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the cause of God or of His Church, by necessity of office, and we think that a few preachers may suffice to build and edify burden of conscience, I shall thereunto be enforced : and in the spiritual temple of Christ, which is his Church ? those cases (which I trust in God shall never be urged upon Christ, when he sendeth forth his apostles, saith unto me), if I should use dissembling or flattering silence, I should them, Ite, prædicate evangelium omni creature. But all God's very evil requite your Majesty's so many and so great creatures cannot be instructed in the Gospel, unless all benefits; for in so doing, both you might fall into perill possible means be used to have multitude of preachers and towards God, and I myself into endless damnation.

teachers to preach unto them. The prophet Ezekiel termeth us, ministers of the Church, | Sermo Christi inhabitet in vobis opulente, 6 saith St. Paul to speculatores, and not adulatores. If we see the sword coming the Colossians; and to Timothy, Prædica sermonem, insta by reason of any offence towards God, we must of necessity | tempestire, intempestive, argue, increpa, exhortare.7 Which give warning, or else the blood of those that perish will be things cannot be done without often and much preaching. required at our hands. I beseech your Majesty thus to think To this agreeth the practice of Christ's apostles, Qui con. of me, that I do not conceive any evil opinion of you, stituebant per singulas ecclesias presbyteros.8 St. Paul like. although I cannot assent to those two articles then pro wise, writing to Titus, writeth thus, Hujus rei gratia reliqui pounded. I do with the rest of all your good subjects te in Creta, ut que desunt pergas corrigere, et constituas oppiacknowledge, that we have received by your government datim presbyteros.' And afterwards describeth, how the said many and most excellent benefits, as, among others, freedom presbyteri were to be qualified ; not such as we are someof conscience, suppressing of idolatry, sincere preaching of times compelled to admit by mere necessity (unless we should the Gospel, with public peace and tranquillity. I am also leave a great number of churches utterly desolate), but such persuaded, that even in these matters, which you seem now indeed as were able to exhort per sanam doctrinam, et contra. to urge, your zeal and meaning is to the best. The like dicentes convincere. 10 And in this place I beseech your Majesty hath happened to many of the best princes that ever were : 1 to note one thing necessary to be noted; which is this, If the yet have they not refused afterwards to be better informed Holy Ghost prescribe expressly that preachers should be out of God's Word. King David, so much commended in the placed oppidatim," how can it well be thought that three or Scriptures, had no evil meaning when he commanded the four preachers may suffice for a shire ? people to be numbered: he thought it good policy, in so Public and continual preaching of God's Word is the doing, to understand what forces he had in store to employ ordinary mean and instrument of the salvation of mankind. against God's enemies, if occasion so required. Yet after St. Paul calleth it the ministry of reconciliation of man unto ward (saith the Scripture) his own heart stroke him; and God. By preaching of God's Word the glory of God is God, by the prophet Gad, reprehended him for his offence, enlarged, faith is nourished, and charity increased. By it and gave him, for the same, choice of three very hard the ignorant is instructed, the negligent exhorted and incited, penances, that is to say, famine, war, and pestilence. Good the stubborn rebuked, the weak conscience comforted, and king Ezechias, of courtesy and good affection, showed to the to all those that sin of malicious wickedness the wrath of God ambassadors of the king of Babylon the treasures of the is threatened. By preaching also due obedience to Christian house of God and of his own house; and yet the prophet princes and magistrates is planted in the hearts of subjects: Esay told him that God was therewith displeased. The for obedience proceedeth of conscience; conscience is grounded godly king Jehoshaphat, for making league with his neigh upon the Word of God; the Word of God worketh his effect bour king Achab (of like good meaning, no doubt), was by preaching. So as generally, where preaching wanteth, likewise reprehended by Jehu the prophet in this form of obedience faileth. words : Impio prebes auxilium, et his qui oderunt Dominum No prince ever had more lively experience hereof than amicitia jungeris, &c.3 Ambrose, writing to Theodosius the your Majesty hath had in your time, and may have daily. emperor, useth these words: Nori pietatem tuam erga Deum, | If your Majesty come to the city of London never so often, lenitatem in homines; obligatus sum beneficiis tuis. And yet, what gratulation, what joy, what concourse of people is there for all that, the same Ambrose doth not forbear in the same to be seen! Yea, what acclamations and prayers to God for epistle earnestly to persuade the said emperor to revoke an your long life, and other manifest significations of inward ungodly edict, wherein he had commanded a godly bishop and unfeigned love, joined with most humble and hearty to re-edify a Jewish synagogue, pulled down by the Christian obedience, are there to be heard! Wherefore cometh this, people.

