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are Birmingham, Dresden, Munich, Cologne, Milan; and many of the other cities visited, while of lesser importance, are of considerable size and have pavement problems of interest.

The information contained in the following report consists, first, of statements of observations made by personal visits to the cities described; second, of data as to quantities, prices and opinions obtained by personal visits and by correspondence with the highway officials in the cities or countries visited; and third, of selections for purposes of illustration and comparison of a few of the many reports, specifications, plans, etc., obtained from them. Acknowledgment should be made of valuable letters of introduction obtained through the courtesy of Mr. William Barclay Parsons, Mr. Richard W. Meade, Mr. Knowlton Durham and Professor Arthur H. Blanchard; for introductions and other courtesies from A. H. Stanley, Esq., Managing Director, District Railways, London; M. Georges Loppens, Ingénieur Honoraire des Ponts et Chaussées A. I. G. et Ingénieur du Service Technique de la Province, Liege; M. Jean de Pulligny, Ingénieur en chef des Ponts et Chaussées et Directeur de la Mission Francaise D'Ingénieurs aux Etats-Unis, New York; G. W. Humphreys, Esq., Chief Engineer, London County Council, London, Direktor Walter Josky, Deutschen Teerbeton-Werke, Berlin; W. Rees Jeffreys, Esq., Hon. General Secretary, Third International Road Congress, London; Herrn Kemmann, Regierungsrat der Gesellschaft fur elektrische Hoch- und Untergrundbahnen, Berlin; Professor Luigi Luiggi, Rome; Hon. Charles Denby, American Consul General at Vienna; and in particular to the following officials, among many, who devoted much time and attention to furnishing me with valuable information: London-Frank Sumner, Esq., M. Inst. C. E., City Engineer of the Corporation of London; J. W. Bradley, Esq., M. Inst. C. E., Chief Engineer, City Council, Westminster; Wm. N. Blair, Esq., M. Inst. C. E., Engineer and Surveyor, Borough of St. Pancras; Ernest Van Putten, Esq., M. Inst. C. E., Borough of Lewisham; T. W. E. Higgens, Esq., Assoc. M. Inst. C. E., Borough Surveyor, Chelsea; T. W. A. Hayward, Esq., M. Inst. C. E., Borough Surveyor, Battersea; W. C. Copperthwaite, Esq., Assistant Engineer, London City Council; Liverpool-John A. Brodie, Esq., M. Inst. C. E., City Engineer; Francis E. Cooper, Esq., Assoc. M. Inst. C. E., City Engineer's office; Birmingham—Henry E. Stillgoe, Esq., M. Inst. C. E., City Engineer and Surveyor; J. A. Budge, Esq., Road Surveyor; H. M. Lawson, Esq., Deputy Road Surveyor; Newcastle-upon-Tyne-W. J. Steele, Esq., City Engineer; Edinburgh―J. Walker Smith, Esq., M. Inst. C. E., Local Government Board; James Sim, Esq., City Road Surveyor; Glasgow-Thomas Nisbet, Esq., Assoc. M. Inst. C. E., Master of Works; Thomas Somers, Esq., Deputy Master of Works; Paris-M. Bienvenue, inspecteur général des Ponts et chaussées, chargé des services Technique de la Voie publique et de l'Eclairage et du Metropolitan; M. Le Conte, ingénieur en chef des Ponts et chaussées de 2e classe, adjoint au chef du service; M. Mazerolle, ingénieur en chef des Ponts et chaussées de 2e classe, service du Nettoiement; M. Labordére, ingénieur des Ponts et chaussées de 1re classe, e section; M. Mahieu, Secrétaire général de l'Association Internationale Permanente des Congrés de la Route; Bordeaux-M. Lidy, ingénieur en chef des Ponts et chaussées; Lille-M. Lemoine, ingénieur en chef des Ponts et chaussées et Directeur des Travaux Municipaux; Nancy-Docteur Ed. Imbeaux, ingénieur en chef des Ponts et chaussées, Professeur a l'Ecole Nationale des Ponts et chaussées, Correspondant de l'Institut; NantesM. Michel, ingénieur en chef des Ponts et chaussées; Berlin-Herrn Fr. Krause, Geheimer Baurat, Stadtbaurat; Dipl.-Ingenieur Leon Eberhardt, Ingenieur der Gesellschaft fur elektrische Hoch- und Untergrundbahnen; Berlin-Charlottenburg-Herrn Bredtschneider, Stadtbaurat fur den Tiefbau; Berlin-Steglitz-Dipl.-Ing. Wilhelm Schwenke, Gemeindebaumeister; Berlin-Wilmersdorf den Magistrat der Stadt; Hamburg-Herrn Sperber, Oberingenieur der Frein und Hansestadt; Baumeister Meyer; Milan-Cav. Ty. Vandone, Ingegnere Cape de la Provincia; Ghent-M. Victor Compyn, ingénieur en chef de la ville de Gand; Liege-L'Echevin Louis Fraigneux; Rome-Ing. Guilio Tian.

