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.- - - - in the separate church, that of Thetford. Before the Locke became one of the Fellows of the Royal end of the century all proceedings against Dr. Hickes Society, and in 1673 he was Secretary to a Commiswere stayed, out of respect to his position as a sion of the Board of Trade over which Shaftesbury scholar. He died in 1715.
was President. He was with Shaftesbury when Another of the non-jurors, an earnest and ener Charles II. was seeking his life, and afterwards went getic writer, was Jeremy Collier, born in 1650, and to Holland. Shaftesbury died in 1683, but Locke educated in Ipswich school and at Caius College, remained at Amsterdam, and for a time at RotterCambridge. He had a rectory in Suffolk, and was dam, in close association with Philip Van Limborch, lecturer at Gray's Inn before he got into trouble by Jean le Clerc, and other leaders of the Church of the his opposition to the Revolution. He died outlawed Remonstrants, which had been established by Jacob in 1726. At the close of the century Jeremy Collier Harmensen (Arminius). He was writing upon led an attack upon the Immorality and Profaneness “ Toleration " at the time of the English Revolution, of the Stage, and this controversy continued for two and returned to England in the ship that brought the or three years. Jeremy Collier also wrote some Princess Mary. He then published his “ Essay good “Moral Essays" and an Ecclesiastical History. concerning Human Understanding," and his “ Two
William Penn, born in 1644, son of an admiral, Treatises of Government," in which he laid down the and educated at Christchurch, Oxford, had suffered principles of the Revolution. In 1691 Locke, whose persecution in his earlier life for turning Quaker, and health was very delicate, found a pleasant home at wrote in prison at the age of twenty-five “No Cross Oates, in Essex, the residence of Sir Francis Masham no Crown." In 1670 he inherited his father's estate, and his wife. Lady Masham had been known to Locke and in 1681 obtained a grant of New Netherlands, some years before as his friend Dr. Cudworth's only thenceforward called Pennsylvania. In 1694 Penn daughter Damaris. In 1693 he published “Some published " A Brief Account of the Rise and Pro Thoughts concerning Education," which had a great gress of the People called Quakers," and there was and wholesome influence upon home-life in England, published in the same year the “ Journal of George while his wisdom and honesty were made serviceable Fox,” the founder of their brotherhood, who died in to the state. The later writings of Locke, until his 1690. Penn died in 1718.
death in 1704, were chiefly religious. In 1695 he published a treatise on “ The Reasonableness of Christianity "—this drew its evidence chiefly from the Gospel narrative; and his last work came of an endeavour to ground his faith also upon study of the Epistles of St. Paul—“An Essay for the Understanding of St. Paul's Epistles by consultin, St. Paul himself.”
In the first year of the Revolution John Locke drew up for himself and some of his friends these
RULES FOR A SOCIETY OF PACIFIC CHRISTIANS.
1. We think nothing necessary to be known or believed for salvation, but what God hath revealed.
2. We therefore embrace all those who, in sincerity, receive the word of truth revealed in the Scripture, and obey the light which enlightens every man that comes into the world.
3. We judge no man in meats, or drinks, or habits, or days, or any other outward observances, but leave every one to his freedom in the use of those outward things which he thinks can most contribute to build up the inward man in righteousness, holiness, and the true love of God and his neighbour, in Christ Jesus.
4. If any one find any doctrinal parts of Scripture difficult to be understood, we recommend him—1st, The study of the Scriptures in humility and singleness of heart; 2nd, Prayer to the Father of lights to enlighten him; 3rd, Obedience to what is already revealed to him, remembering that the practice of what we do know is the surest way to more knowledge; our infallible guide having told us, “If any man will do the will of him that sent me, he shall know of the doctrine.” 4th, We leave him to the advice and assistance of those whom he thinks best able to instruct him; no men or society of men having any authority to impose their opinions or interpretations on any other, the meanest
JOHN LOCKE. (From the Portrait prefixod to his works in 1703.)
