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THE VALUE OF CLASSIFICATION.*

BY GEORGE ILES.

LIBRARIES have come to have a new value in our day, and while within recent years this value was being conferred, a distinctly new conception of library management has been steadily dawning. It used to be thought enough that a librarian should be able to get books, guard them trustily, and give them out as desired. He was gatherer and custodian. The new idea is, that he shall so vitalize his library that to make his books attractive and useful shall be his chiefest care. Το that end he must know how to order them

and indicate their contents, that the whole capital entrusted to him shall be instantly available for any inquirer's purpose. He must be able to give seekers guidance, have the tact and sympathy to stimulate research, the kindly enthusiasm which promotes study by inviting it to help-department of serials, accompanied by sets of ful stepping-stones. Such men are animating souls, with an influence which stretches far beyond their shelves and cases. With an enlightened demand and appropriate special courses of instruction, a race of librarians is springing up in America and Europe - a race as different from the old-time jailers of books as the banker welcoming his customer differs from the miser defending his hoard.

One of the leading spirits in bringing about modern reforms in library administration is Melvil Dewey, now Secretary to the Board of Regents of the University of New York, at Albany, N. Y. Until 1888, Mr. Dewey was librarian at Columbia College, New York. His predecessor had been the college janitor. When Mr. Dewey's five years of service came to an end, he left the library more than doubled in extent, and in arrangement and management the best in the world. From occupying several inadequate rooms scattered about the building, accessible only a few hours in the week, the books now fill the handsomest hall in New York-a hall perfectly ventilated, sumptuously furnished, lighted by electricity, and open fourteen hours a day. Mr. Dewey, whose organizing mind has in effect created this superb library, is the author of what is known as the "decimal classification" for libraries. According to this ingenious system, literature is divided into ten great departments, each of which is given its numeral. This numeral, which, for example, is 7 for fine arts, is always the first figure in a book's number. The second denotes a subdivision; books on music have numbers, beginning 7, 8; a further subdivision decides the third figure; volumes of vocal music, and works relating thereto, have numbers commencing with 7, 8, 4. These numbers, which can be extended to express any decided minuteness of classification, readily lend themselves to a shelf arrangement, which, while self-explana tory, is the simplest conceivable. At Columbia and the other numerous libraries where the deci mal system is adopted, card catalogues of the ordinary alphabetical kind are used in a supplementary way. When one is hunting down a subject at Columbia, the cross-references given under a special heading name not only books wherein a relevant chapter may be found, but also make mention of helpful pamphlets and available newspaper cuttings. A beginning has been made in another most important direction, that of weighing and assessing the comparative values of books. When a reader can ascertain

* Condensed from the Toronto Week

which authors are most trustworthy, which best for introductory or for advanced study, an economy of effort must result which will double the library's worth. By co-operation between the world's great libraries there is promise that before many years elapse this appraisement of literature will be complete and universal. Under Mr. Dewey's hand nothing about even the make-up of a book was allowed to remain accidental. At Columbia the colors* of the bindings are significant, not as in the British Museum of special subjects, but to declare the language in which a book is written. In the departments of art and science a chronological order is observed in the disposal of books, so that a reader sees at a glance the historical development of navigation or horticulture. As befits a time when so much of the best literature comes out as magazine and review, there is an extensive indexes complete to their latest issues. Throughout the library the intent pursued seems to be that whatsoever a librarian can put into fact or the perfecting of arrangement and indication, so place on record is so put or placed. Cases, however, often arise when one fairly conversant with his books requires to consult a librarian. The result is always most satisfactory. proves courteous, obliging, and thoroughly informed. At Mr. Dewey's instance Columbia College established a department of Library economy; under his instruction, classes, constantly increasing in extent, were prepared for and best methods. His class, now expanded into library management according to the newest a school, has followed him to Albany, where the course annually grows in scope and usefulness. When in New York his off-hand addresses to the college students on the art of reading, the art of remembering and recording, and how to get most out of a library, were attended with an interest rarely won in a class-room or laboratory. In New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Providence, and other American cities, it is now common to find reference lists prepared at the public libraries, for the assistance of students and others attending lectures, or for ordinary readers who have taken up some special branch of history, art or political economy.

