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into a kind of Heaven. After he had gone on for some Timo more unhappy he might be than he really is. The former in this unintelligible Cant, I found that he jumbled natural Consideration took in all those who are sufficiently provided and moral Ideas together into the same Discourse, and that with the Means to make themselves easie; this regards such his great Secret was nothing else but Content.

as actually lie under some Pressure or Misfortune. These This Virtue does indeed produce, in some measure, all may receive great Alleviation from such a Comparison as the those Effects which the Alchymist usually ascribes to what he unhappy Person may make between himself and others, or calls the Philosopher's Stone; and if it does not bring Riches, between the Misfortune which he suffers, and greater Misforit does the same thing, by banishing the Desire of them. If tunes which might have befallen him. it cannot remove the Disquietudes arising out of a Man's I like the Story of the honest Dutchman, who, upon breakMind, Body, or Fortune, it makes him easie under them. It ing his Leg by a Fall from the Mainmast, told the Standers. has indeed a kindly Influence on the Soul of Man, in respect by, It was a great Mercy that 'twas not his Neck. To which, of every Being to whom he stands related. It extinguishes since I am got into Quotations, give me leave to add the all Murmur, Repining, and Ingratitude towards that Being Saying of an old Philosopher, who, after having invited some who has allotted him his Part to act in this world. It of his Friends to dine with him, was ruffled by his Wife that destroys all inordinate Ambition, and every Tendency to came into the Room in a Passion, and threw down the Table Corruption, with regard to the Community wherein he is that stood before them; Every one, says he, has his Calamity, placed. It gives Sweetness to his Conversation, and a per and he is a happy Man that has no greater than this. We find petual Serenity to all his Thoughts.

an Instance to the same Purpose in the Life of Doctor Ham. Among the many Methods which might be made use of for mond, written by Bishop Fell. As this good Man was troubled the acquiring of this Virtue, I shall only mention the two with a Complication of Distempers, when he had the Gout following. First of all, A Man should always consider how upon him, he used to thank God that it was not the Stone; much he has more than he wants; and Secondly, How much and when he had the Stone, that he had not both these Dismore unhappy he might be than he really is.

tempers on him at the same time. First of all, A Man should always consider how much he I cannot conclude this Essay without observing that there has more than he wants. I am wonderfully pleased with the was never any System besides that of Christianity, which Reply which Aristippus made to one who condoled him upon could effectually produce in the Mind of Man the Virtue I the Loss of a Farm, Why, said he, I have three Farms still, have been hitherto speaking of. In order to make us content and you have but one ; so that I ought rather to be afflicted for with our present Condition, many of the ancient Philosophers you, than you for me. On the contrary, foolish Men are more tell us that our Discontent only hurts ourselves, without apt to consider what they have lost than what they possess ; being able to make any Alteration in our Circumstances; and to fix their Eyes upon those who are richer than them others, that whatever Evil befalls us is derived to us by a selves, rather than on those who are under greater Difficulties. fatal Necessity, to which the Gods themselves are subject; All the real Pleasures and Conveniences of Life lie in a narrow whilst others very gravely tell the Man who is miserable, Compass; but it is the Humour of Mankind to be always that it is necessary he should be so to keep up the Harmony looking forward, and straining after one who has got the of the Universe, and that the Scheme of Providence would be Start of them in Wealth and Honour. For this Reason, as troubled and perverted were he otherwise. These, and the there are none can be properly called rich, who have not more like Considerations, rather silence than satisfy a Man. They than they want; there are few rich Men in any of the politer may shew him that his Discontent is unreasonable, but are by Nations but among the middle Sort of People, who keep their no means sufficient to relieve it. They rather give Despair Wishes within their Fortunes, and have more Wealth than than Consolation. In a Word, a Man might reply to one of they know how to enjoy. Persons of a higher Rank live in these Comforters, as Augustus did to his Friend who advised a kind of splendid Poverty, and are perpetually wanting, him not to grieve for the Death of a Person whom he loved, because instead of acquiescing in the solid Pleasures of Life, because his Grief could not fetch him again: It is for that they endeavour to outvy one another in Shadows and Appear- very Reason, said the Emperor, that I grieve. ances. Men of Sense have at all times beheld with a great On the contrary, Religion bears a more tender Regard to deal of Mirth this silly Game that is playing over their humane Nature. It prescribes to every miserable Man the Heads, and by contracting their Desires, enjoy all that secret Means of bettering his condition; nay, it shews him, that the Satisfaction which others are always in quest of. The Truth bearing of his Afflictions as he ought to do will naturally end is, this ridiculous Chace after imaginary Pleasures cannot be in the Removal of them: 'It makes him easie here, because it sufficiently exposed, as it is the great Source of those Evils can make him happy hereafter. which generally undo a Nation. Let a Man's Estate be what Upon the whole, a contented Mind is the greatest Blessing it will, he is a poor Man if he does not live within it, and a Man can enjoy in this World; and if in the present Life naturally sets himself to Sale to any one that can give him his Happiness arises from the subduing of his Desires, it will his Price. When Pittacus, after the Death of his Brother | arise in the next from the Gratification of them. who had left him a good Estate, was offered a great Sum of Money by the King of Lydia, he thanked him for his Kind. ness, but told him he had already more by Half than he knew