John Locke was nearly of the same age as Dryden, John Dryden having been born in August, 1631, and John Locke in August, 1632. Locke was born at Wrington, in Somersetshire; his father served in the Parliamentary wars under Colonel Popham, by whose advice the boy was sent to Westminster School. From Westminster he passed, in 1651, to Christchurch, Oxford, where he felt the impulse then given to scientific research by Bacon's philosophy. He made medicine his study, and by accident was brought into close friendly relation to Lord Ashley, afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury. In 1668
See Note 1, page 263.
tolerance and despotism. Burnet was preacher at the Rolls Chapel when he began, with aid from Robert Boyle, his “History of the Reformation." He caused the dissolute Earl of Rochester to die a Christian, and was by his friend Lord Russell when he died on the scaffold. Then Burnet was deprived of his preachership, and was abroad till he returned to England with William of Orange as his chaplain. In the next year he was made Bishop of Salisbury. His ability, industry, and warmth of feeling bad made him a foremost man of his party. He could not avoid judging others as a partisan, and from partisans upon the other side he has suffered many a harsh judgment. As bishop, Burnet lived in his diocese, and paid close attention to its duties. He died in 1715, leaving evidence of his ability and industry and of his living interest in the great controversies of his time, not only in his “ History of the Reformation of the Church of England,” but also in a “History of his own Times,” that is full of important detail, although bitterly ridiculed by Pope and Swift. It ends with the year 1713, and there is added to it an Address to Posterity, written in 1708, when Burnet thought that he was near the end of his labour. It closes with the following words on the
Christian, sinco, in matters of religion, every man must know and believe and give an account for himself.
5. We hold it to be an indispensable duty for all Christians to maintain love and charity in the diversity of contrary opinions : by which charity we do not mean an empty sound, but an effectual forbearance and goodwill, carrying men to a communion, friendship, and mutual assistance one of another, in outward as well as spiritual things; and by debarring all magistrates from making use of their authority, much less their sword (which was put into their hands only against evil-doers), in matters of faith or worship.
6. Since the Christian religion we profess is not a notional science, to furnish speculation to the brain or discourse to the tongue, but a rule of righteousness to influence our lives, Christ having given Himself “to redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto Himself a people zealous of good works,” we profess the only business of our public assem. blies to be to exhort, thereunto laying aside all controversy and speculative questions, instruct and encourage one another in the duties of a good life, which is acknowledged to be the great business of true religion, and to pray God for the assistance of His Spirit for the enlightening our understanding and subduing our corruptions, that so we may return unto Him a reasonable and acceptable service, and show our faith by our works, proposing to ourselves and others the example of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, as the great pattern for our imitation.
7. One alone being our Master, even Christ, we acknow. ledge no masters of our assembly; but if any man in the spirit of love, peace, and meekness, has a word of exhortation, we hear him.
8. Nothing being so oppressive, or having proved so fatal to unity, love, and charity, the first great characteristical duties of Christianity, as men's fondness of their own opinions, and their endeavours to set them up, and have them followed, instead of the gospel of peace; to prevent those seeds of dissension and division, and maintain unity in the difference of opinions which we know cannot be avoided -if any one appear contentious, abounding in his own sense rather than in love, and desirous to draw followers after himself, with destruction or opposition to others, we judge him not to have learnt Christ as he ought, and therefore not fit to be a teacher of others.
9. Decency and order in our assemblies being directed, as they ought, to edification, can need but very few and plain rules. Time and place of meeting being settled, if anything else need regulation, the assembly itself, or four of the ancientest, soberest, and discreetest of the brethren, chosen for that occasion, shall regulate it.
10. From every brother that, after admonition, walketh disorderly, we withdraw ourselves.
11. We each of us think it our duty to propagate the doctrine and practice of universal goodwill and obedience in all places, and on all occasions, as God shall give us oppor. tunity.