Besides the figures, reports and information obtained from the above-named gentlemen, much valuable data have been found in the pages of "London Statistics," published by the London County Council and the "Statistiches Jahrbuch Deutscher Städte," as well as the various reports and communications published as part of the Proceedings of the Third International Road Congress. The extracts from reports and specifications have

been selected without any recommendations or express permission on the part of their authors. The originals were given as an act of courtesy on the part of the responsible officials supplying them to illustrate various phases of their work, and they are in no way responsible for any errors which may have arisen in the process of condensation or translation, which has been done by the writer with considerable assistance on the part of Dr. Felix Kleeberg, Chemist of the Bureau of Highways.

In view of the fact that differences of climate and weather conditions may render certain classes of pavement or certain practices, which would be suitable for one town, entirely unsatisfactory in another, it has been thought of interest to include some comparative statistics of weather conditions in the principal cities visited, as well as in New York.

Finally, it should be noted that the numerous illustrations were all made by the writer in the course of the investigation for the purpose of recording actual conditions encountered and are selected from a set of over eight hundred, which it is believed illustrate very fairly the usual and ordinary appearance of all classes of streets in the cities visited. It is hoped that the notes which follow will have at least the value of being based on a careful and nearly simultaneous comparison of the cities described to an extent which it is believed has not been previously undertaken. An attempt has been made, as largely as possible, to avoid deductions from casual observations and to record observed facts with the assistance of explanations given by those best qualified to make them.

HENRY WELLES DURHAM.

CHAPTER I

GREAT BRITAIN

Perhaps the most noticeable feature of the streets of British cities is the uniformity in appearance and usually good maintenance conditions produced under many varying systems.

There was found here no uniform type of organization as in France; no powerful Government authority as in Germany. The public works organizations in all cities appear much less elaborate than those in New York, and the practices and opinions of the authorities differ widely; but the general result, although some cities are much better paved than others, gives an impression to the visitor of prevalent neatness and order. That such an opinion is not universally held by the inhabitants of these cities and that they have their own causes of vexation and complaint was quite apparent from discussions at the Road Congress and in conversations with citizens and officials, the views of many of whom were somewhat characteristically expressed by one, who stated in answer to some criticism about the number of street openings in London that he doubted whether the streets were much torn up, since it appeared to him that the surface was never restored long enough for that to take place.

ENGLAND
LONDON

A complete study of paving methods in London could only be made during an extended period. The city is too vast, its subdivisions too many, and its government too complicated to make possible in a brief survey any attempt at a complete statement of conditions. Even a brief list of the different authorities and their organization and jurisdiction in Greater London would occupy many pages.

Greater London includes the administration of the County of London and portions of the counties of Surrey, Essex, Kent, Middlesex and Herts. The boundaries differ in respect to different classifications, there being one for the metropolitan police district, which is under parliamentary control, and another for the water board; while the jurisdiction of the London City Council, which controls the principal other governmental activities not under local authority is still different. Aside from the above authorities and that of the courts, which comprise the only general control over what is somewhat vaguely defined as Greater London, the local boroughs are considerably more independent and divided in their authority than are those of New York.