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Mr. W. E. Foster, of the Providence Library, has in this way written a complete and most suggestive little pamphlet, which the Society for Political Education, New York, recently published. It gives references to the whole literature of the United States Constitution, its sources, its commentaries and interpretations. Mr. Foster is one of the new generation of librarians, and his pamphlet, while a most notable labor-saver to the student, is a striking objectlesson in the art of reading with a purpose. service of the State, a good many of his friends When Mr. Dewey went to Albany to enter the in New York feared that his usefulness would be sadly diminished. They were mistaken. He has infused new life into the University of New York. That university, it may be needful to say, dates from the foundation of the American Union, and conforms to the same idea of federation. What the Government of the United States is to the individual States which compose it, is the University of New York to the colleges and

* [The Library of Columbia College is not now adhering very closely to the language color scheme; nor to the chronological numbering in science and useful arts, except in botany.-ED. P. W.]

high schools within the borders of the Empire State. Witbout being a teaching body, its purpose is to supervise teaching, maintain high and uniform standards of education, and serve as a means of helpful co-operation between all the institutions under its care. In his new and larger field Mr. Dewey finds the amplest opportunity for his organizing genius and splendid executive ability. It will be sufficient here to set forth his programme, as far as it is in line with his former activities. He finds on the shelves of the State Library 150,000 volumes, and two-thirds as many duplicates. These latter, with the duplicates which have accumulated in other libraries of New York, he is to make useful by a well-devised plan of exchange and sale. Hereafter any school officer in the State can receive by post or express from Albany any book on the shelves of the State Library. Any extract from a legal or other tome will be made for small cost, and, if desired, will be notarially attested as correct before transmission; often saving an expensive journey to a student, author, or lawyer. For villages and small towns he will put into effect an idea which originated in Australia, and which, applied to museum collections as well as to books, has been most satisfactorily tested in Great Britain. This is the selecting of two or three hundred volumes and sending them to a settlement too small to have a local library; there a school-house gives the books shelter, and a teacher gives them distribution. At a year's end they are to be gathered in, and sent to Albany for necessary renewal and repair, when the process will be repeated. In this way even the poorest hamlets will have their schools united to libraries-a union which in every field of education is acknowledged to be vital.

MEN WHO FREQUENT BOOKSTORES.

THERE is no question as to the fact that men are much the same the world over in their vanities and peculiarities, and their weaknesses are always under the lens of some specially critical observer. We doubt, says the editor of the Washington Book Chronicle, published by W. H. Lowdermilk & Co., if a bookstore is not the best possible place in which to witness the varieties of human nature, and a bookseller certainly has made slight use of his opportunities if he has not cultivated that additional sense which enables him intuitively to measure in a few moments the average visitor who questions him as to the books he has to offer. He must exercise much patience when he finds his rare and delicate volumes handled as though they were dime novels, the leaves thumbed and turned with moist fingers, and irreverently tossed back on the shelves; but he finds his recompense in the pleasure experienced when a lover of books takes these same volumes as tenderly as roseleaves, lovingly handling them as things to be cherished, and manifesting an appreciation of their worth both by reason of their rarity and their money value. Doubtless every dealer can fix in his own mind the identity of a limited number of patrons (?) whose purchases foot up a dollar or two a year, yet who occasionally strut into the establishment and loudly declaim," Ah, you have a great collection of books here-a fine collection-but it's dangerous for me; I never can get out of a bookstore without buying." Yes, we know several such, who seldom fail to make this stereotyped expression, but never buy

a book; and they are silly enough to think they are deceiving us. But, bless you, they only make us smile. There is another specimen who walks in in a lazy sort of way amongst the shelves, occasionally punching a book with his walking-stick as though it was a ham, and expressing his admiration for it because his father had one in his library when he was a boy. He does not know just what is inside of it, but he recognizes "the binding and a picture of a bird on the back."

In contrast with some of those above referred to, we have the real book-lovers who linger for hours at a time with their favorite authors, cultivating their friendship to a still greater degree, and learning to know them better than ever. Such men are welcome visitors, be they buyers or not. For one old friend we have always a welcome; he is versed in all the mysteries of book-lore; familiar with languages, and at seventy years blessed with a good memory. Often he will take one of the old classics from the shelf, become immersed in its contents, insensible to all his surroundings, and stand almost immovable for three or four hours at a time, until something occurs to recall him to a sense of time, and then with a sigh he breaks away from his pleasant occupation. Another visitor we know and admire is a high government official, a man of vast learning, thorough cultivation, extended reading, fine memory, and a cheerful enjoyment of everything he reads. Every book he finds is but the continuation of a subject he has before pursued; in every page he is reminded of other pages he has scanned, perhaps years ago, and he is master of all the matters he has taken in hand. He has a fine library at home, and in his head a store of knowledge equal to that contained in his collection of books. This venerable gentleman is en rapport with the best books, and they and he are at home together.

