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2. The kettles containing the filler are warmed uniformly by means of a peat fire; care is to be taken that the fire does not get too warm.
3. The kettles are to be filled 4 full with the filler, which is broken up into pieces of 6 inches in length.
4. As soon as the mass is fluid, it should be stirred thoroughly.
5. The filler is not to be heated higher than 180 degrees C. to prevent boiling and overflowing of the kettle. If the filler were to be boiled, the mass would harden due to the volatilization of the lighter oils. Dense yellow fumes are a sign of overheating. The melting point of the filler is 70 degrees C., and it should be heated only to make it fluid.
6. To test the filler before using it, a thin test piece is made by pouring the warm filler on a wet plate. The cooled test piece shall stretch under a uniform pull, but can break if pulled suddenly. To insure proper ductility, creosote oil shall be added in sufficient quantity. The creosote added is usually 2% of the filler. The boiling point of creosote is about 205 degrees C.
7. The filler, when ready for use, shall be taken from the bottom of the kettle with dippers, and never from the top.
8. The kettle shall not be allowed to be empty during the work, but shall be filled up and the mass should be stirred thoroughly.
9. The filler is to be transferred to the pouring vessels very carefuly to prevent any loss of material.
10. The kettle should be emptied before cooling. The cooled filler may be used again.
11. The kettle shall be cleaned from time to time, when cold, by chipping the material with hammers. This chipped-off material is not to be used.
12. The joints are to be cleaned with a stream of water before filling in such a way that a joint of 2 to 24 inches is obtained.
13. The joints shall be thoroughly dry before filling, and the filling of joints in which water stands shall not be allowed.
14. The filler shall completely fill the joints but shall not be higher than the pavement. Any shrinkage shall be corrected later.
Pains are to be taken to inconvenience the public as little as possible, and special care has to be taken in setting up the kettles. The place of construction has to be closed for traffic and planked so as not to soil the clothing and shoes of pedestrians. The greatest care has to be taken in breaking up the filler, so as not to endanger pedestrians through flying chips. The street is to be sprinkled with sand before opening it to traffic.
16. The kettlemen receive a premium of $0.12 per day. They are under the jurisdiction of the kettle master or superintendent, and are foreman of the gangs and responsible for the carrying out of the directions given to them. In all large constructions the kettlemen have to start early enough to allow the filling to be started at the regular fixed hour.
Hamburg, March, 1910.
SPERBER, Chief Engineer.
CITY OF HAMBURG
DEPARTMENT OF WORKS. FIRST SECTION. OFFICE OF THE ENGINEER
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR THOSE AWARDED CONTRACTS FOR PAVING WORK
1. Extent and Description of the Work
The extent or the nature of the desired work is described in the special agreement. Attached to the special description are the plans showing the elevations of the surface and the levels of the pavement above the surface, the grades and the cross-sections. In addition to the aforesaid description of the work comprised in the undertaking, any increased or diminished quantities arising, for example,
due to the joining of neighboring paved areas, shall be paid either by total sum by award in a supplementary contract of established unit prices by the Highway Department or by separate previous agreement paid in accordance with an allowance made.
To the work of the Contractor belong: the breaking up of the old pavement and the old curb as well as the removal for the purpose of sorting the stones into useful and useless material; the removal of pavement foundation; the unloading of old material and excavated earth; the leveling, ramming and watering of the subsurface; the unloading of all new paving material; the laying and ramming of stone block; the transportation of foundation material on the paving bed; and the mixing and placing of concrete and of mortar; if necessary, also, by order of the Department of Works: the transportation of earth for the pavement foundation: the conveyance of excess materials of construction from the point of deposit to the place where they are to be employed; the placing and ramming of stone; the grouting of the pavement; the pouring of asphalt for paving surface; the supplying of complete outfits of tools; the completion of unfinished work; the guarding and the lighting of the site of work and the materials of construction; clearing away all construction materials after the completion of the work.
Included in the work of repaving also the Contractor has to undertake the smooth surfacing of stone pavements by poured asphalt pavement.
The Contractor is not required to supply: the furnishing of wagons for going and coming with supplies of material to the Contractor, which will be delivered free on the work. Moreover, the construction of footways is not herein included.
For the inspection of paving an official of the Department of Works will be detailed whose orders must be carried out. Under the same direction also is included: the exact disposition relative to the work of the various classes of labor employed at any time; and especial attention is in this direction to be given for the complete cooperation with the work of the management of wires and of street railways, as well as the arrangement of all possible contingencies due to weather which may delay the pouring of asphalt.