STUDY AND PRACTICE OF RELIGION." I will conclude this whole Address to Posterity with that, which is the most important of all other things, and which alone will carry every thing else along with it; which is to recommend, in the most solemn and serious manner, the Study and Practice of Religion to all sorts of Men, as that which is both the Light of the World, and the Salt of the Earth. Nothing does so open our Faculties, and compose and direct the whole Man, as an inward Sense of God, of his Authority over us, of the Laws he has set us, of his Eye ever upon us, of his hearing our Prayers, assisting our Endeavours, watching over our concerns, and of his being to judge and to reward or punish us in another State, according to what we do in this: Nothing will give a Man such a Detestation of Sin, and such a Sense of the Goodness of God, and of our Obligations to Holiness, as a right Understanding and a firm Belief of the Christian Religion: Nothing can give a Man so calm a Peace within, and such a firm Security against all Fears and Dangers without, as the Belief of a kind and wise Providence, and of a future State. An Integrity of Heart gives a Man a Courage, and a Confidence that cannot be shaken: A Man is sure that, by living according to the Rules of Religion, he becomes the wisest, the best and happiest Creature, that he is capable of being: Honest Industry, the employing his Time well, and a constant Sobriety, an undefiled Purity and Chastity, with a quiet Serenity, are the best Preservers of Life and Health : So that, take a Man as a single Individual, Religion is his Guard, his Perfection, his Beauty, and his Glory : This will make him the Light of the World, shining brightly, and enlightening many round about him.
Then take a Man as a Piece of Mankind, as a Citizen of the World, or of any particular State, Religion is indeed then the Salt of the Earth : For it makes every Man to be to all the rest of the World, whatsoever any one can with
Gilbert Burnet was born at Edinburgh in 1643, and educated at Aberdeen ; he studied also for a few months in Oxford and Cambridge, worked at Hebrew in Holland, and in 1665, at the age of twenty-two, became Divinity Professor in Glasgow. He was a hard worker, rose at four in the morning to his studies, and continued the practice until it was forbidden by the infirmities of age. His life was troubled by church dissensions and the strife of politics, in which he gave offence by opposition to in
1 This passage is printed as in the first edition (1724), reproducing capitals, italics, spelling, punctuation, &c., that it may serve for specimen of English as it was written early in the eighteenth oentury.
reason wish or desire him to be. He is true, just, honest and So that by Religion I mean, such a Sense of divine Truth, faithful in the whole Commerce of Life, doing to all others, as enters into a Man, and becomes a Spring of a new Nature that which he would have others do to him. He is a Lover of within him; reforming his Thoughts and Designs, purifying Mankind, and of his Country: He may and ought to love his Heart, and sanctifying him, and governing his whole some more than others; but he has an Extent of Love to all, Deportment, his Words as well as his Actions; convincing of Pity and Compassion, not only to the poorest, but to the him that, it is not enough, not to be scandalously vicious, or worst; for the worse any are, they are the more to be pitied. to be innocent in his Conversation, but that he must be He has a Complacency and Delight in all that are truely, | entirely, uniformly and constantly pure and vertuous, anitho' but defectively good, and a Respect and Veneration for mating him with a Zeal, to be still better and better, more all that are eminently so: He mourns for the Sins, and eminently good and exemplary, using Prayers and all outrejoices in the Virtues of all that are round about him: In ward Devotions, as solemn Acts testifying what he is inevery Relation of Life, Religion makes him answer all his wardly and at heart, and as Methods instituted by God, to Obligations : It will make Princes just and good, faithful to be still advancing in the use of them further and further, their Promises, and Lovers of their People: It will inspire into a more refined and spiritual Sense of divine Matters. Subjects with Respect, Submission, Obedience and Zeal for This is true Religion, which is the Perfection of Human their Prince: It will sanctify Wedlock to be a State of Chris Nature, and the Joy and Delight of every one, that feels it tian Friendship, and mutual Assistance: It will give Parents | active and strong within him; it is true, this is not arrived the truest Love to their Children, with a proper Care of their at all at once; and it will have an unhappy allay, hanging Education: It will command the Returns of Gratitude and long even about a good Man: But, as those ill Mixtures are Obedience from Children: It will teach Masters to be gentle the perpetual Grief of his Soul, so it is his chief Care to and careful of their Servants, and Servants to be faithful, watch over and to mortify them; he will be in a continual zealous, and diligent in their Master's Concerns: It will Progress, still gaining