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I. JAPHETH, embodying the nations of the North and

West.

I. GOMER—The Bactrians ; Mountain nations.

1. Ashkenaz--Rhagae, in Great Media.
2. Riphath-Rhipean mountains.

3. Togarmah-Taurica (Crimea).
| II. MAGOG_The Scythians.
III. MADAI–The Meiles.
IV. JAVAN-Greece; Maritime countries.

1. Elishah--Hellas.'
2. Tarshish-Tartessus, in Spain.
3. Kittim-Cyprus.

4. Dodanim-The Daunians, in Italy.
V. TUBAL—The Tibareni

in Northern Armenia.
VI. MESHECH— The Moschi
VII. TIRAS - The Chain of the Taurus.

II. HAM, including the nations of the South.

I. CUSH_Tribes of Southern Africa and Arabia.

1. Seba—Veroe, in Ethiopia.
2. Havilah-Near the Arabian Gulf.
3. Sabtah—The Astabori, near the river Tacazze.
4. Raamah-Regma, in Arabia.

a) Sheba—Saba, in Arabia Felic.
b) Dedan—On the north-western coast of the

Arabian Gulf, and near the Persian Gulf.
5. Sabtechah-In Ethiopia ; perhaps Nigritia.
6. Babel-Babylon.
7. Erech-Orchoe, on the Euphrates.
8. Accad-Tel Nimroud, or Akkerkuf, near Bagdad.
?. Calneh–A town in Chalonitis (perhaps Ctesi-

phon), on the Tigris.
10. Nineveh-Nineveh, on the Tigris.

11. Rehoboth Ir–Probably on the castern bank's of

the Euphrates. 12. Calah-Kalah Sherghat, fifty-fire miles south of

Mosul.
13. Resen-Nimroud, seventeen miles south of Mosul,
II. MIZRAIM—Egypt.

1. Ludim-Letus, or Letopolis, in Lower Egypt.
2. Anamim—Perhaps Cynopolis, the town of Anubis,

in Middle Egypt.
3. Lehabim-The Libyans,
4. Naphtuhim-Napata, in the north of Meroe.
5. Pathrusim-Upper Egypt, or Thebais.
6. Casluhim-Chemnis, or Panopolis.

a) Philistim-Philistines.
7. Caphtorim-Coptos, in the Upper Thebaid.
III. Phut-Plaiat, or Libya, near Egypt; or perhaps

Buto, in the Delta.
IV. CANAAN--Syria, Phonicia, and Palestine.

1. SidonSidon, in Phænicia.
2. Heth-The Iittites, near Hebron, Bethel, &c.
3. The Jebusite-In and around Jerusalem.
4. The Amorite-On both sides of the Jordan.
5. The Girgasite_In the centre of Palestine.
6. The Hivite-In Shechem and Gibeon, and wear

the Hermon,
7. The Arkite— Arca, in Phoenicia, at the north.

western foot of the Lebanon. 8. The Sinnite-Sinnas, near Arca. 9. The Arvadite-The island Aradus at the northern

coast of Phænicia.
10. The Zemarite-Simyra, twenty-four miles south-

east of Antaradus.
11. The Hamathite--Epiphania, in Syria.

III. SHEM, representing the Central parts of the ancient

world.
I. ELAM-Elymais, in Persia,

II. ASSHUR-Assyria.

III. ARPHAXAD—Arrhaphachitis, in North Assyria.

Salah-Along the eastern banks of the Tigris.
Ebêr-In the west of the Tigris and Euphrates.

a) Peleg-In various parts of Arabia Deserta.
b) Joktan-Kachtan, in the north of Ned.

sheran.
1. Almodad—In Arabia Deserta.
2. Sheleph— The Salapeni, in Arabia Felix,
3. Hazarmaveth-Hadramaut, in the south of

Arabia. 4. Jerah—The coast and mountain of the

Moon, near Hadramaut. 5. Hadoram-Likewise adjoining Hadramaut,

on the coast. 6. Uzal-Sanaa, the capital of Yemen. 7. Diklah 8. Obal Uncertain. 9. Abimael 10. Sheba-The Subaans, in the eastern parts

of Arabia.
11. Ophir-On the southern or south-eastern

coast of Arabia.
12. Havilah-Near the Persian Gulf.
13. Jobab-In Arabia Deserta.

IV. LĽD— The Lydians, originally living in the Highlands

of Armenia.

V. ARAM - Aramad, including northern Mesopotamia,

Syria, and some districts of Arabia. 1. Uz-Ausitis, in the northern parts of Arabia

Deserta. 2. Hul-perhaps Golan, in the east of the Jordan. 3. Gether-perhaps Geshur, on the Orontes. 4. Mash— The Mysians."

See Kalisch, Commentary on Genesis, pp. 231-233.

6. THE TOWER OF BABEL.

[GENES. XI.]

From the highlands of Armenia, where the ark had rested after the Deluge, the earlier descendants of Noah migrated southward till they arrived in the beautiful and fertile plain of Shinar, situated between the two great rivers Euphrates and Tigris.

Foreseeing the vast increase of the human family, they determined to build a large city with a stupendous tower, to serve for all future time as a centre of unity to mankind. They not only desired to construct an imposing dwelling-place, but they intended to pile up a gigantic tower whose top might reach to heaven, and by which they might make themselves a name. Thus filled with pride and vanity, they actually began the ambitious task. With brick for stone and bitumen for mortar, they pursued their work with vigour, and the town rose rapidly. But the Lord was displeased at their arrogance and haughtiness. Therefore, He confounded their language suddenly, so that they could not understand one another. Annoyed and bewildered, the workmen renounced their labour; and the city, commenced with such proud hopes but never completed, was called Babel, meaning confusion. Thus the Bible accounts for the perplexing diversity of languages, which thoughtful men might well have deplored as a serious impediment to the brotherly intercourse between nations.

After this sad tale of man's vanity and God's speedy punishment, the Bible returns to the history of Shem. The generations followed each other in quiet succession ; they had to re-discover many of the arts lost by the Deluge; but their chief pursuits were probably those of agriculture and cattle-breeding. The representative of

the ninth generation after Noah was Terah, who became the father of three sons: Abram (later called Abraham), Nahor, and Haran. Haran had a son named Lot, and two daughters Milcah and Iscah. But Haran died before his father Terah. Nahor took Milcah for his wife; while Abram married his half-sister Sarai. Milcah bore many children to her husband, but Sarai was childless. This family journeyed together from Ur of the Chaldees, with the intention of emigrating into the land of Canaan, but they stopped on their way at Haran. Here Terah died in the course of time at the age of two hundred and five years.

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