3. Maintenance of Traffic
The street will, during the work of paving, be closed by the police authorities against through traffic (with the exception of tramway traffic), but the Contractor must so arrange his work that the closing of the streets or each section off the street shall last for the shortest possible time and that a possibility of approach to abutting property will be maintained.
Street crossings of intersecting streets must be so divided for the work of paving that the closing of wagon traffic in the outlying streets shall not occur. The Contractor has also to so arrange his work in all respects that the neces sary reconstruction of sidewalks shall leave a proper footway.
An unobstructed and direct way for the public across the footway and across the street must also be provided by the Contractor during the work.
The request of any resident during the closing of the street for access to any particular locality for the purpose of removals, or funerals, or other cause, by means of a wagon to go to any house or any existing entrance, shall be allowed in as far as is possible. At all times in the interest of traffic when the department gives any orders, the Contractor must immediately carry them out.
4. Care of Laborers
The Contractor on the work, in conformity to the Senate Order of December 17. 1909, relating to the protection of workmen employed on excavation against
danger to life and health, is obliged to make necessary provisions. The Contractor has particularly to provide such resting places and necessary conveniences for labor as are prescribed in Articles 58 and 59 of this order at his own cost, both for furnishing and maintenance.
5. Provision of Tools
The necessary tools for carrying on the work, with the exception of a watermeter supplied with hydrant connections and necessary key for the taking of water from the line of the city water-mains and the apparatus for pouring asphalt on the pavement, must be furnished by the Contractor. For all damage to the hydrant connection used by him and for the necessary tax for hydrants used, as well as for tools for paving, the Contractor is responsible.
In the construction of pavement on concrete foundation or with cement mortar, the Contractor must provide the requisite store-room for the purpose of insuring the dryness of the cement.
6. Fencing, Lighting and Guarding of the Work
The Contractor has to provide for the safe fencing, lighting and guarding of the work, as well as materials, and is accountable for all damage which may be caused to the city or any third person through the insufficient fencing, lighting or guarding. The necessary material for fencing, as well as lanterns, must be furnished by the Contractor.
The works stated in the special agreement to be undertaken by the department will be carried out only in closest cooperation with the related paving work.
The Contractor must concern himself with the adequate compliance with all matters relating to the department, so as to give immediately any orders required by the Department of Works. Small openings, which are not named in the special agreement, particularly the case of any opening of manholes or pits, work for water plugs or hydrants, gas drip cocks, switch boxes for electric wires, etc., must be allowed by the Contractor to be done during the performance of his work without making any claim for compensation on account of any injury or delay to his contract.
8. Material Supply
All the necessary material for the construction of pavement will be delivered without cost on the part of the Department by the Contractor, and whenever required on the work; where the circumstances of the layout of the Contractor's work permit, this to be done without extra teaming. In case wagons must leave the paved road, the Contractor must provide by laying any necessary planking off the work whereby transportation can be carried on without difficulty by the teams. A passageway on the existing surface can not be used for wagons, and carts can only be used in such way by providing some form of planked wheelway. The unloading of material is part of the work of the Contractor, but the driver is obliged to assist in this in the usual manner.
In the unloading of stone the greatest possible care must be used. Cut stone blocks must not be thrown but be passed from hand to hand and carefully piled. The Contractor will be accountable for all damage to stone caused in its unloading and transportation.
The necessary water for paving will be furnished to the Contractor free of 9. Breaking up, Sorting, and Removal of Old Materials
In new work or the repaving in previously paved streets, the Contractor has to break up the old pavement, including the curbstone, and has also the carrying out of the necessary loading of the wagons ordered by the Department. Furthermore, the Contractor must, after the breaking up of the pavements, undertake by extra workers a sorting of the old stones in order that the serviceable stones
for laying course pavement may be separated from the rough stone and waste material.
When a part of the torn-up stone material can be used again in the required work, the necessary transportation and resetting of the material are part of the work of the Contractor. The same is the case as regards the curbstone.
10. Laying out of Work
The staking out of the street surface, as well as the curb levels, will be given by the Department; but the Contractor must supply the necessary assistants and hand tools as well as the line of profile stakes. The maintenance of the grade marks is required of the Contractor.
All other laying cut for the grade of the street surface and the setting of the paving, as well as the arranging of the surface, etc., are to be undertaken by the Contractor in accordance with the instructions of the department.
The Contractor has therefore to see that the foregoing sections and levels are furnished.
