject of general study as could not otherwise have been done. For it is worthy to be noted that when the works of Shakespeare are taken up for study in schools, or in literary clubs, the edition used is more or less an expurgated one. The Shakespeare used in public readings, even the Shakespeare which we see represented upon the stage, omits all that Bowdler omitted.

"

And while our modern household editions retain much that we never quote in public, they omit much that was quite in the spirit of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, but is happily not colloquial in the nineteenth. To the bibliophile the "Family Shakespeare" is of little value. But the Shakespeare that is known, read, and quoted from by the great mass of true lovers of English literature, is the outgrowth of

the first effort at " Bowdlerism."

The Edinburgh Keview, edited at the time by Jeffrey, in commenting upon the "Family Shakespeare," stated that its expurgations included only "those gross indecencies which every one must have felt as blemishes." But this language needs to be qualified. The "gross indecencies of the original Shakespeare are only felt to be * blemishes" as regards the public use of Shakespeare among us of the nineteenth century. It cannot be denied that as a higher literary study, such a study as is made by the few only, the unexpurgated Shakespeare is the best. For without its "gross indecencies" it does not reflect the age in which the "sweet bard of Avon" lived and produced his wonderful plays.

Bowdler made a similar effort with regard to Gibbon's "Decline and Fall," but it was less happy. In his "Family Gibbon" he attempted to purge the world-famous history of that great author" of all passages of an irreligious or immoral tendency," but the result failed to become popular in itself, or to inaugurate a system of expurgations of such a character, and the book is little known and never read. For a wide difference exists between language that is indecent and that which is of an irreligious tendency. The very use of the former carries with it harm. It demoralizes the user and society at large. We would not wish the "gross indecencies" common in the sixteenth century to become current in this century. But the effect of works of an irreligious tendency can be counteracted. To expurgate a passage of such a character from a book, is to send abroad the impression that it is far easier to deal thus with it than to answer it and correct it, and in this way error may be allowed to win a temporary victory over truth. Gibbon is an acknowledged standard, and no expurgated copy is ever used; and yet little harm has come to religion through his sneers at Christianity.

CEMENT AND GLUE TO STICK ON
ANYTHING.

PROFESSOR ALExander WincheLL is credited

with the invention of a cement that will stick on

anything. Take 2 ounces of clear gum arabic, 11⁄2 ounce of fine starch, 1⁄2 ounce of white sugar. Pulverize the gum arabic, and dissolve it in as much water as the laundress would use for the quantity of the starch indicated. Dissolve the starch and sugar in the gum solution. Then cook the mixture in a vessel suspended in boiling water until the starch becomes clear. The cement should be as thick as tar, and kept so. It can be kept from spoiling by dropping in a lump of gum camphor, or a little oil of cloves or sassafras. This cement is very strong, and will stick perfectly to glazed surfaces, and is good to repair broken rocks, minerals or fossils.-Patent Review.

A RECEIPT for a glue that will make leather adhere to iron.-Add about 5 per cent of glycerine to good glue, and just before using add 5 per cent. extract of oak bark or tannic acid. Use thick and hot.—Scientific American.

COMMUNICATIONS.

MR. JAMES PAYN'S EXPLANATION in re "THE BURNT MILLION." NEW YORK, July 8, 1890.

To the Editor of The Publishers' Weekly: DEAR SIR: Mr. James Payn, concerning whose novel, "The Burnt Million," there was lows to our London representative: some discussion a short time ago, writes as fol

"I see in the Critic that it is stated by Messrs. Harper Bros. that they sent me a check for The Burnt Million.' They have omitted to add that I returned it. The world is not yet so happily managed that an author can get paid twice over for the same work. JAMES PAYN."

This statement, from Mr. Payn himself, will doubtless remove whatever erroneous impression may have arisen in the minds of some as to our right in claiming the authorized edition of Mr. Yours very truly, Payn's work. JOHN W. LOVELL CO.

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OLD BOOK CHAT.