Addison's religious feeling raised his appreciation what to do with. In short, Content is equivalent to Wealth,

of Sir Richard Blackmore's poem on “The Creation," and Luxury to Poverty; or, to give the Thought a more

which owed also to its good purpose Samuel Johnagreeable Turn, Content is natural Wealth, says Socrates ; to

son's endorsement of the praise of Addison. Sir which I shall add, Luxury is artificial Poverty. I shall there

Richard Blackmore, who died in 1729, had obtained fore recommend to the Consideration of those who are always

his knighthood as physician to William III. He wrote aiming after superfluous and imaginary Enjoyments, and will several epics, and among other poems a “ Paraphrase not be at the Trouble of contracting their Desires, an excellent of the Book of Job," &c. Blackmore's “Creation: A Saying of Bion the Philosopher; namely, That no Man has 80 Philosophical Poem, Demonstrating the Existence much Care, as he who endeavours after the most Happiness. and Providence of a God," was published in 1712. In

In the second Place, every one ought to reflect how much the first of its Seven Books of rhymed heroic couplets,

Is there such skill in imitation shown,
And in the things we imitate, is none ?
Are not our arts by artful nature taught,
With pain and careful observation sought?

the poem opens with evidence of God's Existence from the marks of His Wisdom in the Earth and Sea. In the second book the same evidence is derived from the Stars, the Planets, and the Air. The third book treats of the speculations by which it has been sought to explain Creation without a Creator. The fourth book argues especially against the theory of Creation by a fortuitous concurrence of Atoms. The fifth book reasons man's need of a God from his sorrows upon earth, and argues against the Fatalists. The sixth book argues God's Existence from the Creation of Man, and the Supreme Wisdom displayed in his Structure. The seventh book asserts Evidence of the Creator in the Instincts of Animals and from the contemplation of the Mind of Man, and closes with a Hymn to the Creator. From the third book of the poem I take these lines upon

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MIND IN CREATION. Sometimes by Nature your enlightened school Intends of things the universal whole. Sometimes it is the order that connects, And holds the chain of causes and effects. Sometimes it is the manner and the way In which those causes do their force convey And in effects their energy display. That she's the work itself you oft assert, As oft th' artificer, as oft the art. That is, that we may Nature clearly trace And by your marks distinctly know her face, She's now the building, now the architect, And now the rule which does His hand direct.

ISAAC WATTS. From a Painting (about 1714) in Dr. Williams's Library.

But let this Empress be whate'er you please ; Let her be all, or any one of these, She is with reason, or she's not, endued; If you the first affirm, we thence conclude A God, whose being you oppose, you grant; But if this mighty queen does reason want, How could this noble fabric be design'd And fashion'd by a maker brute and blind? Could it of art such miracles invent, And raise a beauteous world of such extent ? Still at the helm does this dark pilot stand, And with a steady, never-erring hand, Steer all the floating worlds, and their set

course command ?

