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But now hear the apostle's words about this mystery. Paul the apostle speaketh of the old Israelites thus, writing in his epistle to faithful men : All our forefathers were baptised in the cloud and in the sea, and all they ate the same ghostly meat and drank the same ghostly drink. They drank truly of the stone that followed them, and that stone was Christ. Neither was that stone then from which the water ran bodily Christ, but it signified Christ, that calleth thus to all believing and faithful men: Whosoever thirsteth let him come to me, and drink: and from his bowels floweth living water. This he said of the Holy Ghost, whom he receiveth which believeth on him. The apostle Paul saith that the Israelites did eat the same ghostly meat, and drink the same ghostly drink : because that heavenly meat that fed them forty years, and that water which from the stone did flow, had signification of Christ's body, and his blood, that now be offered daily in God's Church. It was the same which we now offer; not bodily, but ghostly. We said unto you erewhile, that Christ hallowed bread and wine to housell before his suffering, and said : This is my body and my blood. Yet he had not then suffered; but so notwithstanding he turned through invisible might that bread to his own body, and that wine to his blood, as he before did in the wilderness before that he was born to men, when he turned that heavenly meat to his flesh, and the flowing water from that stone to his own blood. Very many ate of that heavenly meat in the wilderness, and drank that ghostly drink, and were nevertheless dead, as Christ said. And Christ meant not that death which none can escape: but that everlasting death, which some of that folk deserved for their unbelief. Moses and Aaron, and many other of that people which pleased God, ate of that heavenly bread, and they died not that everlasting death, though they died the common death. They saw that the heavenly meat was visible, and corruptible, and they ghostly understood by that visible thing, and ghostly received it. The Saviour sayeth: He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting life. And he bade them not eat that body which he was going about with, nor that blood to drink which he shed for us : but he meant with those words that holy housell, which ghostly is his body and his blood : and he that tasteth it with believing heart, hath that eternal life. In the old law faithful men offered to God divers sacrifices that had foresignification of Christ's body, which for our sins he himself to his heavenly Father hath since offered to sacrifice. Certainly this housell which we do now hallow at God's altar is a remembrance of Christ's body which he offered for us, and of his blood which he shed for us: so he himself commanded, Do this in my remembrance. Once suffered Christ by himself, but yet nevertheless his suffering is daily renewed at the mass through mystery of the holy housell. Therefore that holy mass is profitable both to the living and to the dead, as it hath been often declared.
We ought also to consider diligently how that this holy housell is both Christ's body and the body of all faithful men after ghostly mystery.
As the wise Augustine sayeth of it, If ye will understand of Christ's body, hear the apostle Paul thus speaking : Now is your mystery set on God's table, and ye receive your mystery, which mystery ye yourselves be. Be that which ye see on the altar, and receive that which ye yourselves be. Again the apostle Paul saith by it: We many be one bread and one body. Understand now and rejoice, many be one bread and one body in Christ. He is our head, and we be his limbs. And the bread is not of one corn, but of many. Nor the wine of one grape, but of many. So also we all should have one unity in our Lord, as it is written of the faithful army, how that they were in so great an unity: as though all
of them were one soul and one heart. Christ hallowed on his table the mystery of our peace, and of our unity: he which receiveth that mystery of unity, and keepeth not the bond of true peace, he receiveth no mystery for himself, but a witness against himself. It is very good for Christian men that they go often to housell, if they bring with them to the altar unguiltiness and innocency of heart. To an evil man it turneth to no good, but to destruction, if he receive unworthily that holy housell. Holy books command that water be mingled to that wine which shall be for housell: because the water signifieth the people, and the wine Christ's blood. And therefore shall neither the one without the other be offered at the holy mass: that Christ may be with us, and we with Christ: the head with the limbs, and the limbs with the head.