Madam, but of the continual preaching of God's Word in that And so, to come to the present case: I may very well use city, whereby that people hath been plentifully instructed in unto your Highness the words of Ambrose above written, their duty towards God and your Majesty ? On the conNovi pietatem tuam, &c. But surely I cannot marvel enough, trary, what bred the rebellion in the north? Was it not how this strange opinion should once enter into your mind, Papistry, and ignorance of God's Word, through want of that it should be good for the Church to have few preachers. often preaching. And in the time of that rebellion, were

Alas, Madam! is the Scripture more plain in any one not all men, of all states, that made profession of the Gospel, thing, than that the Gospel of Christ should be plentifully most ready to offer their lives for your defence ? insomuch preached ; and that plenty of labourers should be sent into that one poor parish in Yorkshire, which by continual the Lord's harvest; which, being great and large, standeth preaching had been better instructed than the rest (Halifax in need, not of a few, but many workmen ?

There was appointed to the building of Salomon's material temple an hundred and fifty thousand artificers and labourers, 5 “Go ye, preach the Gospel to every creature." (Mark xvi. 15.) besides three thousand three hundred overseers; and shall

6 "Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly." (Colossians iii. 16.) 7 "Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort." (2 Timothy iv. 2.)

& Who " ordained them elders in every church." (Acts xiv. 23.) 1 Watchmen, (See Ezekiel iii. 17-19.) , Flatterers.

9 "For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in 2 "Shouldest thou help the ungodly, and love them that hate the order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city." Lord ?" (2 Chronicles xis. 2.)

(Titus i. 5.) *"I know thy piety towards God, thy kindness towards men; I 10 " By sound doctrine, and to convince gainsayers," em bounden by thy benefits," &c. (S. Ambros. Epist. axis.)

11 In every city.

I mean), was ready to bring three or four thousand able men because the preaching of God's Word, which to all Christian into the field to serve you against the said rebels. How consciences is sweet and delectable, is to them, having caucan your Majesty have a more lively trial and experience of teriatas conscientias, bitter and grievous (for, as St. Ambrose the contrary effects of much preaching and of little or no saith, Quomodo possunt verba Dei dulcia 1880 in faucibus tuis, preaching? The one working most faithful obedience, and in quibus est amaritudo nequitiæ ? 8), therefore they wish also the other most unnatural disobedience and rebellion.

that there were no preachers at all. But because they dare But it is thought of some, that many are admitted to not directly condemn the office of preaching, so expressly preach, and few be able to do it well. That unable preachers commanded by God's Word (for that were open blasphemy), be removed is very requisite, if ability and sufficiency may they turn themselves altogether, and with the same meaning be rightly weighed and judged: and therein I trust as much as the other do, to take exceptions against the persons of is, and shall be, done as can be; for both I, for mine own them that be admitted to preach. part (let it be spoken without any ostentation), am very But God forbid, Madam, that you should open your ears careful in allowing such preachers only as be able and to any of these wicked persuasions, or any way go about sufficient to be preachers, both for their knowledge in the to diminish the preaching of Christ's Gospel: for that would Scriptures, and also for testimony of their good life and ruinate altogether at the length. Quum defecerit prophetia, conversation. And besides that, I have given very great dissipabitur populus,' saith Salomon. charge to the rest of my brethren, the bishops of this pro Now, where it is thought, that the reading of the godly vince, to do the like. We admit no man to the office that Homilies, set forth by public authority, may suffice, I continue either professeth Papistry or Puritanism. Generally, the of the same mind I was when I attended last upon your graduates of the university are only admitted to be preachers, Majesty. The reading of Homilies hath his commodity ; but unless it be some few which have excellent gifts of know is nothing comparable to the office of preaching. The godly ledge in the Scriptures, joined with good utterance and preacher is termed in the Gospel fidelis servus et prudens, godly persuasion. I myself procured above forty learned qui novit famulitio Domini cibum demensum dare in tempore ; 10 preachers and graduates, within less than six years, to be who can apply his speech according to the diversity of times, placed within the diocese of York, besides those I found places, and hearers, which cannot be done in Homilies : exthere; and there I have left them: the fruits of whose hortations, reprehensions, and persuasions, are uttered with travail in preaching, your Majesty is like to reap daily, by more affection, to the moving of the hearers, in Sermons than most assured, dutiful obedience of your subjects in those in Homilies." Besides, Homilies were devised by the godly parts.