London lies on both banks of the river Thames, occupying a generally low, flat plain surrounded by low hills. A large part of this site, formerly marsh land, is now made ground, and the soil beneath the city consists of a series of layers of clay and gravel, rendering foundation problems difficult. Along the lower section of the river are the principal docks, surrounded by the great wholesale and manufacturing district, above which and along a section of the river crossed by frequent bridges, are the centers of financial and business activity. The city has grown on a general radial system from a center comprising the old walled town, but has never been laid out on any plan and includes the most unsystematic and complicated aggregation of streets in existence. No one street has any fixed continuous direction or even uniform width, with the exception of a few of the modern streets, which have been cut through old districts at great expense to open up new traffic avenues. In the central section work is constantly going on widening some of the older and narrower thoroughfares.

There are many municipal tramways, particularly in that portion of the city lying on the south bank of the Thames, but a large part of the street passenger traffic is carried in over 3,000 motor omnibuses, which run on some 125 different routes throughout the entire city, paralleling the municipal tramways in many cases. More rapid transit to the outlying districts is provided by a circulating and radial system of underground railways at various levels.

On account of its irregular plan or lack of all plan, taken in combination with its enormous population and business, the streets of London have probably the heaviest

and most complicated traffic in the world, rendering proper pavements of more importance and of more difficulty to construct than in any other place. The railroad passenger traffic enters the city through a dozen or more terminal stations lying at a distance, in most cases, of a mile or two from the center of activity, distributed around the circumference of a circle described by the inner line of the metropolitan district railway. This condition adds to the amount of street traffic in cabs and carriages. In the same way freight is received at a number of equally distributed terminals, and while there is a greater amount of freight distributed to the docks by rail than in this country, yet there is also a vast amount of heavy trucking through the city streets.

Any radical improvement of the city plan is now out of the question, and minor improvements of street widening and opening of new streets are carried out only with extreme difficulty and at great expense. The consequence is to be expected that more attention has been given to street conditions in general than in any other place, and it is to be expected that results which have been found satisfactory there are worthy of study.

What is popularly termed London consists of the old City of London, having its own government entirely independent from the remainder of the city, comprising about one square mile of the original area within the city wall and containing the principal financial and legal activities; the City of Westminster, immediately to the westward, comprising the district containing the Government buildings and part of the wealthier residence district, and 28 other metropolitan boroughs: the city being governed by the City of London Corporation; Westminster and the others by borough councils.

Under the direction of the London County Council are supposed to be all municipal activities, other than the work of the metropolitan water board and metropolitan police, which affect the city as a whole. There are 137 members of the Council elected from electoral divisions throughout the city. This board controls the system of main drainage; fire brigade; parks and open spaces; bridges, tunnels and ferries; the Thames Embankment; piers; public control and health, etc. In so far as its jurisdiction affects the city streets, it will be seen from the above that it has control of the pavements on the Thames bridges, (other than those of the City) and in the tunnels-two of which are in operation for street traffic-as well as of the Victoria Embankment; while it also has authority over the streets of the different boroughs in so far as its sanction must be obtained on all extra loans for paving purposes. Such paving as can be done within their regular annual rates, however, is within the immediate jurisdiction of the borough councils. The loan period authorized by the Council for the different boroughs is entirely dependent on the class of work proposed and is no greater than the estimated life of the pavement, varying from ten to twenty years. At the present time the latter period is allowed where a foundation of 12 inches of concrete is to be employed, which in London is regarded as the desirable maximum. The collection of the local tax rate to meet these loans, as well as their ordinary expenses, which include paving, lighting, street cleaning, etc., is in the hands of the borough councils.

For the control of its engineering activities the County Council maintains an office organization headed by a chief engineer, with the necessary assistants and such construction and maintenance organization as is demanded by the operation of the various activities listed above. The amount of pavement directly controlled by the Council is not extensive. That on the bridges is either wood or granite block, being in general similar to the streets approaching them. As in this country, the paving of the street railroad tracks and the territory immediately adjacent to them is a charge on the operation of the railway and, consequently, this must be taken care of by the London County Council, which controls all the tramways of London. Either granite or wood block is usually employed in and between the rails in all paved streets.