We would before have intreated of the lamb which the old Israelites offered at their Easter time, but that we desired first to declare unto you of this mystery, and after how we should receive it. That signifying lamb was offered at the Easter. And the apostle Paul sayeth in the epistle of this present day, that Christ is our Easter, who was offered for us, and on the third day rose from death. The Israelites did eat the lamb's flesh as God commanded with unleavened bread and wild lettuce: so we should receive that holy housell of Christ's body and blood without the leaven of sin and iniquity. As leaven turneth the creatures from their nature: so doth sin also change the nature of man from innocency to foul spots of guiltiness. The apostle hath taught how we should feast not in the leaven of evilness, but in the sweet dough of purity and truth. The herb which they should eat with the unleavened bread is called lettuce, and is bitter in taste. So we should with bitterness of unfeigned weeping purify our mind, if we will eat Christ's body. Those Israelites were not wont to eat raw flesh, although God forbad them to eat it raw, and sodden in water, but roasted in fire. He shall receive the body of God raw that shall think without reason that Christ was only man, like unto us, and was not God. And he that will after man's wisdom search of the mystery of Christ's incarnation, doth like unto him that doth seethe lamb’s flesh in water: because that water in this same place signifieth man's understanding : but we should understand that all the mystery of Christ's humanity was ordered by the power of the Holy Ghost. And then eat we his body roasted with fire; because the Holy Ghost came in fiery likeness to the apostles in diverse tongues. The Israelites should eat the lamb's head, and the feet, and the purtenance : and nothing thereof must be left overnight. If anything thereof were left, they did burn that in the fire ; and they brake not the bones. After ghostly understanding we do then eat the lamb's head, when we take hold of Christ's divinity in our belief. Again, when we take hold of his humanity with love, then eat we the lamb's feet; because that Christ is the beginning and end, God before all world, and man in the end of this world. What be the lamb's purtenance, but Christ's secret precepts, and these we eat when we receive with greediness the Word of Life. There must nothing of the lamb be left unto the morning, because that all God's sayings are to be searched with great carefulness : so that all his precepts may be known in understanding and deed in the night of this present life, before that the last day of the universal resurrection do appear. If we cannot search out thoroughly all the mystery of Christ's incarnation, then ought we to betake the rest unto the might of the Holy Ghost with true humility: and not to search
i Betake (First-English, " betæcan"), to commit, assign, put in trust
resurrection to Christ. He brings us to his everlasting Father, who gave him to death for our sins. To Him be honour, and praise of well doing, world without end. Amen!
rashly of that deep secretness above the measure of our understanding. They did eat the lamb's flesh with their loins girt. In the loins is the lust of the body. And he which shall receive the housell, shall restrain that concupi. scence and take with chastity that holy receipt. They were also shod. What be shoes but of the hides of dead beasts? We be truly shod if we follow in our steps and deeds the life of those pilgrims which please God with keeping of his commandments. They had staves in their hands when they ate. This staff signifieth a carefulness and a diligent overseeing. And all they that best know and can, should take care of other men, and stay them up with their help. It was enjoined to the caters that they should eat the lamb in haste. For God abhorreth slothfulness in his servants. And those he loveth that seek the joy of everlasting life with quickness and haste of mind. It is written: Prolong not to turn unto God, lest the time pass away through thy slow tarrying. The eaters mought not break the lamb's bones. No more mought the soldiers that did hang Christ break his holy legs, as they did of the two thieves that hanged on either side of him. And the Lord rose from death sound without all corruption : and at the last judgment they shall see him, whom they did most cruelly hang on the cross. This time is called in the Hebrew tongue Pasca, and in Latin Transitus, and in English Passover : because that on this day the people of Israel passed from the land of Egypt over the Red Sea ; from bondage to the land of promise. So also did