bishops in your brother's time, only to supply necessity, for But, indeed, this age judgeth very hardly, and nothing want of preachers; and are by the statute not to be preferred, indifferently of the ability of preachers of our time; judging but to give place to Sermons, whensoever they may be had; few or none in their opinion to be able. Which hard judg and were never thought in themselves alone to contain ment groweth upon divers evil dispositions of men. St. Paul sufficient instruction for the Church of England. For it was doth commend the preaching of Christ crucified, absque then found, as it is found now, that this Church of England eminentia sermonis. But in our time many have so delicate hath been by appropriations, and that not without sacrilege, cars, that no preaching can satisfy them, unless it be sauced spoiled of the livings, which at the first were appointed to with much fineness 3 and exornation of speech: which the the office of preaching and teaching. Which appropriations same apostle utterly condemneth, and giveth this reason, Ne were first annexed to abbeys; and after came to the crown; evacucter crux Christi.4

and now are dispersed to private men's possessions, without Some there be also, that are mislikers of the godly refor. hope to reduce the same to the original institution. So as at mation in religion now established; wishing indeed that this day, in mine opinion, where one church is able to yield there were no preachers at all; and so by depraving the sufficient living for a learned preacher, there are at the least ministers impugn religion, non aperto Marte, sed cuniculis : 5 | seven churches unable to do the same: and in many parishes much like to the Popish bishops in your father's time, who of your realm, where there be seven or eight hundred souls would have had the English translation of the Bible called (the more is the pity), there are not eight pounds a year in, as evil translated ; and the new translating thereof to reserved for a minister. In such parishes it is not possible have been committed to themselves; which they never in. to place able preachers, for want of convenient stipend. If tended to perform.

every flock might have a preaching pastor, which is rather A number there is (and that is exceedingly great), whereof to be wished than hoped for, then were reading of Homilies some are altogether worldly-minded, and only bent covetously

to gather worldly goods and possessions : serving Mammon, and not God. And another great sum have given over them.

7 Consciences seared.

8 "How can the word of God be sweet in thy mouth, in which is selves to all carnal, vain, dissolute, and lascivious life, rolup.

the bitterness of sin ?" (Serm. 13 in Psal. cxviii.) tatis amatores, magis quam Dei : et qui semetipsos dediderunt " When prophecy shall fail, the people shall be scattered." ad patrandum omnem immunditiam cum ariditate. And 10 " A faithful and wise servant, who knoweth how to give his Lord's

household their meat in due season." (Matthew xxiv, 45.)

11 More in Sermons than in Homilies. A Homily is so called from the i Indifferently. Impartially, without applying different measures to Greek omilia, which has for its first sense a being together, thence different persons. So in the Homily on Reading of the Scriptures, intercourse and instruction, and meant such setting forth of doctrine “God receiveth the learned and unlearned, and casteth away none, as could be understood in an assembly of the people. The word was but is indifferent unto all." And part of the Prayer for Magistrates applied in the Church of England to the two books of Homilies issued in the English Church Liturgy is “that they may truly and indiffer. in 1547 and 1563, and appointed to be read on "any Sunday or holy ently minister justice."

day when there is no Sermon." The Sermon, from Latin " sermo," 2 " Without excellency of speech,"

a speaking or discourse, was direct from the mind of the minister, and 3 Euphuism; artificial ingenuity.

could be suited to the audience and occasion. Such a sermon was in • "Lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect." the ancient Church called also a Homily, sometimes a tractate, and (1 Corinthians i. 17.)

the preachers " tractatores." The restricted use of the word Homily 5 Not by open war, but by burrowings.

in the English Reformed Church was only for the convenience of 6 Lovers of pleasure more than of God, “ who have given themselves distinction between the sermons of the minister and those provided over to work all uncleanness with greediness." (Ephesians iv. 19). by the state.

