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For the scarifying and relaying of the pavement over pipe channels in way of the rails, etc., the contractors receive special remunerations amounting for the scarifying of surfaces of concrete up to 60 square yards in area to $0.60 per square yard, and for surfaces larger than this to $0.40. The price for relaying concrete surfaces of 8 inches in thickness is $1.00 per square yard for surfaces up to 120 square yards in area, and $0.70 per square yard for larger surfaces, with additions of $0.05 and $0.03% respectively per % inch of thickness beyond the 8-inch. The scarifying of the asphalt is done without charge, the contractor being free to dispose of the material. For the relaying of the asphalt carpeting, rates graded according to standard sketches are arranged. Surfaces that are not more than 55 yards apart count as one surface. If a larger amount results for a surface than would be payable for the lower-limit surface of the next higher grade, this latter surface and the remuneration laid down for it are made the basis of the charge (see illustration). For larger surfaces of more than 1100 square yards the price for new work is charged. The scarified and relaid surfaces at once become objects of liability for maintenance again, just as if the street in question had not been broken up, but had remained in its previous undisturbed condition. When the asphalt pavement is completely renewed on account of the construction of underground railways, large-sized drains, and such-like, the

Complete Prices.

$205.80
$184.80

$264.00

252.00

relaying is regarded as new construction, and the pavement must then be maintained for four years without charge.

The contractor cannot claim extra remuneration for subsidences above pipe channels. For damages caused by force majeure or exceptional upheavals and subsidences of the foundation, the contractor is not responsible, but he is so, for those that arise through the watering of trees, through shocks produced by the discharging of goods from wagons, etc.

After the lapse of 19 years, the maintenance of the asphalt carpeting is made over to the firm in question for 10 years longer. The prices are then increased from $0.10 to $0.12 per square yard per annum for the side carriageways and ways not occupied by lines of rails, and from $0.15 to $0.25 per square yard per annum for the permanent way. Finally the rate of maintenance is increased from the 30th to the 40th year from $0.12 to $0.14. Since the contractor has to main. tain not only the asphaltic carpeting but also the concrete, the agreements can be indefinitely prolonged. Should, in the course of years, the condition of the concrete bed have become deteriorated to such an extent that its renewal is necessary, the contractor must, according to the above arrangement, effect this just as he does that of the asphalt carpeting. The great advantage of the whole system lies in the fact that the contractor can never free himself from his agreements, and it is accordingly a matter of supreme interest to him to provide only good material and unexceptionable work. On his part, he has the certainty of work at fixed prices. The good condition of the asphalt streets shows that the method has proved successful.-(Zeitschr. f. Transportwesen u. Strassenbau, Nov. 1, 1913.)

THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF BERLIN

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1911

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2. Paving Material
(Comparative table on page 5 of maintenance of street pavement.)

The area of paved roadways of the city street-in respect of footways see paragraph VI-was at the close of the fiscal year as follows:

sq. yds.

1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 sq yds. sq. yds.

sq. yds.

sq. yds. 7,779,986 7,858,027 7,992,392 8,103,815 8,171,899 Asphalt..

3,211,180 3,308,863 3,443,695 3,544,462 3,590,514 Wood..

149,303 151,219 155,584 162,493 163,070 Stone, Ist to 3d class.

4,016,398 4,020,635 4,027,598 4,058,893 4,095, 109 Slag block....

149 Cement macadam.

4,732 7,572 8,353 8,966 8,966 Tar macadam...

1,986 Kleinpflaster on concrete.

179 179

179
179

740 Total with the best class of material...

7,381,941 7,488,258 7,635,409 7,774,993 7,860,385 Of the total area paved this is.. 94.96% 95.30% 95.53% 95.95% 96.19% With poorer classes of stone there

were: From the 4th to 5th class. 240,301 231,739 231,092 214,178 206,618 From the 6th to 8th class.

151,746

137,810 125,891 113,643 104,897 Asphalt Pavement In the fiscal year there were constructed 49,260 square yards and 3210 square yards were removed.

of the areas existing on March 31, 1912 (shown in the above table) there are maintained by contractors, street railway companies, etc., 971,681 square yards and maintained by the city 2,618,831 square yards.

In regard to the award of asphalt contracts, to prices and to maintenance of asphalt pavements during the first fifteen years after construction reference is made to the previous year's report.

Wood Pavement There was finished in the year 1911, 1842 square yards, while 1265 square yards were removed, so that the total area of wood pavement at the close of the fiscal year remained 163,070 square yards. Of this there was under maintenance by contractors, street railway companies, etc., 86,125 square yards and maintained by the City, 76,955 square yards.