Of Ælfric's other series of Homilies, written to explain what was celebrated on the saints' days, one of the most interesting is that for St. Gregory's Day, the 12th of March, an old telling of the old tale of the manner in which missionaries from Rome came to convert the English. A translation of this sermon was published in 1709, by Elizabeth Elstob, who, at the suggestion of Dr. Hickes, began a complete translation of the Homilies of Ælfric, which was stopped by private troubles. Unpublished sheets of it are in the British Museum. She had become learned that she might be companion in his studies to her brother, who was of weak health, his companion and helper even when he was student at Oxford, and afterwards in his City parsonage. He died in 1714, and in the same year she lost a friend also in Queen Anne; but in the following year she published an Anglo-Saxon Grammar. Miss Elstob was very poor, and set up a little school at Evesham. At last she became governess in the family of the Duchess of Portland, who gave ease to her old age. This is Elizabeth Elstob's version of
ELFRIC'S HOMILY ON ST. GREGORY'S DAY. Gregory the Holy Father, the apostle of the English nation, on this present day, after manifold labours and divine studies, happily ascended to God's kingdom. He is rightly called the apostle of the English people, inasmuch as he through his counsel and commission rescued us from the worship of the devil, and converted us to the belief of God. Many holy books speak of his illustrious conversation and his pious life; among these the History of England, which King Alfred translated from the Latin into English. This book speaketh plainly enough of this holy man. Nevertheless we will now say something in few words concerning him ; because the aforesaid book is not known to you all, although it is translated into English. This blessed Father Gregory was born of noble and religious parents. His ancestors were of the Roman nobility, his father called Gordianus, and Felix that pious bishop was his fifth father. He was, as we have said, in respect of the world, nobly descended : but he adorned, and exceeded his high birth, with a holy conversation and good works. Gregory is a Greek name, which signifies in the Latin tongue Vigilantius, that is in English Watchful. He was very diligent in God's commandments, while he himself lived most devoutly, and he was earnestly concerned for promoting the advantage of many nations, and made known unto them the way of life. He was from his childhood instructed in the knowledge of books, and he so prosperously succeeded in hie studies, that in all the city of Rome there was none esteemed to be like him. He was most diligent in following the example of his teachers, and not forgetful, but fixed his learning in a retentive memory. He sucked in with a thirsty desire the
AN EVANGELIST. (From the Cotton. Hts., Tiberius, C. vi.)
our Lord at this time depart, as sayeth John the Evangelist, from this world to his heavenly Father. Even so we ought to follow our head, and to go from the devil to Christ; from this unstable world to his stable kingdom. Howbeit we should first in this present life depart from vice to holy virtue, from evil manners to good manners, if we will after this corruptible life go to that eternal life, and after our
1 "This sermon is found in diverse bookes of sermon written in the Olde Englishe or Saxon tounge: whereof two bookes bee nowe handes of the most reverend father the Archbishop of Canterburye.” - Appended Note of the Elizabethan Translator,
flowing learning, which he often, after some time, with a to the bishop of the apostolical see, and desired him that he throat swecter than honey, and with an agreeable eloquence, would send some instructors to the English people, that they poured out. In his younger years, when his youth might might be converted to Christ by the grace of God: and said naturally make him love the things of this world, then began that he himself was ready to undertake that work, if the he to dedicate himself to God, and with all his desires to Pope should think it fit. But the Pope could not consent to breathe after the inheritance of a heavenly life. For after it, although he altogether approved of it; because the Roman his father's departure he erected six monasteries in Sicily; citizens would not suffer so worthy and learned a dortor to and the seventh he built in the city of Rome; in which he leave the city quite, and take so long a pilgrimage. himself lived as a regular, under the government of the After this it happened that a great plague came upon the abbot. These seven monasteries he adorned with his own Roman people, and first of all seized upon Pope Pelagius, and substance, and plentifully endowed them for their daily without delay took him off. Moreover, after the death of subsistence. The remainder of his estate he bestowed on this Pope, the destruction was so great among the people, God's poor; and he exchanged his nobility of birth for | that everywhere throughout the city the houses stood heavenly glory. He was used before his conversion to pass desolate, and without inhabitants. Nevertheless it was not along the city of Rome in garments of silk, sparkling with fit that the Roman city should be without a bishop. But all gems, and adorned with rich embroidery of gold and red. the people unanimously chose the holy Gregory to that But after his conversion' he ministered to God's poor, and honour, although he with all