Isaac Watts published in Queen Anne's reign his “Horæ Lyricæ” and “Hymns.” “ The Psalms of David imitated in the Language of the New Testament and applied to the Christian State and Worship," and his “Hymns and Spiritual Songs,” first appeared in 1719, and in 1720 his “Divine and Moral Songs for Children." He was born at Southampton in 1674, the son of a Nonconformist schoolmaster. At the age of twenty-two he became tutor to the son of Sir John Hartopp, and in 1702 he succeeded Dr. Chauncey as a preacher in Mark Lane. His health failed in 1712, and after that year he lived chiefly with his friends Sir Thomas and Lady Abney at Stoke Newington and Theobalds. He was not “Dr." Watts until 1728, when he was made D.D. by the Universities of Edinburgh and Aberdeen. He died in 1748, the same year as the poet Thomson. This poem is among the “Horæ Lyricæ :" —

That clearer strokes of masterly design, Of wise contrivance, and of judgment shine In all the parts of nature, we assert, Than in the brightest works of human art : And shall not those be judged th' effect of thought, As well as these with skill inferior wrought? Let such a sphere to India be convey'd, As Archimede or modern Huygens made; Will not the Indian, though untaught and rude, This work th' effect of wise design conclude ?

SINCERE PRAISE. Almighty Maker, God ! How wondrous is thy name! Thy glories how diffus'd abroad

Through the Creation's frame !

1 Archimedes, who lived B.C. 287–212, is said to have produced among his mechanical inventions a sphere showing the movements of the heavenly bodies. The famous philosopher, Christian Huygens, born at the Hague in 1629, died in 1695. He published in 1658 his invention of the pendulum clockA Huygens clock th: have cost the Duke of Buckingham a thousand guineas, was sold at Stowe for fifty-one guineas in 1848.

Nature in every dress

Her humble homage pays, And finds a thousand ways t'express

Thine undissembled praise.

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CHAPTER XII. FROM THE DEATH OF QUEEN ANNE TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.—JOSEPH BUTLER, WHITEFIELD,

WESLEY, SAMUEL Johnson, COWPER, AND OTHERS. —A.D. 1714 to A.D. 1789. The “Psalms and Hymns" of Isaac Watts, from i died. Young left the office of tutor to the young which quotation was made at the close of the last Lord Burleigh to enjoy the patronage of the Marchapter, were published in the reign of George I. quis Philip, who became, in 1718, Duke of Wharton. During this reign also other men, of whom we | In 1719 Young published a Paraphrase of part of have already spoken, laboured still; but it was not the Book of Job, and in 1725 he began to publish a time rich in religious thought. Edward Young, his satires upon “Love of Fame : the Universal whose “ Night Thoughts" were written in the reign Passion." The fifth of this series of satires was pubof George II., began his career as a religious poet lished in 1727, the sixth in 1728. From the fifth in the reign of George I., and out of this reign satire, addressed to Woman, I take these lines upon we may pass at once, with a short recognition of Young's earlier verses. Edward Young was born

A WOMAN'S BEAUTY. in 1684 at Upham, in Hampshire. His father was a clergyman, who became chaplain to William and

But adoration ! give me something more, Mary, and Dean of Sarum ; but he died in 1705,

Cries Lycé, on the borders of threescore. during his son Edward's boyhood. Young was

Nought treads so silent as the foot of Time; educated at Winchester School, and went in 1703 to

Hence we mistake our autumn for our prime. Oxford, where he was first at New College, and then

'Tis greatly wise to know, before we're told,

The melancholy news, that we grow old. at Corpus, which he left in 1708, on being nomi

Autumnal Lycé carries in her face nated by Archbishop Tenison to a law Fellowship

Memento mori to each public place. at All Souls'. In 1714 he took his degree of B.C.L.

Oh how your beating breast a mistress warms He became Doctor of Civil Law in 1719. His first

Who looks through spectacles to see your charms ! serious poem was in three books, and had for its

While rival undertakers hover round subject the Last Day. It was finished in 1710 and

And with his spade the sexton marks the ground, published in 1713. It was soon followed by a shorter Intent not on her own but other's doom, poem founded on the story of Lady Jane Grey,

She plans new conquests, and defrauds the tomb. called “ The Force of Religion, or Vanquished Love,” In vain the cock has summond sprites away, which appeared a little while before Queen Anne She walks at noon, and blasts the bloom of day;

Gay rainbow silks her mellow charms infold,

was Francis Atterbury. He had been chaplain to And nought of Lycé but herself is old.

