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M. Vibert

Engineer of Bridges and Highways of the third-class, in charge of the Service of Water Distribution.

M. Hénault

Engineer of Bridges and Highways of the first-class, in charge of the Service of Canals.

The seven Section Engineers of the Public Ways for all that concerns the laying of water-mains.

Maintenance, Cleaning and Construction of Sewers; Cleaning of the Seine and Utilization of Sewage

M. Chabagny

M. Loewy

M. Gariel

Engineer of Bridges and Highways of the third-class, in charge of the Service of Sewers.

Engineer of Bridges and Highways of the first-class, in charge of the Service of Cleaning the Seine.

Agricultural Engineer, in charge of Study of Questions of Irrigation of Sewage, and more especially Farming by the Administration of the Estate of Picquenard.

The seven Section Engineers of Public Ways for all that concerns the construction of sewers.

3. Quarries

M. Bes de Berg Chief Engineer of Mines, Inspector-General of Quarries.
M. Tomasini

Chief of Office.


Notes Explanatory of the Receipts and Expenses for the Budget of 1912


General organization and powers of the Director.-The Direction of the Works of Paris has among its powers the preparation and the execution of new works and the maintenance depending on the art of the engineer: proper condition of highways, lighting, water, filtration, quarries and the Metropolitan Railways; it includes two grand divisions as follows:

An administrative Direction charged with the general initiation of work, with its control from the administrative point of view, regulating and financing, technical services of engineers, of the procuring of decisions whether by the Governor or by the Municipal Council, and of certifying their execution;

Of technical services charged with the study and execution of works. The Director assigns general inspectors, chief engineers and other engineers of bridges and highways detached for the municipal service of Works of Paris upon request of the Governor of the Seine, of municipal engineers and supervisors and of technical assistants for the preparation of projects and the execution of all new works and of maintenance relating to the proper condition of highways, lighting, cleaning, regulating of buildings, supplying water to the city and its filtration, the works of the Metropolitan Railways.

He directs, in addition, the offices of the interior Service of the Prefecture of the Seine in charge of carrying on the administration of affairs; and, finally, he advises the Governor upon all questions submitted to his decision and to that of the municipal Council and takes part in the assembly when the Governor judges it necessary.

He presides as representative of the Governor at the Board of Consulting Engineers, the administrative commission for the making of allotments on the municipal budget, the consulting commission of sewage farms and commissions instituted to judge competitions for necessary machinery for manufactories. He takes part in the:

Council of the administration of the Prefecture of the Seine.
Commission of Pensions.

Superior Commission of Highways.

Administrative Commission of Indemnities.
Architectural Council.
Commission on the Admission to Awards.
Commission for the Supplying of Paris and its Suburbs with Potable

Administrative Commission of Fine Arts.
Commission of Historic Works.
Commission of Old Paris.
Commission for the Improvement of the Battalion of Firemen.
Commission for the Control of the Observatory of Montsouris.
Scientific Commission for the Improvement of the Observatory of Mont-

Commission for the Control of Gas Companies.
Superior Commission Controlling Electricity.
Commission for Supplying Paris with Hydraulic Power from the Rhone.

Committee for the Works of the Quarry of Marechaux. Modification of the organization in the course of the years 1899 to 1904.There was given an account, in the memorandum relating to the budget of 1897 and 1898, of modifications made in the organization of the old Direction of Works, following the creation of an administrative Direction of Public Ways, Waters and Sewers and of the construction by the city of a metropolitan railway.

The notes from the 1899 report mention also modifications in the organization taking place in the course of the year by the creation of the position of assistant engineer to the chief of the technical service of Public Ways and Lighting and by the unification under the orders of one single chief of the services of Water and Filtration, following the decease of Inspector-General Humblot in charge of the direction of Waters. This unification was completed by prefectorial decree by the 26th of October, 1901, naming an assistant engineer for the chief of service and suppressing the temporary post of engineer in charge of Filtration.

Modification of the organization in the course of the year 1911.-A prefectorial decree of the 24th of November, 1911, gave M. Inspector-General of Bridges and Highways Bienvenue charge of the technical service of Public Ways and Lighting, while maintaining his functions as chief of the technical service of the Metropolitan Railways.

ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE The administrative services are divided among four offices placed under the immediate orders of the Director as subordinates of whom they transmit his directions to the technical services, examine their work, and issue whether from the Governor or from the municipal Council the decisions which they decree.

First Office Central Office and Office of Secretary The functions of this office include: The reception, examination and distribution of business; the examination

and transmission of documents submitted for the vise or the signa.

ture of the Director. The centralization, examination and exhibition of affairs either general

or common to several services; transmission of instructions arising
from the superior administration or from the Director and the super-

vision of the execution of these instructions;
The preparation and the forwarding of affairs either urgent or reserved,
Business concerning the service of Control and of audit;
Examination of questions of personnel whether official, auxiliary or labor;

requests for employment or reassignment addressed personally to the

The admission of contractors to awards;
The issuing of permission to visit establishments under the control of

the Direction; The Board of Consulting Engineers. This Board, which is presided over by the Director in the absence of the Governor and the Secretary-General, was instituted by a decree of the 15th of April, 1878; it is charged with the deliberation and giving its advice upon the proposals of works prepared by the engineers and with affairs common to several services.

It is composed of the Director, the chiefs of the technical services and chiefs of administrative offices. The assistant engineers are called before it when the demands of the service require.

The personnel of the first office comprises seven officials.

Second Office
Office of Public Ways, Lighting and the Metropolitan Railways

General Powers

The powers of the office of Public Ways, Lighting and Metropolitan Railways have been fixed by a decree of June 5, 1897, which reorganized the Direction of Works.

These powers have been augmented since, on the one hand by the decree of January 31, 1903, which created in the same office a division of Metropolitan Railways and, on the other hand, by a decree of August 7, 1908, which organized the removal by the Administration of house sewage in four districts of Paris and authorized the establishment at Romainville of yards and stables necessary for the administration of this new service.

On the other hand, the carrying on by the Administration of the Gas ser. vice, the concession for the distribution of electric energy in Paris and the con. cession for the treatment of sewage, which were established in 1907 and 1910, have since come in a very large portion under the powers of the second office.

Due to the nature of the force which it directs, this office has three very distinct characters:

It is in the first place th administrative organ of great public services of Paving, of Lighting, of Cleaning and of Sprinkling of Paris and of Public Transportation in so far as they pertain to works upon the public ways.

In the second place it is the administrative organ in charge of the manage ment of a very important part of the industrial works of the city of Paris, namely:

Gas concession.
Concession for the distribution of electric energy.
Concession of the Metropolitan and North-South Railways.
Treatment of sewage.
Yards and stable at Romainville.
Manufacture of wood paving blocks.
Work shop of steam rollers.
Work shop for the construction and repair of material for the public ways
Work shop of sweeping brushes.
Operation of the quarry of Marechaux.
Laboratory for the testing of material.

Funicular railway of Belleville. It is, finally, the administrative organ in charge of collections proper to the carrying out of public services or the service of concessions enumerated above.

The office of Public Ways from the administrative point of view directs, therefore, all affairs which pertain to the functions of the technical services of the Public Ways, Lighting and Metropolitan Railways, namely:

Public Ways—New works and maintenance of roadways and sidewalks;
Works of a special nature;
New ways opened by assessment on the areas traversed by them;
Indemnity for damages resulting from works on the public ways;
Valuations and agreements including affairs of litigation, withdrawals.

proposals, etc.;
Arrangements of the large and small commissions of public roads relating

to the conservation of the ground and of the works of the public

highways; Recovery of the costs of preserving the good condition of highways and

of various receipts from particular causes; Recovery of rents due, whether from special sources or from the tramway

or the various corporations having concessions from the city; Awards and contracts by mutual agreement for works and furnishing of

all classes of technical engineering services. It is also concerned with the leveling of public ways, the maintenance of shade trees, the benches and structures on the public ways, bridges, quarries of Paris, lines of tramways, authorizations for the opening of construction operations on public ways; information in regard to the installation of new lines or the reorganization of methods of propulsion.

Lighting.–Concerning lighting, the Office of Public Ways carries out all matters in regard to technical orders relating to agreements which the city of Paris may have with the Gas Company on the one hand and, on the other, with the Parisian company of electrical distribution.