his power opposed it. Then himself took upon him the profession of poverty in a mean Gregory sent an epistle to Mauricius the emperor, to whose habit. So perfectly did he behave himself at the beginning child he had stood godfather, and earnestly desired and of his conversion, that he might hereafter be reputed in the beseeched him, that he would never suffer the people to exalt number of perfect saints. He observed much abstinence in him to the glory of that high promotion, because he feared meat and drink, in watching, and in frequent devotions. He that he, through the greatness of the charge and the worldly suffered, moreover, continual indisposition of body, and the glory which he had some time before renounced, might again more severely he was oppressed with his present infirmities, be ensnared. But the emperor's high marshal Germanus the more earnestly did he desire eternal life. Then the Pope intercepted the letter and tore it in pieces, and afterwards which at that time sat in the Apostolic See, when he per told the emperor that all the people had chosen Gregory to ceived that the holy Gregory was greatly increased in be Pope. Then Mauricius the emperor returned thanks to spiritual virtues, he took him from conversing with monks, Almighty God for this, and gave orders for his consecration. and appointed him to be his assistant, having ordained him a But Gregory betook himself to flight, and lay hid in a care. deacon.
Nevertheless they found him out, and carried him by force to It happened at some time, as it often doth, that some St. Peter's Church, that he might there be consecrated to the English merchants brought their merchandizes to Rome: popedom. Then Gregory, before his consecration, by reason and Gregory passing along the street to the Englishmen of the increasing pestilence, exhorted the Roman people to taking a view of their goods, he there beheld amongst their repentance in these words : “My most beloved brethren, it merchandizes slaves set out to sale. They were white behoveth us, that that rod of God which we ought to have complexioned, and men of fair countenance, having noble dreaded, when we only expected it would be laid upon us, heads of hair And Gregory, when he saw the beauty should now at least raise in us some concern when it is of the young men, enquired from what country they were present and we have felt it. Let our grief open us a way to brought; and the men said from England, and that all the a true conversion, and let that punishment which we endure men in that nation were as beautiful. Then Gregory asked break the hardness of our hearts. Behold now this people is them whether the men of that land were Christians, or slain with the sword of heavenly anger, and each of them heathens; and the men said unto him they were heathens. one by one is destroyed by a sudden slaughter. For the Gregory then fetching a long sigh from the very bottom of disease does not go before death, but you see that each man's his heart, said, Alas! alas! that men of so fair a complexion death prevents the lingering of a disease. The slain are should be subject to the prince of darkness. After that, seized by death before they can have an opportunity of Gregory enquired how they called the nation from whence sighing and lamentation, to express their sincere repentance. they came. To which he was answered, that they were Wherefore let each man take care how he comes into the called Angle (that is, English). Then said he, Rightly they presence of the mighty Judge, who will not bewail the evil are called Angle, because they have the beauty of angels, and which he has performed. (Almost all the dwellers upon therefore it is very fit that they should be the companions of earth are taken away, and their houses stand empty. angels in heaven. Yet still Gregory enquired what the Fathers and mothers stand over the dead bodies of their shire was named from which the young men were brought. children, and their heirs step before them to death. Let us It was told him that the men of that shire were called Deiri. earnestly betake ourselves to lamentation with true repentGregory answered, Well they are called Deiri, because they ance now while we may, before this dreadful slaughter strike are delivered from wrath and called to the mercy of Christ. us. Let us call to mind whatever errors we have been guilty Yet again he enquired what was the name of the king of of, and oh! let us do penance with tears for that which we their province; he was answered, that the king's name was have done amiss. Let us reconcile God's favour to us by Ælla. Therefore Gregory playing upon the words in allusion confessing our sins, as the prophet warneth us, “Let us lift up to the name, said, It is fit that Hallelujah be sung in that our hearts with our hands unto God;' that is, that we ought land in praise of the Almighty Creator. Gregory then went to lift up (or present] the sincerity of our devotions with an
earnest of good works. He giveth vou confidence in your i Conversion from life in the world to life in the monastery. Con.