ground upon himself: And, as he make Friends tender and true to one another; it will make attains to a good degree of Purity, he will find a noble Flame them generous, faithful and disinterested : It will make Men of Life and Joy growing upon him. Of this I write with live in their Neighbourhood, as Members of one common the more Concern and Emotion, because I have felt this the Body, promoting first the general Good of the Whole, and true and indeed the only Joy, which runs thro' a Man's then the Good of every Particular, as far as a Man's Sphere Heart and Life: It is that which has been for many Years can go: It will make Judges and Magistrates just and my greatest Support; I rejoice daily in it; I feel from it the patient, hating Covetousness, and maintaining Peace and Earnest of that supreme Joy, which I pant and long for; I Order, without respect of Persons: It will make People live am sure there is nothing else can afford any true or compleat in so inoffensive a manner, that it will be easy to maintain Happiness. I have, considering my Sphere, seen a great deal Justice, whilst Men are not disposed to give Disturbance to of all, that is most shining and tempting in this World : The those about them. This will make Bishops and Pastors faith Pleasures of Sense I did soon nauseate; Intrigues of State, ful to their Trust, tender to their People, and watchful over and the Conduct of Affairs have something in them, that is them; and it will beget in the People an Esteem for their more specious; and I was, for some Years, deeply immersed Persons, and their Functions.
in these, but still with Hopes of reforming the World, and of Thus Religion, if truely received and sincerely adhered to, making Mankind wiser and better: But I have found, That would prove the greatest of all Blessings to a Nation : But by which is crooked cannot be made straight. I acquainted my Religion, I understand somewhat more than the receiving self with Knowledge and Learning, and that in a great some Doctrines, tho' ever so true, or the professing them, Variety, and with more Compass than Depth: but tho' Wisand engaging to support them, not without Zeal and Eager- dom excelleth Folly, as much as Light does Darkness ; yet, as it ness. What signify the best Doctrines, if Men do not live is a sore Travail, so it is so very defective, that what is want. suitably to them; if they have not a due Influence upon ing to compleat it, cannot be numbered. I have seen that two their Thoughts, their Principles, and their Lives ? Men of were better than one, and that a threefold Cord is not easily bad Lives, with sound Opinions, are self condemned, and lie loosed; and have therefore cultivated Friendship with much under a highly aggravated Guilt; nor will the Heat of a Zeal and a disinterested Tenderness; but I have found this Party, arising out of Interest, and managed with Fury and was also Vanity and Vexation of Spirit, tho' it be of the best Violence, compensate for the ill Lives of such false Pre and noblest sort. So that, upon great and long Experience, tenders to Zeal; while they are a Disgrace to that, which I could enlarge on the Preacher's Text, Vanity of Vanities, they profess and seem so hot for. By Religion I do not mean, and all is Vanity; but I must also conclude with him ; Fear an outward Compliance with Form and Customs, in going to God, and keep his Commandments, for this is the All of Man, Church, to Prayers, to Sermons and to Sacraments, with an the Whole both of his Duty, and of his Happiness. I do external Shew of Devotion, or, which is more, with some in therefore end all, in the Words of David, of the Truth of ward forced good Thoughts, in which many may satisfy which, upon great Experience and a long Observation, I am themselves, while this has no visible effect on their Lives, so fully assured, that I leave these as my last Words to nor any inward Force to subdue and rectify their Appetites, Posterity: “ Come ye Children, hearken unto me; I will teach Passions and secret Designs. Those customary performances, “you the Fear of the Lord ; what Man is he that desireth Life, how good and useful soever, when well understood and " and loveth many Days, that he may see Good; keep thy rightly directed, are of little value, when Men rest on them, “ Tongue from Evil, and thy Lips from speaking Guile ; depart and think that, because they do them, they have therefore " from Evil, and do Good, seek Peace and pursue it. The Eyes acquitted themselves of their Duty, tho' they continue still “ of the Lord are upon the Righteous, and his Ears are open to proud, covetous, full of Deceit, Envy and Malice: Even “their Cry; but the Face of the Lord is against them that do secret Prayer, the most effectual of all other means, is designed | “ Evil, to cut off the Remembrance of them from the Earth. for a higher end, which is to possess our Minds with such a “ The Righteous cry, and the Lord heareth, and delivereth them constant and present Sense of Divine Truths, as may make “out of all their Troubles. The Lord is nigh unto them that these live in us, and govern us; and may draw down such “are of a broken Heart, and savcth such as be of a contrite Assistances, as may exalt and sanctify our Natures.