A.--According to the terms of the arrangement of July 23, 1907, with the Gas Company, the said Office has particularly among its functions procedure from the point of view of administering and regulating all matters concerning: (a) Lighting of public ways and their branches and of municipal establish

ments or others, as well as the tests of new processes or apparatus for

public lighting; (b) Works and projects of works regarding mains, manufactories and their

equipment or reduction; (c) The manufacture and the quality of gas delivered for consumption; (d) The collection of rates having a technical object, etc.

B.-The arrangement of September 5, 1907, with the Parisian company for electrical distribution.

The powers of the Office of Public Ways, as far as concerns the questions of electric lighting do not differ from those relative to lighting by gas upon particular points provided in the two agreements. They concern: (a) The lighting of public ways or their branches and of municipal estab

lishments or others, as well as tests of new apparatus relating to public

lighting; (b) Works and projects of works relative to the manufacture and transfor

mation, abandonment of factories, substations, points of junction and of

transformation; (c) Works and projects of work relative to subsurface conduits or the method

of distribution of current, etc. Cleaning.-The Office of Public Ways is charged, moreover, with all the questions relative to the cleaning of public or private ways (sweeping, sprinkling, snow and ice) and to the removal of sewage.

In all that relates to material (sweepers, sprinklers, brooms, brushes, disinfectants, salt, miscellaneous materials, etc.) it will receive the offer of manufacturers in these industries and proceed to the making of experiments and arrange for contracts; finally, it will make arrangements for the acquiring of material either by private contract or by public letting.

Moreover, it considers all questions affecting the various locations occupied by the offices of the technical Service, supplying of materials, rooms for the use of laborers (appropriation of public real estate, acquirements of locations, construction and maintenance of buildings, arrangement for credits and authorization of works).

Finally, it collects upon adjacent properties the amount of the tax for street sweeping.

Public refuse.— The service of public refuse comprises two distinct operations: on the one part, the collection and transportation to the plants; on the other, the treatment in these plants.

The Office of Public Ways has part in and controls the administration of the store-yard of Romainville, which takes care of the removal of four districts.

For the other districts it arranges for a public letting for the service and oversees the execution of the contracts (authorization of sub-contractors, investigation of payments, instruction in affairs in dispute, etc.). It proceeds to the actual progressive organization for the removal at night by automobile wagons (advertisements, contracts, modification of sanitary regulations, etc.).

The plants for disposal and for incineration are operated by companies holding concessions. The Otfice of Public Ways studies and then approves the specifications and details of the concessions and oversees the carrying out of their provisions In this way it participates in the control of new works, as well as in the technical control and financing of the contracts, inspects the orders issued and the employment of funds, authorizes the payment of the annual amounts due by the city of Paris and proceeds for the recovery of any part of amounts returning to it.

Metropolitan and North-South Railways.- In the matter of the Metropolitan division, it directs from an administrative standpoint all matters relating to the Metropolitan Railway and to the North-South Railway (with the exception of preparatory works and diversions of sewers and water mains, which are carried out by the office of Waters, Canals and Sewers).

It prepares the reports on preliminary projects or on the number and location of stations, the memoirs and notes submitting for the approbation of the municipal Council or of the Governor the projects of works and the opening of necessary credits for their execution, supervises contracts, submits for the prefectorial authorization the Iccations of the sites of work, recovers from the concessionary companies the amounts due to the city from their receipts and operation and for this purpose cooperates in the verification and approval of the accounts of the two companies; it also recovers other payments due by the companies in virtue of contracts and concessions and in a general manner supervises the execution of these contracts.

The bureau of Public Ways investigated in 1912, 8215 matters. Reports prepared under its direction, without submission to the municipal Council. num. bered 212.

In regard to edicts, they attained the sum of 4860, namely: registered edicts, 3002; edicts not submitted to the formality of record, 1858.

It has, moreover, in the course of the same year, proceeded with the making of 19 awards and 251 informal agreements concerning the services of the Public Ways, Lighting and Metropolitan Railways.



1. Public Ways Cost and Maintenance of Roadways per Square Yard The expenses herewith noted are those of maintenance proper, that is to say, the expenses resulting from the repairs, resurfacing and breaking up neces

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