fear, who speaks to you by his prophet: “I have no pleasure version simply means a change from one state to another. We can in the death of the wicked, but that the wicked should turn convert gold into paper; and here a Roman prætor with money at from his way and live. Let not any man despair of himself command is converted into a monk vowed to poverty. Conversion
for the greatness of his sin, forasmuch as the old guilt of the from one form of religious belief to another, though the sense in which the word is commonly used by writers on religion, is by no
people of Nineveh was expiated by their three days' repentmeans the one sense to which the word is limited.
ance: and the penitent thief by his dring words attained to
the reward of eternal life. O let us then turn our hearts to God; speedily is the Judge inclined to our petitions, if we from our perverseness be set straight. 0. let us stand with earnest lamentations against the threatening sword of so great a judgment. Certainly perseverance is pleasing to the just Judge, although it is not grateful to men: because the righteous and merciful God will have us with earnest petitions to request his mercy, and he will not so much as we deserve be angry with us. Of this he speaketh by his prophet :
Call upon me in the day of thy trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.' God himself is his own witness, that he will have compassion on him that calleth on him; who admonishes us, that it is our duty to call upon him. For this cause; my most dearly beloved brethren, let us come together on the fourth day of this week early in the morning, and with a devout mind, and with tears, sing seven Litanies, that our angry Judge may spare us, when he seeth that we ourselves take vengeance on our sins." So that whilst the whole multitude, as well of the priestly order, and of the monastic, as of the laity, according to the command of the holy Gregory, were come on the Wednesday to the sevenfold Litany, the aforesaid pestilence raged so fast, that four
English people, and he persuaded them to the voyage in these words: “Be not ye afraid through the fatigue of so long a journey, or through what wicked men may discourse concerning it: but with all stedfastness and zeal, and earnest affection, by the grace of God, perfect the work ye have begun; and be ye assured, that the recompense of your eternal reward is so much greater, by how much the greater difficulties you have undergone in fulfilling the will of God. Be obedient with all humility in all things to Augustine, whom we have set over you to be your abbot. It will be for your souls' health, so far as ye fulfil his admonitions. Almighty God through his grace protect you, and grant that I may behold the fruit of your labour in the eternal reward, and that I may be found together with you in the joy of your reward. Because although I cannot labour with you, yet I have a goodwill to share with you in your labour." Augustine then with his companions, which are reckoned to be about forty, that journeyed with him by Gregory's command, proceeded on their journey until they arrived prosperously in this island. In those days reigned king Æthelbyrht in the city of Canterbury, whose kingdom was stretched from the great river Humber to the south sea. Augustine had taken interpreters in the kingdom of the Franks, as Gregory had ordered him; and he, by the mouths of the interpreters, preached God's word to the king and his people; viz., how our merciful Saviour by his own sufferings redeemed this guilty world, and to all that believe hath opened an entrance into the kingdom of heaven. Then king Æthelbyrht answered Augustine, and said, that those were fair words and promises which he gave him : but that he could not so suddenly leave the ancient customs which he and the English people had held. He said, he might freely preach the heavenly doctrine to his people, and that he would allow maintenance to him and his companions : and gave him a dwelling in the city of Canterbury, which was the head city in all his kingdom. Then began Augustine with his monks to imitate the life of the apostles, with frequent prayers, watchings and fastings, serving God, and preaching the word of life with all diligence; despising all earthly things as unprofitable to them, providing only so much as was necessary for their common subsistence, agreeable to what they taught living themselves, and for the love of the truth which they preached