Simon Patrick was Bishop of Chichester when, in tian religion against infidels, “not descending lower 1691, he was translated to Ely. He wrote on the to any controversies that are among Christians." Lord's Supper “Mensa Mystica," and a book in sup The first Boyle lecturer was Richard Bentley, chosen port of their belief to satisfy believers, called “The when only twenty-eight years old. He gave, with Witnesses of Christianity, or the Certainty of our great effect, a course in 1692, and another in 1694. Faith and Hope." In 1691, when Simon Patrick Samuel Clarke gave the Boyle lectures in 1704, was made Bishop of Ely, Thomas Tenison was made taking for subject the Being and Attributes of God, Bishop of Lincoln, and in 1694 Tenison succeeded and he gave a course again in the following year, Tillotson as Archbishop of Canterbury. Tillotson on the Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion, had recommended him as a successor, because he argued from the “ fitness of things." He afterwards was liberal in spirit and had been proved faithful in pleased Newton greatly by a translation of his optics, the discharge of duty.
and became chaplain to Queen Anne and Rector of There began at this time an active controversy St. James's, Westminster. He had been accused of on the Doctrine of the Trinity. Thomas Firmin, a Arianism, because he said that he had only read the friend of Tillotson, and a benevolent and wealthy Athanasian Creed once, and then by mistake; but in London merchant, became zealous for the diffusion 1712 he published a work on the Doctrine of the of tracts favourable to Unitarian opinions. Two of Trinity. This was condemned by the Lower House these were answered by Dr. Sherlock, who was non- of Convocation as unorthodox in its method of injuror at the Revolution, but complied afterwards. terpretation, and inconsistent with the Athanasian In 1691, the year after his book on the Trinity | Creed. Dr. Clarke had no wish to excite division, appeared, Sherlock was made Dean of St. Paul's. and submitted himself in terms which were held to He died in 1707, aged sixty-six. William Sherlock be no recantation of his views, although sufficient argued that there was no salvation outside the when accompanied with a promise to preach no more Catholic faith, as set forth in the Athanasian in the sense objected to. Dr. Clarke died in 1729. Creed. The controversy spread. Dr. John Wallis The new and bolder questioning of religion and of entered into it as a mathematician. Dr. Robert God Himself, as well as of church doctrines, which South, in 1693, attacked Sherlock for the too sophis becomes a feature of our literature in the times of ticated method of his explanation. In 1695 John which we are now speaking, had several sources. Toland, an Irishman who had been bred as a Roman One was in the critical wit of a dissolute court in Catholic, published a tract called “ Christianity not the time of Charles II., when men influenced by Mysterious," that spread the controversy farther. the French reaction against extravagance of style and His book was burnt by order of the Irish House of thought in literature, followed the king's example in Parliament, and he was called a Jesuit and a Socinian. exalting pleasures of the sense. With minds thus As he had applied in his own way some principles lowered in aim, while trained in a form of critical of Locke's philosophy, the veteran Edward Stilling acuteness that had its good as well as its bad use, fleet, Bishop of Worcester, the most energetic con they satirised extravagance, but fell also out of troversial writer in the Church, attacked John Locke, accord with all true exaltation of thought; for every making him answerable for doctrines that he had not libertine called himself a “man of parts” or “man taught, because they had been associated with first of sense," and looked on a character for wit as principles drawn from his “Essay concerning Human inconsistent with a character for religious feeling Understanding." Locke replied; Stillingfleet replied or domestic worth. Thus in Sir George Etherege's again; Locke answered a second and a third time. comedy of the “Man of Mode," Dorimant, who George Bull, a pious and amiable man, who was represents the licentious fine gentleman of Charles made Bishop of St. David's in 1705, and died in II.'s day, says of his intimacy with Bellair, who 1708, had written, in 1685, a Defence of the Nicene is well bred, complaisant, seldom impertinent, and Creed, and he wrote , again on the same subject. as he says “by much the most tolerable of all the William Beveridge was made Bishop of St. Asaph in young men that do not abound in wit," that they 1704, and died, aged seventy-one, in 1707. He left are intimate because “it is our mutual interest a large body of sermons, in which the active piety of to be so; it makes the women think better of his his own life is reflected.