There are occasionally cranky callers, but usually they are harmless; once in awhile comes one who cannot resist the temptation to surreptitiously carry away a book or two; his first offence usually betrays him, and he is looked after when he comes again.

THE AMERICAN NEWS CO. AND ITS BRANCHES.

FROM the last report filed by the American News Co. with the Secretary of State at Albany, N. Y., it is said to appear that the name of said Association is "The American News Company," but that said Association also transacts business under the following names at the places set opposite thereto respectively:

The New York News Company, 20 Beekman Street, N. Y.

The National News Company, 119 Nassau Street, N. Y.

The International News Company, 29 and 31 Beekman Street, N. Y.

The Union News Company, 13 Park Place, N. Y.

The Brooklyn News Company, 194 Fulton
Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.

The Albany News Company, Albany, N. Y.
The Northern News Company, Troy, N. Y.
The Williamsburgh News Company, Brooklyn.
The New York Blank-Book Company, 29 and 31
Beekman Street, N. Y.

The Excelsior Publishing Company, 31 Beekman Street, N. Y.

A RECENT PARAGRAPH IN THE LON- ranged for American reprint. For it must be

DON "ATHENÆUM."
From Harper's Weekly, November 15.

Ar a moment when the old difficulty arising from the want of international copyright seems likely to be adjusted by a friendly understanding between authors and publishers in England and America, acrimonious misrepresentation is peculiarly unfortunate. The statement in the London Athenæum of October 4, regarding certain transactions between Mr. Rudyard Kipling and the Messrs. Harper was inaccurate in fact and wholly unjust in tone and insinuation, and the letter of the New York publishers was a distinct and satisfactory explanation. Mr. Kipling was courteously received when he called upon the Messrs. Harper last year; and the stories which he offered were examined and courteously declined. Subsequently the house published in their Weekly from advance sheets some other stories of Mr. Kipling's which he offered to them by his business agent, and they paid the price for them which was asked.

When these tales were issued in a volume, one story was added, and for this they paid £10, in accordance with their rule of publishing no noncopyright work without payment. It was this 10 which Mr. Kipling returned, and which the Athenæum represents as the sum offered for the whole volume of tales "picked out of magazines," and published without Mr. Kipling's consent. The facts which we have mentioned show how far from the truth is this statement. The Athenæum also says that upon his call in Franklin Square Mr. Kipling was speedily shown the door," and was told that a firm which published "literature of a high class could not trouble itself about such writings as his." This, of course, is wholly a ludicrous invention. Publishers are seldom wanting in personal courtesy, and the declination of a work by a publisher is not a verdict upon its merits. Papers are constantly declined by magazines, not because they are not as good as many that are accepted, but for reasons wholly unconnected with their intrinsic excellence. No editor can publish all that he would like to publish.

In the same way other considerations than those of the merit of the work influence the decisions of publishers. A proposed work, however good, may not promise to be a profitable venture; it may cover ground already occupied ; it may involve undesirable disputes, and even litigation; it may treat subjects remote from popular interest. A thousand reasons independent of essential merit may affect what is, after all, largely a commercial judgment. In the case of Mr. Kipling's stories, their previous publication abroad, and the consequent uncertainty of even a semblance of priority in this country, may have been most properly considered. Certainly the implication that they were declined because of want of merit is wholly gratuitous. In regard to the collection of tales in question, it was not an unfair assumption of the publishers that an author whose terms for certain stories had been fixed by himself and accepted by them would be satisfied with the honorarium offered for another story of the same kind which had already been republished in this country by several daily papers. Undoubtedly, however, even in the absence of an international copyright, it is better not to proceed upon such an assumption, although it may be perfectly reasonable and apparently of advantage to an author who has not ar

borne in mind that if the Copyright Bill now before Congress were passed, reprinting or manufacture in the United States would be a condition of protection by copyright. Mr. Kipling having returned the honorarium tendered him the story for which it was given will be omitted from and there will be substituted for it the story subsequent editions of the volume in question, begun in this number of the Weekly from advance sheets purchased last week from Mr. Kipling's agent. It is certain, however, that a total perversion of facts, which in this case injures a young English author, apparently with the purpose of exciting international jealousy and illfeeling between English and American authors and publishers, is unworthy of the Athenæum and greatly to be deprecated

A FORGOTTEN AUTHOR'S GRAVE.
From Bok's Literary Leaves.