being ready to suffer persecution, and death itself, if it were necessary. Therefore very many believed, and were baptised in the name of God, admiring the simplicity of their innocent course of life, and the sweetness of their heavenly doctrine. Afterwards king Æthelbyrht was much pleased with the purity of their lives, and their delightful promises, which were indeed confirmed by many miracles. And he believing was baptised, and he reverenced the Christians, and looked upon them as men of a heavenly polity. Nevertheless he would not force any one to receive Christianity, because he had found upon enquiry from the ministers of his salvation, that the service of Christ ought not to be forced, but voluntary. Then began very many daily to hearken to the divine preaching, and leave their heathenism, and to join themselves to Christ's church, believing in him. In the meantime Augustine went over sea to Etherius Archbishop of Arles, by whom he was consecrated Archbishop of the English, as Gregory before had given him direction. Augustine being consecrated, returned to his bishopric, and sent messengers to Rome, to assure the blessed Gregory, that the English people had received Christianity; and he also in writing made many enquiries, as touching the manner, how he ought to behave himself towards the new converts. Whereupon Gregory gave many thanks to God with a joyful mind, that that had happened to the English nation which
DEATH AND BURIAL.? From a MS. of Ælfrie's Paraphrase of the Pentateuch and Joshua.
Cotton. MSS., Claudius, B. iv.
score men departed this transitory life at the very instant the people were singing the Litany. But the holy priest did not cease to advise the people not to desist from their supplications, until that God's mercy should assuage the raging plague.
In the meantime Gregory, since he took upon him the popedom, called to mind what he formerly had thought of, concerning the English nation, and finished that most beloved work. Nevertheless he might not on any account be altogether absent from the Roman bishop's see. Whereupon he sent other messengers, approved servants of God, to this island, and he himself, by his manifold prayers and exhortations, brought it to pass, that the preaching of these messengers went abroad, and bore fruit to God. The messengers were thus named: Augustinus, Mellitus, Laurentius, Petrus, Johannes, Justus. These doctors the holy pope Gregory sent, with many other monks, to the
1 This sketch shows the manner among the First English of swathing the dead for burial. The face was left for a time uncovered, then the fold was passed over it, and the body went down thus into the grave.
himself had so earnestly desired. And he sent ambassadors to wrote in the reign of William the Conqueror Latin the believing king Æthelbyrht, with letters and many presents: Lives of Saints ; Turgot wrote during the reign of and other letters he sent to Augustine, with answers to all || William II. a History of the Monastery of Durham; the things after which he had enquired, and advised him in
Eadmer wrote in the reign of Henry I. a Life of these words : “ Most dearly beloved brother, I know that the Anselm ; and Sawulf began the long series of Almighty hath by you shewn forth many wonders to the
English records of travel and adventure, with an people whom he hath chosen, for which you have reason both
account of that form of far travel to which religion to rejoice and to be afraid. You may very prudently rejoice
prompted men-travel in Palestine. The religious that the souls of this people by outward miracles are brought
houses being still the chief centres of intellectual to have inward grace. Nevertheless be afraid ; that your
activity, and the spirit of adventure impelling mind be not lifted up with arrogance by reason of the
Englishmen then as now to foreign travel, men miracles which God hath wrought by you, and you then fall
looked with especial interest towards the Holy into vain-glory within, when you are extolled with outward respect." Gregory sent also to Augustine holy presents of
Land. Not long after the death of Cadmon, Adamsacred vestments and of books, and the reliques of the apostles
nan, Abbot of Iona, had written down an account and martyrs, and ordered that his successors should fetch the
of the holy places from the dictation of Bishop pall of the archbishopric from the apostolical see of the
Arculf, a native of Gaul, who had spent nine Roman Church.