altogether unnecessary. But to supply that want of preach- those days were called filii prophetarum,” that is to say, the ing of God's Word, which is the food of the soul, growing disciples of the prophets, that being exercised in the study upon the necessities afore-mentioned, both in your brother's and knowledge of the Scriptures, they might be able men to time, and in your time, certain godly Homilies have been serve in God's Church, as that time required. St. Paul also devised, that the people should not be altogether destitute of doth make express mention, that the like in effect was used instruction: for it is an old and a true proverb, “ better half in the primitive Church; and giveth rules for the order of a loaf than no bread."

the same; as namely, that two or three should speak, and Now for the second point, which is concerning the learned the rest should keep silence. exercise and conference amongst the ministers of the Church: That exercise of the Church in those days St. Paul calleth I have consulted with divers of my brethren, the bishops, by prophetiam, and the speakers prophetas : terms very odious letters; who think it the same as I do, viz., a thing profitable in our days to some, because they are not rightly understood. to the Church, and therefore expedient to be continued. And For indeed prophetia, in that and like places of St. Paul, I trust your Majesty will think the like, when your Highness doth not, as it doth sometimes, signify prediction of things shall have been informed of the manner and order thereof; to come, which gift is not now ordinary in the Church of what authority it hath of the Scriptures; what commodity | God; but signifieth there, by the consent of the best ancient it bringeth with it; and what incommodities will follow, if it writers, the interpretation and exposition of the Scriptures. be clean taken away.

And therefore doth St. Paul attribute unto those that be The authors of this exercise are the bishops of the diocese called propheta in that chapter, doctrinam ad ædificationem, where the same is used; who both by the law of God, and by exhortationem, et consolationem.3 the canons and constitutions of the Church now in force, have This gift of expounding and interpreting the Scriptures authority to appoint exercises to their inferior ministers, was, in St. Paul's time, given to many by special miracle, for increase of learning and knowledge in the Scriptures, as without study: so was also, by like miracle, the gift to speak to them seemeth most expedient: for that pertaineth ad with strange tongues, which they had never learned. But disciplinam clericalem.! The times appointed for the assembly now, miracles ceasing, men must attain to the knowledge of is orce a month, or once in twelve or fifteen days, at the the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin tongues, &c., by travail and discretion of the ordinary. The time of the exercise is two study, God giving the increase. So must men also attain hours: the place, the church of the town appointed for the by like means to the gift of expounding and interpreting the assembly. The matter entreated of is as followeth. Some Scriptures. And amongst other helps, nothing is so necestext of Scripture, before appointed to be spoken of, is sary as these above-named exercises and conferences amongst interpreted in this order: First, the occasion of the place is the ministers of the Church: which in effect are all one with shewed. Secondly, the end. Thirdly, the proper sense of the exercises of students in divinity in the universities; the place. Fourthly, the propriety of the words : and those saving that the first is done in a tongue understood, to the that be learned in the tongues shewing the diversities of more edifying of the unlearned hearers. interpretations. Fifthly, where the like phrases are used in Howsoever report hath been made to your Majesty conthe Scriptures. Sixthly, places in the Scriptures, seeming cerning these exercises, yet I and others of your bishops, to repugn, are reconciled. Seventhly, the arguments of the whose names are noted in the margin hereof, as they have text are opened. Eighthly, it is also declared what virtues testified unto me by their letters, have found by experience, and what vices are there touched ; and to which of the com that these profits and commodities following have ensued of mandments they pertain. Ninthly, how the text hath been them :-1. The ministers of the Church are more skilful and wrested by the adversaries, if occasion so require. Tenthly, ready in the Scriptures, and apter to teach their flocks. 2. It and last of all, what doctrine of faith or manners the text withdraweth them from idleness, wandering, gaming, &c. doth contain. The conclusion is, with the prayer for your 3. Some, afore suspected in doctrine, are brought hereby to Majesty and all estates, as is appointed by the Book of! open confession of the truth. 4. Ignorant ministers are Common Prayer, and a psalm.