11. Earth Work for the Grading of the Foundation
All the necessary earth work for the construction of the foundation for the road pavement, including the curbstones, must be done by the Contractor, and the resulting earth, in accordance with the instructions of the department, must be either placed off the pavement surface on the adjacent footways to be leveled or loaded in wagons sent by the Department.
The surface of the subgrade is to be prepared to conform to the under surface of the requisite concrete foundation, or in the case of rammed block pavement, to a depth of 1 foot under the finished street surface. The depth of bed for the curbstone must be 6 inches below the base of the curb. The compact solid gravel bed encountered under the foundation shall remain untouched and in no case be broken by picks. Wherever soft or loamy earth is found below the foundation, in accordance with the direction of the Department it is to be removed to a depth of 18 inches and replaced out to the curb bed with solid rammed earth. Any such additional depth of excavation is to be done by the Contractor as extra work. New trenches which are found under the pavement and which have not entirely settled, must be thoroughly rammed and, when necessary, flushed till the subgrade has compacted.
The procuring and placing of sand and gravel for the foundation are part of the Contractor's work; also the furnishing and supplying of concrete for pavement foundation.
(Paragraphs 12 to 19 inclusive, give details of standard specifications already
20. Cleaning up the Site
The Contractor is required during the construction period, to occupy for construction purposes the minimum possible space and to remove from the site of the work all materials, etc., that are not immediately needed. Upon the completion of the work the Contractor must remove without delay all surplus materials, dirt, tools, temporary structures, etc., and leave the site of the work in a clean condition.
The Contractor is to guarantee the quality of the work for one year from the date of completion. During this period he is required to make all necessary repairs to the pavement, including those over cuts made in advance of laying of the pavement for the overhauling or laying of pipes and conduits. quired to refill the joints with gravel and asphalt, where necessary. ment area is to be in good condition at the end of the guarantee period. As surety for this maintenance work there shall be retained till the end of the guarantee period 10% of the amount due the Contractor under the contract.
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In the payment of the amount retained by the city during the guarantee period, there will be deducted the cost of repairs to the pavement for stones damaged in ramming, as well as for supplies of tar, sand, fuel, and wages of asphalt workers.
CITY OF VIENNA
Effective in All Work and Supplies Ordered by the Administration.
In the execution of the work called for in the tariff of wood pavements, the following rules will be enforced.
§ 1. Materials
Hydraulic Cement.-The Portland or slag cements, brands of which should be approved, which will be used in the construction of the concrete foundations, shall comply with the specifications and tests of the Society of Austrian Engineers and Architects.
Sand and Gravel.-Sand and gravel shall be free from earth and all other contaminations, and shall be uniform and of good quality. Only sharp sand and rough gravel, which contains no stones of more than 2 inches in diameter shall be used.
Wood Blocks.-Wood blocks shall be of pine or fir wood, providing no other kind of timber is specified, and shall be of the dimensions specified. The blocks shall be cut of sound young heart-wood. The blocks shall not contain any cracks, shall be dry, and free from knots on the upper surface. They shall be cut straight, in such a way that the planes will be at right angles. Impregnation shall, if not otherwise specified, be done with zinc-chloride and tar oil in such a manner that the blocks will be odorless, withstand decay, and will not swell through soaking. Should wood impregnated with creosote be specified, the increase in weight due to impregnation shall be 338 lbs. per cubic yard for soft wood, the weight of one cubic yard of soft dry wood to be assumed as 812 lbs.
§ 2. Execution of the Work
The pavement shall consist of a concrete foundation and the wood block surface.
The concrete used for the foundation shall consist of one volume Portland or slag cement, three volumes sand, and five volumes gravel, and shall be constructed of the specified thickness on a subgrade.
The mixing of the concrete shall be done on a smooth surface (mixing platform). It shall be mixed twice in a dry state and the necessary water added gradually. To insure proper mixing graduated receptacles shall be used.
The measuring on shovels of the material is not permitted.
Not more than 5.3 cubic feet of material shall be mixed at one time. Four men are to be used for mixing and one man for adding the water. The time elapsing between the first addition of water and the laying of the concrete shall not be more than ten minutes.
The water shall be added gradually during the mixing of the concrete-by means of watering cans provided with sprinklers-in such quantities that the finished mixture of the concrete shall be plastic, but not a fluid mass. In the mixing and laying of the concrete great care must be taken that no foreign material get into it, and if this happen it shall be carefully removed. The mixed concrete shall be laid without delay, be properly tamped, and be smoothed to the plane of the pavement. The re-using of set concrete is forbidden.