understanding, and judge more favourably of my Dr. Samuel Clarke, son of an alderman of Nor reputation; it makes him pass upon some for a man wich, educated at Norwich and at Caius College, of very good sense, and I upon others for a very Cambridge, published notes upon Newton's philosophy civil person.” What the cant of the day thus called at the age of twenty-two. He was for twelve years “good sense” was commonly parted from religion; chaplain to the Bishop of Norwich, who gave him and antagonism to the Puritans after the Restoration the living of Drayton in Norfolk. Robert Boyle made it ungentlemanly to be known to pray. Richard died in 1691, a week after his sister and life-com Steele, in Queen Anne's reign, attacked in the "Tatler” panion, Lady Ranelagh. By his will he left provision this fashion which had been transmitted to his day, for annual lectures by divines who were to be "ready and spoke in playful earnest of a young gentleman to satisfy real scruples, and to answer such new who gave himself much trouble to be thought an objections and difficulties as might be started, to atheist, though it could be proved upon him that which good answers had not been made.” They every night before going to bed he said his prayers. were also to preach eight sermons in the year, on But there was another form of doubt that instead of the first Monday of every month except June, July, accompanying the degradation of man's life sprang August, and December, for the proof of the Chris- | from a generous reaction against it. This was the form of scepticism that had power; and this could be than his letters to his intimate friends; we have one of that met only by those who opposed to it, with respect nature of this great Apostle to Philemon, which in the modern for its sincere desire for truth, a frank sincerity and language would perhaps run thus:thorough earnestness. In France and elsewhere the
“Sir,-It is with the deepest satisfaction that I every prevalent corruptions of society extended to the
day hear you commended for your generous behaviour to all Church, and doctrines were enforced by an authority
of that faith in the articles of which I had the honour and too often itself contemptible in honest eyes. Self
happiness to initiate you; for which, though I might presumo seeking teachers, who lived evil lives, discredited the
to an authority to oblige your compliance in a request I am faith of which they made themselves the absolute
going to make to you, yet choose I rather to apply myself to dictators. They provoked doubts which they were
you as a friend than an Apostle, for with a man of your
great temper, I know I need not a more powerful pretence utterly incompetent to answer, and already before the
than that of my age and imprisonment. Yet is not my peticlose of the seventeenth century the literature of
tion for myself, but in behalf of the bearer, your servant Europe showed the clear beginnings of a revolt that
Onesimus, who has robbed you and ran away from you. What afterwards prompted many, in extreme reaction
he has defrauded you of, I will be answerable for; this shall against blind authority, to sweep from their minds all
be a demand upon me; not to say that you owe me your very that they had been taught by rote, and seek by fearless
self. I called him your servant, but he is now also to be exercise of reason to find out for themselves absolute
regarded by you in a greater relation, even that of your truth. Strong reaction tends to excess. Resentment
fellow-Christian; for I esteem him a son of mine as much as against superstition has caused many who have been your self; nay, methinks it is a certain peculiar endearment very near to it to give themselves to infidelity. The of him to me, that I had the happiness of gaining him in my first combat of the Red Cross Knight, when parted confinement. I beseech you to receive him, and think it an from Una, was with Sansfoy. Resentment against act of Providence that he went away from you for a season, religion, plied as a trade, with greed and hypocrisy, to return more improved to your service for ever." drove into strong opposition many able, earnest men. This letter is the sincere image of a worthy, pious, and Bold thinkers and enthusiasts urged reason and elo brave man, and the ready utterance of a generous Christian quence against the faith itself, which had been thus temper. How handsomely does he assume, though a prisoner? discredited. An argument was rising that no longer How humbly condescend, though an Apostle ? Could any dealt with questions of “fixed fate, free will, fore request have been made, or any person obliged with a better knowledge absolute," but struck at the root of all grace? The very criminal servant is no less with him than belief in God. Men were asking whether the world,