driven to study, if not for conscience, yet for shame and fear These orders following are also observed in the said exercise. of discipline. 5. The opinion of laymen, touching the idleFirst, two or three of the gravest and best learned pastors ness of the clergy, is hereby removed. 6. Nothing by exare appointed of the bishop to moderate in every assembly. perience beateth down Popery more than that ministers (as No man may speak, unless he be first allowed by the bishop, some of my brethren do certify) grow to such good know. with this proviso, that no layman be suffered to speak at any ledge, by means of these exercises, that where afore were not time. No controversy of this present time and state shall three able preachers, now are thirty, meet to preach at St. be moved or dealt withal. If any attempt the contrary, he is Paul's Cross; and forty or fifty besides, able to instruct put to silence by the moderator. None is suffered to glance their own cures. So as it is found by experience the best openly or covertly at persons public or private ; neither yet means to increase knowledge in the simple, and to continue any one to confute another. If any man utter a wrong sense it in the learned. Only backward men in religion, and of the Scripture, he is privately admonished thereof, and contemners of learning in the countries abroad, do fret better instructed by the moderators, and other his fellow against it; which in truth doth the more commend it. The ministers. If any man use immodest speech, or irreverent dissolution of it would breed triumph to the adversaries, and gesture or behaviour, or otherwise be suspected in life, he is great sorrow and grief unto the favourers of religion ; conlikewise admonished, as before. If any wilfully do break trary to the counsel of Ezekiel, who saith, Cor justi non est these orders, he is presented to the bishop, to be by him contristandum. And although some few have abused this corrected.

good and necessary exercise, there is no reason that the The ground of this, or like exercise, is of great and ancient malice of a few should prejudice all. Abuses may be anthority. For Samuel did practise such like exercises in his time, both at Naioth in Ramatha, and at Bethel. So did

2 The sons of the prophets. Elizæus the prophet, at Jericho. Which studious persons in 3 "Speaking unto edification, and exhortation, and comfort."

(1 Corinthians xiv. 3.)

1 "The heart of the righteous must not be made sad.” (Ezekiel 1 To the discipline of the clergy.

1 xii. 22.)

reformed, and that which is good may remain. Neither is there any just cause of offence to be taken, if divers men make divers senses of one sentence of Scripture; so that all the senses be good and agreeable to the analogy and proportion of faith: for otherwise we must needs condemn all the ancient fathers and doctors of the Church, who most commonly expound one and the same text of the Scripture diversely, and yet all to the good of the Church. Therefore doth St. Basil compare the Scriptures to a well; out of the which the more a man draweth, the better and sweeter is the water.

I trust, when your Majesty hath considered and well weighed the premises, you will rest satisfied, and judge that no such inconveniences can grow of these exercises, as you have been informed, but rather the clean contrary. And for my own part, because I am very well assured, both by reasons and arguments taken out of the Holy Scriptures, and by experience (the most certain seal of sure knowledge), that the said exercises, for the interpretation and exposition of the Scriptures and for exhortation and comfort drawn out of the same, are both profitable to increase knowledge among the ministers, and tendeth to the edifying of the hearers, -I am foreed, with all humility, and yet plainly, to profess, that I cannot with safe conscience, and without the offence of the Majesty of God, give my assent to the suppressing of the said exercises : much less can I send out any injunction for the utter and universal subversion of the same. I say with St. Paul, “I have no power to destroy, but to only edify;" and with the same apostle, “I can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth."

If it be your Majesty's pleasure, for this or any other cause, to remove me out of this place, I will with all humility yield thereunto, and render again to your Majesty that I received of the same. I consider with myself, Quod horrendum cst incidere in manus Dei virentis. I consider also, Quod qui facit contra conscientiam (dirinis juribus nisam) edificat ad gehennam. “And what should I win, if I gained" (I will not say a bishoprick, but) " the whole world, and lose mine own soul ?"

Bear with me, I beseech you, Madam, if I choose rather to offend your earthly Majesty than to offend the heavenly Majesty of God. And now being sorry that I have been so long and tedious to your Majesty, I will draw to an end, most humbly praying the same well to consider these two short petitions following.

The first is, that you would refer all these ecclesiastical matters which touch religion, or the doctrine and discipline of the Church, unto the bishops and divines of your realm; according to the example of all godly Christian emperors and princes of all ages. For indeed they are things to be judged (as an ancient father writeth) in ecclesia, seu synodo, non in palatio,3 When your Majesty hath questions of the laws of your realm, you do not decide the same in your court, but send them to your judges to be determined. Likewise for doubts in matters of doctrine or discipline of the Church, the ordinary way is to refer the decision of the same to the bishops, and other head ministers of the Church.

Ambrose to Theodosius useth these words: Si de causis pecuniariis comites tuos consulis, quanto magis in causa religionis sacerdotes Domini æquum est consulas ?4 And like.

wise the same father to the good emperor Valentinianus : Si conferendum de fide, sacerdotum debet esse ista collatio ; sicut factum est sub Constantino augusta memoria principe, qui nullas leges ante præmisit, sed liberum dedit judicium sacerdotibus. And the same father saith, that Constantius the emperor, son to the said Constantine the Great, began well, by reason he followed his father's steps at the first; but ended ill, because he took upon him de fide intra palatium judicare (for so be the words of Ambrose), and thereby fell into Arianism; a terrible example!

