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Appointed by Board of Trade. By Port of London Authority. By City of London Corporation. By County Councils—London (3); Berks, Bucks, Herts, Middlesex, Oxford, Surrey (1 each); Glou
cester and Wilts (1 together). By councils of boroughs-Abingdon and Wallingford_(1 together), Henley-upon-Thames, Kingston-upon-Thames, Oxford,
Reading (1 each). By councils of boroughs and urban districts combined-Borough of Windsor and Eton Urban District (1), Borough of Maidenhead and Marlow Urban Dis
trict (1). By groups of Urban District Councils Egham, Staines, Chertsey, Weybridge, Walton, Sunbury (1), East and West Molesey, Esher and the Dito tons, Surbiton, Hampton,
Hampton Wick, Teddington (1). By Metropolitan Water Board. The term of office of members of
the Thames Conservancy Board The chairman is chosen from
among the members. He holds
office for 1 year. Appointed by the London County
Council. By other County Councils—Essex, Kent, Middlesex, Surrey and
Herts (1 each). By cities of London and West
minster (2 each).
is 3 years.
Method of appointment,
term of office, etc. By Borough Councils—West Ham (2), East Ham and 27 metro
polutan boroughs (1 each). By Urban District Councils—Leyton, Walthamstow, Tottenham
and Willesden (1 each). By joint committees of borough
and Urban District Councils. By Thames and Lea Conservan
cies (1 each). The term of office of a member
of the Water Board is 3 years. The chairman and vice-chairman
may be chosen from within or without the Board. If chosen from within the Board no casual vacancy is thereby created.
They hold office for 3 years. The ordinary constitution of the
Port Authority is to be as follows, but special provisions apply to the first authority (see below.). Elected by payers of dues, wharf
ingers and owners of river craft. Elected by wharfingers. Appointed byThe Admiralty. The Board of Trade. The London County Council
(2 being members of the Council and 2 not being members of the Council). City of London Corporation
(í being a member of the Corporation and 1 not being
a member of the Corporation). Trinity House.
Port of London Author
The term of office of a member of
the Port of London Authority
is 3 years. The chairman and vice-chairman
are appointed by the Port Authority from within or without their own body. They
hold office for 3 years. The chairman and vice-chairman
and the chairman of any com
mittee may be paid. ( Under the special provisions re
ferred to above, the Board of Trade have appointed to the first Port Authority, the Chairman, 18 members in place of those to be ordinarily elected, and one additional member experienced in dock management.
The members of the first Port
Authority will go out of office
on 1st April, 1913. Appointed by the Crown (Home
Commissioner, 4 assist
ant commissioners and receiver.
Street maintenance. The streets in the Administrative County of London are maintained by the metropolitan borough councils and the City Corporation. The boundaries between boroughs generally run along the middle of the roadway, but for purposes of streetpaving, etc., the road or street is divided transversely at an agreed point (subject to the approval of the London County Council) and each of the adjoining boroughs becomes responsible for the maintenance of the entire width of one section of the roadway. The London County Council maintains the roadway of the county bridges, the Thames tunnels and the Victoria-embankment.
New streets.-By-laws may be made by the London County Council under the Metropolis Management Act, 1855, sec. 202, regulating the laying out of new streets. Under the by-laws made in 1857 the minimum width of a new street intended for carriage traffic is 40 feet, or for foot traffic 20 feet; every street is required to have two entrances of the full width of such street and to be open from the ground upward. A greater width than 40 feet, but not exceeding 60 feet, may be required by the County Council where a street, situate more than 2 miles from St. Paul's Cathedral, is likely to form part of an important line of communication. New streets are usually made up and paved by the metropolitan borough councils, the cost being recovered from the owners of the property having frontage to the street.
Street nomenclature.-The consent of the London County Council must be obtained to any name which is proposed to be given to a new street, and the Council may make an order altering the name of any street and the numbering of the houses in any street. One month before making an order altering the name of a street the Council is required to notify the local authority of the proposed alteration, and also to give notice to persons affected by the proposal.
Subways.—The council has adopted the policy of providing subways under all new streets constructed under improvement schemes, and has obtained power to require any company to transfer its pipes into the subways, at the cost of the Council, and subject to an annual rent for user. Particulars of the London County Council subways in various streets are given in London Statistics, vol. xvi., p. 337; the total length of these at the present time is 6 miles 1440 yards. The cost of construction of the subways is not separable from the cost of the street improvements in connection with which they were made. It is not possible, therefore, to give the charge for interest and repayment. The cost of inspection, cleaning, etc., in 1910-11 was £747 and the charges to companies for the use of the subways amounted to £2868.
The Council has also certain powers in connection with subways constructed by underground railway companies in London, both for the reception of mains, pipes, etc., and for the use of foot passengers at certain congested points. At the present time passenger subways constructed by the local authorities exist at the Bank, the north end of Blackfriars-bridge, and the "Elephant and Castle." There are also railway, subways available for the public at Charing Cross and the junction of Tottenham Court-road and Oxford-street.
Street improvements of more than local importance--termed "county improvements”—are generally carried out by the London County Council. They are usually authorized by special Acts of Parliament. In some cases, where a "county improvement” possesses also local characteristics, a contribution towards the net capital cost is made by the borough council of the district in which it is situate. Some part of the gross cost is recovered by the letting or sale of land not required for the formation of the new street, and this is termed "recoupment.” When property adjacent to the improvement is considered likely to be substantially and permanently enhanced in value in consequence of the improvement, provision