LITERARY fame seems very hollow and shortlived at times. I thought of this as last week I stood at the grave of Seba Smith, the once famous " Major Jack Downing." Forty years ago and he was the most noted political satirist of his day. What he wrote was quoted everywhere, and at great dinners he was the wittiest guest. Abraham Lincoln was his warm friend, and so were Presidents Jackson, Buchanan and Johnson. His intense hatred of political shams and his keen and facile pen made his name renowned. Longfellow was his classmate; William Pitt Fessenden, the "incorruptible statesman," his college chum; Epes Sargent, "the dreamer," his friend. When his volume of "letters," entitled "Way Down East; or, portraitures of Yankee life," appeared, it not only immediately attracted national attention, but Artemus Ward declared him to be the American humorist. had imitators everywhere. His book sold like wildfire. Everybody knew his name. And now? Away back of the quaint and ancient village of Patchogue (Long Island), N. Y., a few miles from "The Willows," the homestead wherein he so hospitably entertained his many distinguished friends-there, in the abandoned, yet picturesque Willow Cemetery, is his grave, forgotten, neglected, and visited by not one person in a year. It is a lonely bed, indeed, where "Major Jack Downing, of the Downingville militia," awaits the resurrection.

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It is just such instances as these which now and then give rise to the question, Why should not America have a literary pantheon? Objections, and plausible ones, can doubtless be raised against such an idea, yet it seems as if some national provision could be made for the care and better preservation of many of our literary graves. Men and women who furnish the literary thought for a nation and mould its intellectual bent, certainly deserve a better tribute to their services than that their graves should not even be given decent care. An author, as a rule, leaves but little behind him to bis family, and what he does leave is needed for the living of the survivors. The families of many of our dead writers cannot afford proper recognition of the deceased, or by distance, care is impossible. It is here that the government should step in, not in the light of charity, but in recognition of merit and good services. With proper restrictions and wise management, a literary pantheon might not be such an impractical thing-for the future dead, if not for the past.

DANIEL SIDNEY APPLETON.

As we go to press the sad news reaches us of the death of Daniel Sidney Appleton, of the firm of D. Appleton & Co. Mr. Appleton retired on Saturday night last in good spirits, apparently as well as usual. Sunday noon he had not arisen, and his daughter, becoming alarmed, went to his door and called him. He answered feebly that he could not get up. Thoroughly alarmed, Miss Appleton despatched servants for Dr. H. Holbrook Curtis and Dr. Nelson H. Henry. When the physicians arrived they at once saw that Mr. Appleton was suffering from a stroke of apoplexy. Dr. Janeway was also called in consultation. After the attack Mr. Appleton was for the most part in a comatose condition. He rallied a little on Wednesday night, and was roused to consciousness for a time, but on Thursday forenoon (the 13th) he breathed his last.

Daniel Sidney Appleton, the son of Daniel Appleton, founder of the publication house of D. Appleton & Co., and the brother of William H. Appleton, the present head of the house, was born in Boston, April 9, 1824. He was graduated from Yale College in the class of 1843, and his popularity among his fellow-students was shown by the fact that he was minor bully" of his class, an office corresponding to that of vice-president, which Mr. Appleton was the last to fill.

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After leaving college he studied law at the Yale Law School for a year, and soon entered upon a business life in the house of D. Appleton & Co. His first important duty was the charge of the London office of the house, in which position he gave much satisfaction to the firm by his intelligent management of its interests abroad for several years. He resided in London two years, returning in 1849 on account of his father's illhealth. On his return to New York he took charge of the manufacturing department after the Appletons established their own printing house and bindery. His thorough knowledge of the business details of bookmaking, and his quickness and acuteness in making estimates and deciding difficult questions, imparted a peculiar value to advice never volunteered, but always cheerfully given. After the death of his father in 1849 he became a member of the firm. The senior member was Mr. William H. Appleton, who remains the head of the house, and the other members were John Adams Appleton, George Swett Appleton and Samuel Francis Appleton. The business was removed from No. 200 Broadway to the old Society Library building, corner Leonard Street and Broadway, and subsequently there were several removals. Of recent years Mr. Appleton's health has not permitted him to take a very active part in the affairs of the house, although he was constantly at his office, even as late as last Saturday.