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In the sale of valuable books and manuscripts held by Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge on June 14 and three following days we must be content," says the London Athenæum, "with quoting the principal articles. Augustin de la Cibdad de Dios, Ms. on vellum, with superb illuminated borders, executed for the Anti-Pope Benedict XIII. whilst Cardinal de Luna, 210/. B. Mariæ Virginis, Ms. on vellum, with nineteen miniatures, by an Italian artist for Pope Alexander VI., 2007. Audubon's Birds of America, 3007. Bartolozzi and his Works, by Tuer, 60l. wick's Birds, large paper, 20/. Arabian Nights, by Burton, three copies, 22/. 10s., 197., and 177. 75. 6d. Ainsworth's Tower of London, first edition, 127. 5s. Bradshaw's Railway Tables, first edition, 117. Burns' Poems, first edition, 727. Horæ in Usum Romanum, 251. Keats' Poems, first edition, 267. 155. Lamb's Prince Dorus and Beauty and the Beast, first editions, 497. 10s. Hulsius' CollecHubbard's New England, 257. tion of Voyages, wanting three parts, 150/. Kingsborough's Antiquities of Mexico, 251. Thackeray's Snob and Gownsman, 917., and a separate copy of Gownsman, 371. Persian Drawings of Kings, etc., 267. Shaw's Dresses, large paper, 527. 10s. Montesquieu, Temple de Guide, 60l. The result of the sale was 36057. 12s. 6d."

"THE collecting of rare books," says Lord Rosebery, the owner of Mentmore and the Durdans and Dalmeny, with a collection of rare books in each, is a virtue very nearly akin to vice. It is a virtue on which the closest watch must be kept lest it lapse into a moral disease."

THERE seems to be a marked decline of late years, says the London Athenæum,“ in the value of the well-known Abbotsford edition of the Waverley novels, of which a copy was sold for ten guineas in the recent dispersal of Sir Edward Sullivan's library. A few years ago booksellers readily paid from 12 to 14 for a copy. It is not generally known that in printing the book a number of copies were wrongly paginated, but as the sheets were correctly designated at the foot the error escaped detection both by the binder and the public."

THE manuscripts of Wilkie Collins' novels, which we mentioned some time ago, were brought to the hammer at the rooms of Messrs. Sotheby on June 11. They fetched over £1300. The MS. of "The Woman in White" sold for £320;

"The Moonstone," £125; "Armadale," LI01; and No Name," £85. The manuscript of "The Frozen Deep," in Collins' handwriting, with annotations by Dickens, the prompt-book, and the MS. of the story were put up as one lot on the same occasion, and brought 300; while the Ms. of "The Perils of Certain English Prisoners" (the Christmas number of Household Words for 1857) sold for £200.

IN RE the "Hint to Byron Collectors" reprinted from the Publishers' Circular in your issue of June 28, Walter Jerrold writes to the former journal that he has a copy of the fourth edition of the "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers" bound in gray boards, lettered on the back "English Bards, 4th Edition, 6s.," and printed on very thick paper, the watermark of which is "J Whatman, 1805." Mark Cann also writes that he has a copy of the third edition, Cawthorn, 1810, in which the watermarks vary. On the fly-leaf it is 1809, with no name; on page 5 it is E. & P., 1805; across pages 17-31 is J. Whatman, 1805; across pages 37-43 is Edmeads & P., 1807; across pages 53-59 is Edmeads & Pine, 1807; across pages 67-77 is Edmeads & Pine, 1807; page 81, E. & P., 1804. In another copy of the third edition Cawthorn, 1810, the watermark is Pine & Thomas, 1812, throughout.