Since the previous year, the area paved with foreign hard woods has in. creased only slightly, so that the total percentage of hard wood, about 30 per cent. of the total wood paved area (above stated) remains unaltered.

Regarding the previously laid foreign hard wood pavements, reference is made to the reports of 1909 and 1910 together with the supplement. In the fiscal year the following was done:

Depth of Class
Location

Area block of wood Source
Bridge approach in the Old Jacobstrasse. . 256 5 inches Tallow Australian
Previously constructed areas laid with hard
wood have a total of...

49,055 Making a total to date paved with foreign hard wood of....

49,310

Cement Macadam As regards the wearing qualities of this class of paving material, reference is made to an article in the reports for 1908 and 1909; also the previously men. tioned repairs with gravel material have been so slight that the maintenance of this class of pavement in the Kesselstrasse during 1912 has been carried out by the use of mastic asphalt. New areas have not been undertaken. The total area inclusive of 18,290 square yards on causeways was, as in the previous year, 27,257 square yards.

Kleinpflaster in Cement Respecting the kleinpflaster in cement constructed in 1897 at the intersection of Andreas and Blumenstrasse, reference is made to the report for 1900. In addition to this there are 561 square yards at the Greifenhagener Bridge.

Stone Block On the first of April, 1911, there was completed, including the previously noted kleinpflaster in cement, the following total......

.4,386,715 sq. yds.

Sq. yds. Sq. yds. For the yearNewly constructed..

61,590 Removed..

41,581

20,009

The total area was consequently increased by the difference..
Making the total at the end of the year....
Of the above under maintenance by street railway companies, etc..

4,406,724 1,031,790

And by the City....

3,374,934

In respect to the contracts for stone pavement, as well as the corporation undertaking stone paving, reference is made to the report for 1909 and for 1896 and 1897.

There were constructed in the year 1911, 26,546 square yards of stone pavement, of Swedish granite blocks. The prices of the stone were as follows:

IN THE FISCAL YEARS

[blocks in formation]

In the construction 55,249 square yards of old stone, as well as 1089 cubic yards of foundation broken stone, were employed. 10,326 square yards = 2237 cubic yards of old paving stone removed from the street surface was broken up for foundation or broken stone; and 132 square yards of new paving stone, as well as 31,127 square yards 6744 cubic yards of old paving stone, 70 cubic yards of mosaic stone and 44 cubic yards of foundation and broken stone were sold to private or other parties. At the close of the year there were in the store yards 18,260 square yards of old paving stone as well as 4458 cubic yards of foundation and broken stone, having a total value of $14,552.26.

The receipts from the sale of old paving stone to private and other parties, as well as on other city undertakings, amounted in the fiscal year to $29,035.52.

In the following table the amount on hand at the beginning of the year, the increase, reduction, and the amount at the end of the year for each class of stone block is as follows:

[blocks in formation]

Value of the stone, etc., including the cost of removal of stone including transportation and storage.

EXPENDITURES FOR

RECEIPTS FOR
MATERIAL

MATERIAL

[blocks in formation]

3. Paving Construction

(a) New Paving In regard to the general construction the following is added to the information given in the report of 1909:

The cost of the original paving of highways, including materials of construction, is levied in accordance with Section 4 of the statutes of July 1, 1906, enacted between the 20th of June and the 20th of September, 1906, as follows:

(a) A square yard of stone pavement in streets with solid foundation paved in the year 1907, $3.18; 1908, $3.04; and 1909, $3.16; for streets with gravel foundation paved in the year 1907, $2.87; 1908, $2.76; 1909-1911, $3.38.

(b) Per square yard of asphalt, $2.57; Swedish fir, $3.28; hard wood, $4.04; for the streets which were paved with the above classes of material during the years 1909 to 1911, while for those streets paved in the years 1907 and 1908 the prices per square yard are: asphalt, $2.62; Swedish fir, $3.53; hard wood, $4.68.

Further, in the accounts there is charged for the cost of drainage, $5.12; for lighting arrangements in the years 1906 to 1908, $0.37; from 1909 to 1911, $0.42 per lineal foot of street frontage.

Expenses for new paving:

1907
1908
1909
1910

1911 In accordance with

the budget... $208,195.20 $224,179.92 $177,654.48 $66,616.32 $78,880.32 These expenditures are offset by:

1907
1908
1909
1910

1911 (a) Receipts for old

material, etc..... $7,061.76 $7,950.00 $1,778.88 $2,502.96 $4,697.76 (b) Contributions

from street rail-
ways....
$13,313.28 $6,660.96 $10,592.64

$7,177.20 By means of the extra budgetary contributions the following amounts were raised for new paving:

1907
1908
1909
1910

1911
$64,096.56 $82,635.84 $63,356.16 $52,919.52 $49,776.48

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