The said Ambrose, so much commended in all histories for a godly bishop, goeth yet farther, and writeth to the same emperor in this form : Si docendus est episcopus a laico, quid sequetur Laicus ergo disputet, et episcopus audiat; episcopus discat a laico. At certe, si vel scripturarum seriem divinarum vel vetera tempora retractemus, quis est qui abnuat, in causa fidei, in causa, inquam, fidei, episcopos solere de imperatoribus Christianis, non imperatores de episcopis judicare ?7 Would God your Majesty would follow this ordinary course! You should procure to yourself much more quietness of mind, better please God, avoid many offences, and the Church should be more quietly and peaceably governed, much to your comfort and commodity of your realm.

The second petition I have to make to your Majesty is this : that when you deal in matters of faith and religion, or matters that touch the Church of Christ, which is His spouse, bought with so dear a price, you would not use to pronounce so resolutely and peremptorily, quasi ex auctoritate,8 as ye may do in civil and extern matters; but always remember, that in God's causes the will of God, and not the will of any earthly creature, is to take place. It is the antichristian voice of the Pope, Sic rolo, sic jubeo; stet pro ratione volun. tas.' In God's matters all princes ought to bow their sceptres to the Son of God, and to ask counsel at His mouth what they ought to do. David exhorteth all kings and rulers to serve God with fear and trembling.

Remember, Madam, that you are a mortal creature. “Look not only (as was said to Theodosius) upon the purple and princely array, wherewith ye are apparelled; but consider withal, what is that that is covered therewith. Is it not flesh and blood ? Is it not dust and ashes ? Is it not a corruptible body, which must return to his earth again, God knoweth how soon!" Must not you also one day appear ante tremendum tribunal Crucifixi, ut recipias ibi, prout gesseris in corpore, sire bonum sive malum ? 10

And although ye are a mighty prince, yet remember that He which dwelleth in heaven is mightier. He is, as the Psalmist sayeth, terribilis, et is qui aufert spiritum principum, terribilis super omnes reges terre."

6 "If we confer about faith, the conference ought to be left to the priests; as it was done under the prince Constantine, of august memory, who set forth no laws, before he had submitted them to the free judgment of the priests."

6 To judge of faith within the palace.

7 “If a bishop be to be taught by a layman, what will follow? Let the layman then dispute, and the bishop hear: let the bishop learn of the layman. But certainly, if we have recourse either to the order of the Holy Scriptures or to ancient times, who is there that can deny, that in the cause of faith, I say, in the cause of faith, bishops were wont to judge concerning Christian emperors, not emperors concerning bishops?". $ As if by authority,

So I will have it; so I command: let my will stand for a reason,

1 "That it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.(Hebrews x. 31.)

? That he who acts against his conscience (resting upon the laws of God) builds for hell.

10 “Before the fearful judgment-seat of the Crucified, to receive there according as you have done in the body, whether it be good or

3 In the church, or a synod, not in a palace.

4 "If on affairs of money you consult with your counts, how much more is it fit that you consult with the Lord's priests on affairs of religion?"

evil?"

11 " Terrible, and he who taketh away the spirit of princes, and is terrible above all the kings of the earth."

Wherefore I do beseech you, Madam, in visceribus Christi,! | Aylmer, carrying out the Queen's policy and his own, when you deal in these religious causes, set the majesty of repressed extremes on either side of the Established God before your eyes, laying all earthly majesty aside: Church. He dealt severely with Roman Catholics, determine with yourself to obey His voice, and with all and on the opposite side was described as “a man of humility say unto Him, Non mea, sed tua voluntas fiat? God

most intemperate heat, who persecuted Puritans with hath blessed you with great felicity in your reign, now many the utmost rage, and treated ministers with such years; beware you do not impute the same to your own

virulent and abusive language as a man of sense and deserts or policy, but give God the glory. And as to instru.

indifferent temper would scorn to use towards porters ments and means, impute your said felicity, first, to the

and cobblers.” During these days of his trouble, goodness of the cause which ye have set forth (I mean

Edmund Grindal became blind. He died in 1583. Christ's true religion); and, secondly, to the sighs and groanings of the godly in their fervent prayer to God for you; which have hitherto, as it were, tied and bound the hands of God, that He could not pour His plagues upon you and your people, most justly deserved. Take heed, that ye never once think of declining from

CHAPTER VII. God, lest that be verified of you, which is written of Ozeas (Joash), who continued a prince of good and godly govern.