Personally, Mr. Appleton was singularly unassuming, modest, and most unselfish. His interest in the welfare of others, especially those younger than himself, was a marked feature of his character, which perhaps can be best summed up in the statement that he was truly a gentleman, in the older meaning of that so often misused word.

Mr. Appleton was a member of the Century, Union and University Clubs, and a life member of the New York Yacht Club. He was a director

of the Continental Bank and other institutions. On March 25, 1858, he was married to Malvina W. Marshall, daughter of Charles H. Marshall, who was chief owner of the famous Black Ball line of packets. Mrs. Appleton died on November 3, 1873. On September 8, 1875, Mr. Appleton was married to Sophia W. Lincoln, of Providence, R. I., who died on December 5, 1889. Mr. Appleton leaves a daughter, Malvina, and a son, Daniel Sidney Appleton, Jr., both the children of his first wife. His funeral takes place to-day (the 15th) at the Church of the Annunciation, No. 144 West 14th Street, New York. The interment will be at Greenwood Cemetery.

The members of the house of D. Appleton & Co. at present are Messrs. William H. Appleton, William W. Appleton, Daniel Appleton, and Edward Dale Appleton.

NOTES ON AUTHORS.

MARK TWAIN, it is reported, will for some time to come pay more attention to the development of a type-setting machine in which he is financially interested than to furnishing "copy" for the printer.

DR. GRENFELL BAKER, who was physician to Sir Richard Burton, the translator of "The Arabian Nights," etc., whose death was recently announced, is engaged on a biography of the distinguished traveller.

MR. BLACKMORE has written a special preface for the Harper edition of his "Lorna Doone." It is in verse, and the final lines are these:

"The piper shall be paid! And who shall carp
If harpers let him tap their golden harp?"

lish and American press, that Sir Edwin Arnold THE silly story going the rounds of the Enghas fallen in love with a Japanese maiden and is about to marry her, is authoritatively denied. There is no truth whatever in the story.

MRS. JOHN B. SHIPLEY (Marie A. Brown) during her coming trip to the United States, will give a series of three lectures upon socialism: 1.

No Socialism in Christianity; No Christianity in Socialism." 2. " The Absence of Money." 3. "The Effects of Socialism upon Individuality."

THERE are more people to-day, writes Edward Bok, who believe Herman Melville dead than there are those who know he is living. And yet if one choose to walk along East Eighteenth Street, New York City, any morning about 9 o'clock, he would see the famous writer of sea stories stories which have never been equalled perhaps in their special line. Mr. Melville is now an old man, but still vigorous. He is an employé of the Customs Revenue Service, and thus still lingers around the atmosphere which permeated his books. Forty-four years ago, when his most famous tale, "Typee," appeared, there was not a better known author than he, and he commanded his own prices. Publishers sought him, and editors considered themselves fortunate to secure his name as a literary star. And to-day? Busy New York has no idea he is even alive, and one of the best-informed literary men in this country laughed recently at my statement that Herman Melville was his neighbor by only two city blocks. "Nonsense," said he. "Why, Melville is dead these many years!" Talk about literary fame? There's a sample of it!

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CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS have under way the second volume of H. Morse Stephens' History

of the French Revolution." One more volume will complete the work.

WALBRIDGE & Co., New York, have pub lished "The Story of the Passaic" [N. J.]. by John Alleyne Macknab. It is illustrated with a map and several photographic views.

D. VAN NOSTRAND Co. supply the trade with Bicknell's The Architectural and Building Monthly, the first bound volume of which was noticed in a recent number of the PUBLISHERS' WEEKLY.

THE TRUTH-SEEKER Co., N. Y., will publish next month" Liberty in Literature," the address by Robert G. Ingersoll on the occasion of the testimonial to Walt Whitman at Philadelphia, October 21.

The Seeger & GUERNSEY CO., of New York, bave in press a Spanish edition of their "Cyclopædia of the Manufactures and Products of the United States," for circulation in Mexico, Central and South America.