The most important street under the direct control of the Council is the Victoria Embankment, which is a broad roadway connecting the City of London with the Houses of Parliament along the north bank of the Thames over the tunnel containing the metropolitan district railway. The street is practically a parkway with a wide footpath adjacent to a retaining wall on the river side, next to which are two tramway tracks paved with granite blocks, then a roadway for ordinary vehicular traffic of about 45 feet, then another wide footway on which fronts a series of great buildings, hotels, etc., with wide

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parkways between them and the street. It is planted with shade trees. The surface was originally macadamized, but since the year 1905 has been resurfaced in various ways during a series of experiments, the roadway being almost entirely asphalt at the present time. It has considerable traffic, that for the current year being over 12,000 vehicles in an easterly and 5,000 in a westerly direction daily against a total of 8,700 five years previously.

In addition to the Embankment and the bridges are two tunnels, in order to give direct communication between the city on opposite banks of the river along the harbor below the Tower Bridge, where, on account of the nature of the traffic, bridges would not be expedient. These are the Rotherhithe and Blackwall tunnels. The traffic of the former amounts to over 2,000 vehicles per day, and of the latter 1,600. The carriageway in these tunnels is about 16 feet in width and is paved with granite blocks. An idea of the wear of such concentrated traffic on the heaviest granite is gained by noting the fact that in the Blackwall tunnel, which was paved just six years ago, the pavement is worn out and ready for replacement. On account of the necessary tendency of vehicles to track, the wear is probably more severe than on any street surface. Table I (below) taken from “London Statistics,” gives the total mileage and annual expenditures on the London streets. It indicates the extremely complicated subdivisions controlling the streets of London. In the Appendix will be found a more detailed statement as to the limits of control exercised by the various authorities and some abstracts from their reports. TABLE OF TOTAL MILEAGE AND EXPENDITURES ON THE LONDON STREETS

Public Roads and Expenditure upon MainteStreets Maintained nance and Repair—Other by the Local

than out of Loans-Cleansing Authorities

Scavenging and Watering Per Sq.

Per Mile Length Mile of Area Amount

of Street Miles Miles City of London...

48.5 46.1

$482,102.28 $9,939.70 Battersea....

72.4 21.5

214,889.76 2,969.46 Barmondsey.

69.0 29.4

154,645.20 2,240.46 Bethnal Green.

40.3 34.0

86,342.76 2,143. 26 Camberwell.

118.0 16.9

240,011.10 2,040.34 Chelsea..

34.7 33.7

118,749.24 3,421.44 Deptford.

50.5 20.7

75,310.56

1,492.02 Finsbury.

38.0 41.3

106,788.78 2,809.08 Fulham.

62.1 23.3

122,462.28 1,973.16 Greenwich.

61.9 10.3

107,717.01

1,639.88 Hackney..

106.5 20.7

232,386.18

2,191.86 Hammersmith

52.3 14.6

97,034.76 1,756.52 Hampstead..

62.0 17.5

176,505.48 2,847.96 Holborn..

27.1 41.2

138,053.16 5,287.68 Islington.

124.0 25.7

289,165.14 2,332.80 Kensington.

91.0 24.4

282,212.58 3,168.72 Lambeth.

151.4 23.7

400,687.56

2,648.70 Lewisham.

120.0 10.9

229,426.02

1,909.98 Paddington

59.9 28.3

258,741.54

4,320.54 Poplar.

64.3 17.7

161,065.26

2,502.90 St. Marylebone.

60.0 26.1

335,655.90 5,593.86 St. Pancras.

86.0 20.4

351,645.30

4,092.12 Shoreditch.

43.0 41.8

130,306.32 3,032.64 Southwark.

65.0 36.8

303,997.86 4,680.18 Stepney.

91.4 33.1

385,524.36 4,218.48 Stoke Newington

26.1 19.3

53,478.58 2,050.92 Wandsworth.

184.0 12.9

393,596.82 2,138.40 Westminster..

99.0 25.3

687,578.22

6,944.94 Woolwich.

76.6
5.9

178,167.60 2,454.30 2,184.0 18.7 $6,800,247.64 $3,120.00 $3,203,060.12 of this was for maintenance and repair—and towards this cost $455,615.28 was received, viz.: $364,495.14 from companies and private persons for the reinstatement of roads, streets and paths broken up-$10,735.74 from the London County Council- $11,173.14 from other local authorities and $109,211.26 other receipts.

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