his son and his brother. For Christianity has that in it, which as it was, could be the work of a just God; whether makes men pity, not scorn the wicked, and by a beautiful there was a God. If they believed in God, they ques
kind of ignorance of themselves, think those wretches their tioned with the boldest freedom whatever authority
cquals; it aggravates all the benefits and good offices of life, required them to believe as to His nature, or the
by making them seem fraternal; and the Christian feels the revelation of His will to man.
wants of the miserable so much his own, that it sweetens the
pain of the obliged, when he that gives does it with an air In the “Tatlers” and “Spectators" of Queen Anne's
that has neither oppression or superiority in it, but had rather reign, Steele and Addison sought to check the lower social influences that made war upon religion and an
have his generosity appear an enlarged self-love than diffusive
bounty, and is always a benefactor with the mien of a receiver. honest life. They wrote papers that battled against such fashions as the habitual scoffing against marriage, swearing, duelling, and this they did in a genial spirit
Steele and Addison will be more fully represented that set the example of the wholesomer life they endea
in the volume of this Library answering to that
of Shorter English Poems, which will contain a series voured to restore to honour among “men of sense.”
of the best pieces of Prose that are short enough They dared to be religious, and showed that it was possible to be religious without groan, critical with
to be given complete. But the tone and purpose of
their writing were so essentially religious, that each out sneer, witty without offence. Richard Steele had, under conditions that increase our honour for
of them must be represented here. This is a paper the little piece, begun his manly career as a writer
of Addison's, written in July, 1714 (No. 574 of the with a pamphlet called “ The Christian Hero; or,
“Spectator," and here given as printed in the first No Principles but those of Religion Sufficient to make
editions), on a Great Man." In this he showed that the true
CONTENT, Christian heroism, which dares take Christ for the I was once engaged in Discourse with a Rosicrusian about great example, and live up to the teaching of the the great Secret. As this kind of Men (I mean those of them Sermon on the Mount, is far above the heroism of the who are not professed Cheats) are over-run with Enthusiasm ancients, who were just then lauded especially in and Philosophy, it was very amusing to hear this religious French-classical literature. I take from “ The Chris Adept descanting on his pretended Discovery. He talked of tian Hero," published in 1701, this passage containing, the Secret as of a Spirit which lived within an Emerald, and with comment, a short paraphrase of
converted every thing that was near it to the highest Perfection it is capable of. It gives a Lustre, says he, to the Sun,
and Water to the Diamond. It irradiates every Metal, and PAUL'S EPISTLE TO PHILEMON.
enriches Lead with all the Properties of Gold. It heightens It were endless to enumerate these excellences and beauties | Smoak into Flame, Flame into Light, and Light into Glory. in his writings; but since they were all in his more public and He further added, that a single Ray of it dissipates Pain, and ministerial office, let's see him in his private life. There is Care, and Melancholy from the Person on whom it falls. In nothing expresses a man's particular character more fully short, says he, its Presence naturally changes every Place