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trial Partnership, and Co-operative Production, considered as steps out of labor troubles; Recent

Progress in Profit Sharing; The First Duty of the Educated Classes; The Way to Utopia, etc.

W. W. Howe, 157 East 37th Street, N. Y.,

will publish early in December an account of the

battles of Kinston, Whitehall and Goldsboro, North Carolina, in December, 1862. The basis of the volume is the contemporary description in Harper's Weekly, with illustrations and portraits, and the New York Herald report of the eleven days' expedition. Mr. Howe, who is an old bookseller and well known to a wide circle in the trade, has made arrangements with Messrs. Harper & Brothers to use the illustrations, and has compiled the other matter, including also a sketch of General Foster's life. Altogether the book will make a neat souvenir, and to those who participated in the campaign cannot but prove a volume of great interest.

THE late Alphonse Karr was a stickler for the recognition of proprietary rights in literature, only asking, he said, for a law of one sentence, La propriété littéraire est une propriété.”— Trelawny.

THE ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE is about to abandon its "Dictionnaire Historique." This is not to be confounded with the celebrated "Dictionnaire de l'Académie," one of the chief tasks of

its existence.

THE WORTHINGTON COMPANY will publish at "A Boy's History of the United States, the Académie, and probably the only reason for from the discovery of America to the election of Harrison." It will contain a number of portraits, and form the second volume of Our Boy's Library. They have also just issued "A Sister's Love," by Heimburg, translated by Margaret P. Waterman, with several illustrations.

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B. WESTERMANN & Co. will publish shortly the first part of the second volume of Karl Brugmann's Elements of a Comparative Grammar of the Indo-Germanic Languages," treating of word-formation, root-formation and inflection, with additions by the author since the German edition appeared, and with elucidations from the Anglo-Saxon, contributed by the translator, Dr. Conway, of Cambridge, England.

L. R. HAMERSLY & Co., Philadelphia, will publish, on the 20th inst., a volume of stories of military adventure, entitled "The Colonel's Christmas Dinner." The volume contains stories, supposed to be told over the walnuts and wine at a dinner given by the Colonel of a regiment at Christmas, by Capts. Chas. King, Edward Field, H. Romeyn, W. C. Bartlett, Col. H. W. Closson, Maj. W. H. Powell, Lieut. Thos. H. Wilson, Mr. E, L. Keyes, Miss Caroline F. Little and Alice King Livingston. The volume has been edited by Capt. King, and is daintily gotten up.

N. P. GILMAN, the editor of the Literary World, has in preparation a volume entitled "Socialism and the American Spirit." This volume will comprise chapters on The Reaction Against Individualism; Recent American Socialism; The American Social Idea in Practice, as distinguished from Individualism and Socialism; The Field for Social Reform in America; Arbitration, Indus

MACMILLAN & Co. announce an account of the rise and progress of Mahdism and of subsequent events in the Soudan down to the present time, by Major F. R. Wingate, of the Royal Artillery, now serving with the Egyptian army. The book will be illustrated with ten maps.

JAMES R. OSGood, McIlvaine & Co. have just opened luxurious offices at 45 Albemarle Street, London.

One feature of their new establishment is a big reception and reading room where authors, artists and others visiting London will be invited to make themselves at home. It is interesting to know that Osgood & McIlvaine's first contract in London is the publication of Eugene Field's books for English readers. These include all of Field's works, with the exception of Culture's Garland." Mr. Field, according to the London correspondent, has purchased the electroplates of this book and smashed them with a sledge hammer, and desires to buy up the edition and burn it. Holders of the book of course will part with it-by and by.

MR. BERNARD QUARITCH has issued the prospectus of a "Dictionary of English Book-Collectors," from the earliest recorded examples to the present time, somewhat after the scheme of Guigard's "Armorial du Bibliophile." Recognizing the impossibility of completing such a work in a satisfactory manner by individual effort, he makes an appeal to all those interested in the subject to afford him their co-operation, by supplying him with materials that may be within their knowledge. For his part, he undertakes to have the auctioneers' catalogues searched for all the information they contain, and to obtain from sources at his own disposal all the book-plates which may be needed for reproduction. The details required in each case are: the chief dates and facts of the man's life; some specification of the more important and remarkable works which he collected; and a brief account of the fate of his library, tracing the devolution of some of its

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