REIGN OF ELIZABETH.—FRANCIS Bacon, EDMUND ment for many years together; and afterwards cum roboratus

SPENSER, RICHARD HOOKER, AND OTHERS. — A.D. esset (saith the text), elevatum est cor ejus in interitum suum,

1577 TO A.D. 1603. et neglexit Dominum.3 Ye have done many things well; but except ye persevere to the end, ye cannot be blessed. For if ye turn from God, then God will turn away his merciful

ARTIN MARPRELATE countenance from you. And what remaineth then to be

is a name hardly suggestive looked for, but only a terrible expectation of God's judg

of Religion, for it recalls ments, and an heaping up of wrath against the day of

chiefly the bitterness of a wrath ?

zeal that cast out charity. But I trust in God, your Majesty will always humble

It was the assumed name yourself under His mighty hand, and go forward in the

under which many earnest zealous setting forth of God's true religion, always yielding

Puritans, who endangered due obedience and reverence to the Word of God, the only

their lives by plain speak. rule of faith and religion. And if ye so do, although God

(From the First Edition of ing, published unlicensed hath just cause many ways to be angry with you and us for

Spenser's " Complaints," 1591.) pamphlets against those our unfaithfulness, yet I doubt nothing, but that for His own

signs of an imperfect Rename's sake, and for His own glory's sake, He will still hold formation which they thought they found in prelacy. His merciful hand over us, shield and protect us under the Martin Marprelate“ pistled the Bishops” in earshadow of His wings, as He hath done hitherto.

nest and violent tracts, printed by a secret press, I beseech God, our heavenly Father, plentifully to pour which the Government fiercely hunted out of one His principal Spirit upon you, and always to direct your hiding-place into another. One of the Marprelate heart in His holy fear. Amen.

writers, John Penry, was caught and hanged. He

wrote before his execution, “I never did anything Queen Elizabeth met this letter by causing others

in this cause for contention, vainglory, or to draw to issue her command that “prophesyings" should disciples after me. Great things in this life I never be discontinued. Grindal was confined to his house. sought for: sufficiency I had with great outward and, by order of the Star Chamber, sequestered for trouble ; but most content I was with my lot, and six months, during which he might retain the name

content with my untimely death, though I leave of Archbishop, but all duties of the office were dis

behind me a friendless widow and four infants." charged by others, of whom Aylmer, Bishop of

John Udall, another of the Marprelate writers, was London, was the chief. As Grindai, at the end of the

left to die in prison. When he was tried for the six months, remained of the same mind, this state of authorship of a book, and offered witnesses in his things continued, and such was Archbishop Grindal's defence, they were refused a hearing on the plea that position in 1579, when young Edmund Spenser pub

witnesses for the prisoner would be against the Queen. lished his “Shepherd's Calendar," and, honouring

But he said, and said in vain, “ It is for the Queen to the disgraced primate by the name of the wise hear all things when the life of any of her subjects is Algrind, openly declared sympathy with him, and

in question.” The pamphlets written against the want of sympathy with Aylmer, who figured in the

Puritans in this quarrel, not clandestinely, because calendar as Morrel. “2 goat-herd proud.”. Bishop

authority was with them, were chiefly by wits and playwrights, as violent as those which they opposed, and not so earnest. The most temperate of all these

writers was one of the impugned bishops, Thomas 1 in the bowels of Christ. 2 “Not mine, but thine be done.” (Luke xxii. 42.)

Cooper, Bishop of Winchester. This controversy 3 "When he was strong, his heart was lifted up to his destruction, was at its height in 1589, and Francis Bacon, then for he transgressed against the Lord.” (2 Chronicles xxvi, 16.) twenty-nine years old, wrote of it wisely thus :

* The volume of this Library containing “Shorter English Poems," pages 205—209, contains the eclogue of the “Shepherd's Calendar" which especially illustrates Edmund Spenser's sympathy with Edinund Grindal,

Indifferent, unprejudiced. (See Note 1, p. 180.)

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