months at Jerusalem. Bede abridged this narrative After this Augustine placed bishops out of those that
into a text-book, that was used for diffusing a more had accompanied him, in each city of the English nation, lively knowledge of the topography of Palestine. and they have remained promoting the Christian faith con Another Englishman, early in First-English times, tinually unto this day. The holy Gregory composed many Willibald, also visited the Holy Land, before he divine treatises, and with great diligence instructed God's became Bishop of Eichstadt, about the year 740. people in the way to eternal life, and wrought many miracles He died in the latter part of the eighth century, and in his lifetime, and behaved himself in a most glorious his life was written by a nun of Heidenheim, who manner upon the episcopal throne thirteen years, and six also took down from his own mouth an account of months, and ten days, and afterwards as on this day departed his travels. to the eternal throne of the heavenly kingdom, in which he After the Conquest, the English traveller who liveth with God Almighty world without end. Amen. first followed the Crusaders to Palestine was Sæwulf.
His visit was paid in the years 1102 and 1103. Here we may pass from the literature of First Sæwulf was a merchant who often had twinges of English times. The teachers of religion were also conscience, confessed to Bishop Wulfstan at Worthe teachers of all other learning, and formed the cester, then was tempted back to the old tricks of main body of the educated class. To be of the trade, and finally gave up active life in the world people, “ leod," was to be unlearned, “ lewed ;” the to escape from its temptations, and joined the monks educated man was clerk. From such a literary class at Malmesbury. His description of the storm at there came a literature almost exclusively religious. Joppa-due allowance made for rhetoric-gives us a The one great exception is the heathen poem of lively sense of the energy of that religious move“ Beowulf.” “Beowulf” was a tale brought into | ment towards Palestine, which had brought so many the country, but we have it as told in the language pilgrims into the harbour. In the following account spoken only here. In its origin it is more ancient of Sawulf's entrance into the Holy Land and his than Cadmon, and its original character is well going up to Jerusalem, then in the hands of the preserved; but a few interspersed comments, and Crusaders, the Mosque of Omar is described as the the fact that it is in a form of speech proper to Temple of the Lord, with a minute identification of this country, and doubtless produced here by the sacred places that came of a determination to join fusion of tribes, shows that the old poem, as we thoughts of heaven with as many spots of earth as have it, was written by an English monk, who seems possible :even to have put local features of the coast near
SÆWULF's VISIT TO THE HOLY PLACES.' Whitby into his suggestions of scenery, and who could hardly have written before Cædmon's time. After leaving the isle of Cyprus, we were tossed about by Except only a few short pieces, all other literature tempestuous weather for seven days and seven nights, being of the First English was religious, and applied religion forced back one night almost to the spot from which we very practically to the life of man.
failed; but after much suffering, by divine mercy, at sunris. on the eighth day, we saw before us the coast of the port of Joppa, which filled us with an unexpected and extraordinary joy. Thus, after a course of thirteen weeks, as we took ship
at Monopoli, on a Sunday, having dwelt constantly on the CHAPTER II.
- - --- - -TRANSITION ENGLISH: FROM THE CONQUEST TO i From "Early Travels in Palestine, comprising the narratives of
Arculf, Willibald, Bernard, Sæwulf, Sigurd, Benjamin of Tudela, Sir Wiclif.-A.D. 1066 to A.D. 1376.
John Maundeville, De la Brocquière, and Maundrell. Edited, with
Notes, by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., &c." One of many AFTER the Conquest the chief literary energy was
valuable books with which Mr. Thomas Wright has, during a long at first in the production of monastic chronicles. career, quickened the general knowledge of our past life and litera. Science was occupied with treatises on computation ture, and earned the gratitude of students who can recognise the
worth of a busy life spent, with a definite aim, in sustained labour of the time of Easter, until contact with the Arabs
helping always towards the higher education of the people. quickened scientific thought. Osbern of Canterbury | 2 Monopoli. A seaport of South Italy, on the Adriatic.