A PRIVATE despatch by cable, says the N. Y. Times,"announces the death in Paris of Cuzin, the bookbinder, to whom was awarded the highest prize of the last Exposition Universelle. He was sixty years of age. His loss is irreparable for the classicists among the patrons of the art of bookbinding, to whom the anonymous artisans of the Renaissance were creators of perfect models. A contemporary of Trautz-Bauzonnet and Lortic, he was the last of the quatour, with which, in the view of the bibliopegists of the old school, the great art of bookbinding comes to an end. Cuzin did all his work with his own hands, even to the stitching of his pages, esteeming it a duty as sacred as for a painter to let no collaborator intervene, having a high estimate of his art, and disregarding in his devotion to it all pecuniary considerations. He had no pupils, and his elder son is not out of college. Mr. Samuel P. Avery and Mr. C. Jolly Bavoillot have in their libraries admirable specimens of his work, but his masterpiece is his Swan's Song.' It is the binding in dark brown morocco, dotted with skulls and cross, bones in blind-tooling, lined with white vellumframed in a border decorated with the emblems of death, entirely in the style of the sixteenth century, made for Holbein's 'Simulachres.' The book is of the first edition, printed at Lyons in 1538, an uncut copy, measuring 1921⁄2 millimetres, whereas the Rothschild copy measures only 189. Cuzin put his heart into his work. It was sent to him on the 16th of June, 1889, and was finished in time to reach its owner, Mr. W. L. Bennett, of New Haven, Conn., on the 16th of last month, day for day."

NOT THAT KIND OF A COOK-BOOK.A gentle man stepped into one of the enterprising bookstores in New-Jersey a week or so ago and asked for "The Autocrat at the Breakfast Table." The earnest clerk looked very carefully among the cook-books and returned to his customer and said: "We haven't The Autocrat at the Breakfast Table,' sir, but." he added persuasively, "many like this better," and he handed over the counter" Household Receipts."-N. Y. Tribune.

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BUSINESS NOTES. BALTIMORE, MD.-The W. J. C. Dulany Company, of Baltimore City, has purchased the stock, good-will, etc., belonging to the firm of Wm. J. C. Dulany & Co., 8 Baltimore Street, East. The officers of the new company are Wm. J. C. Dulany, President; John M. Dulany, VicePresident; and Adolph Lohmeyer, Secretary and Treasurer. The Dulanys have been established in the book business for nearly forty years and during that time have won the respect and confidence of their brethren in the book trade. The new organization will carry on the business with enlarged facilities and renewed energies. May it succeed beyond its expectations.

COLORADO Springs, Colo.—Mr. Pollen, bookseller and stationer, has removed his stock to the new Leddy building.

DALLAS, TEX.-Kirn, Mitchell & Co., booksellers and stationers, have dissolved partnership. Alfred Holland continues the business in his own

name.

DAYTON, O.-William C. Mayer will continue under his own name the book business formerly carried on under the firm-name of Mayer & Van Sant, Mr. M. W. Vant Sant having retired.

GRANDBURG, TEX.-E. Mergert, bookseller and stationer, has been succeeded by Mergert & Son.

KALAMAZOO, MICH.-Robert L. Parkin and John A. Gibb have purchased the stock of books and stationery of Geo. W. Young.

KANSAS CITY, Mo.-W. R. Hogsett, who has been a partner since 1878 of the firm of M. H. Dickinson & Co., booksellers and stationers, 620 Main Street, has retired. He is succeeded by T. E. Bryant, long and favorably connected with the management of the retail department of the firm. The business will be conducted as heretofore under the firm-name of M. H. Dickinson & Co.

NEW YORK CITY.-The interest in the book business formerly belonging to W. J. Weedon has been purchased by his daughter (Miss Annie H. Weedon), who will carry on the business, adding blank-books and stationery.

NEW YORK CITY.-A. S. Barnes & Co. are removing their stock from their old corner at William Street to the building of the American Book Company, 751 Broadway.

ST. CLOUD, MINN.-W. C. Montgomery, bookseller and stationer, has been succeeded by T. C. Boorn.

LITERARY AND TRADE NOTES.

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS add to their Yellow Paper Series this month Marion Harland's "With the Best Intentions" and Edward Everett Hale's" Philip Nolan's Friends."

D. APPLETON & Co. call attention to the fact

that the price of Sara Jeanette Duncan's book, "A Social Departure," is $1.75, not $1.50, as it appeared in their advertisement in the PUBLISHERS' WEEKLY, July 5.

FREDERICK KEPPEL & Co., N. Y., have published a useful little pamphlet entitled "Suggestions on Framing," advice and hints in regard to the framing and hanging of pictures, written by Frederick Keppel.

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