Queen Anne, Dean of Carlisle, and Dean of ChristHer grizzled locks assume a smirking grace,

church, and in 1713 was made Bishop of Rochester And art has levell'd her deep-furrow'd face.

and Dean of Westminster. After the accession of Her strange demand no mortal can approve,

George I. he warmly opposed the Whig government, We'll ask her blessing, but can't ask her love.

and, suspected as a zealous Jacobite of favouring the She grants indeed a lady may decline

Pretender, he was sent to the Tower in August, 1722. (All ladies but herself) at ninety-nine.

In March of the following year he was arraigned Oh how unlike her was the sacred age

before the House of Commons, and in May sentenced Of prudent Portia! Her gray hairs engage,

to deprivation of all his ecclesiastical preferments, and Whose thoughts are suited to her life's decline;

banishment for life. He left England in June, 1723, Virtue's the paint can make the wrinkles shine.

meeting at Calais Bolingbroke, who had then obThat, and that only can old age sustain; Which yet all wish, nor know they wish for pain.

tained leave to return. Atterbury died abroad in 1732. His sermons were published in 1740.

While the spirit of religion suffered much through Then please the best; and know, for men of sense,

bitterness of controversy on its forms, bold questionYour strongest charms are native innocence.

ing continued, which looked more and more to the Arts on the mind, like paint upon the face,

innermost life of religion and society. Authority, Fright him that's worth your love from your em

especially in France, associated with corruption, lost brace. In simple manners all the secret lies ;

respect; and many earnest men were on their way Be kind and virtuous, you'll be blest and wise.

to doubt whether the whole fabric of civilised society Vain show and noise intoxicate the brain,

were not a helpless complication of untruths, and faith Begin with giddiness and end in pain.

in God Himself a superstition. A wild stream of Affect not empty fame and idle praise,

thought was broadening and rolling on towards a Which all those wretches I describe betrays.

Revolution that would touch the interests of Europe. Your sex's glory 'tis to shine unknown;

The reaction against formalisin and insincerity affected Of all applause, be fondest of your own.

the most vigorous minds, whatever their tendencies Beware the fever of the mind! that thirst

of thought. Pope, who under Queen Anne had With which the age is eminently cursed.

written about writing, and spent wit on the theft of To drink of pleasure but inflames desire,

a lock of hair, after earning money in the reign of And abstinence alone can quench the fire,

George I. by translation of Homer, grew with the Take pain from life and terror from the tomb,

time in which he lived, deepened in thought as the Give peace in hand and promise bliss to come. years passed over him, and under George II. dealt in

Moral Essays with the higher duties of life, and in

his “ Essay on Man" sought, in accordance with the When Henry Sacheverell was impeached for his

argument of Leibnitz's “Theodicée," to meet the new two political sermons, preached at Derby and St.

questioning of God's justice in the order of the world.

In 1731 his Epistle to the Earl of Burlington on Paul's, in August and November, 1709, Benjamin Hoadly, rector of St. Peter's-le-Poor, was declared

Taste satirised the misuse of wealth, in that false to have deserved well of the State for advocacy of

| luxury against which many minds were then rebel

ling. It was followed in 1732 by another Moral those principles of the Revolution which Sacheverell attacked, and early in the reign of George I. Mr.

Essay-his Epistle to Lord Bathurst on the Use of Hoadly was made Bishop of Bangor. After the

Riches. It was here that Pope paid honour to the Jacobite rising of 1715, the new Bishop of Bangor

memory of John Kyrle, of Ross, in Herefordshire,

who died in 1724, aged eighty-seven, after a life spent wrote a treatise entitled “A Preservative against

in bettering that corner of the world in which he the Principles and Practices of the Nonjurors in

lived. His own estate was not large, but he could Church and State.” It was directed against two principles-namely, that only hereditary princes in

achieve much by awakening in those about him a will

to assist his enterprises for the common good. the direct line can have claim to the throne, and that the lay power cannot deprive bishops. This argument was followed, in March, 1717, by a sermon on

HIS NEIGHBOURS' FRIEND. " the Nature of the Kingdom or Church of Christ,"

But all our praises why should lords engross ? preached before the king, upon the text “My king Rise, honest Muse! and sing the Man of Ross : dom is not of this world," in which he declared that Pleased Vaga' echoes through her winding bounds, no earthly body has right of restriction or inter And rapid Severn hoarse applause resounds. ference by penalties in matters of faith. From this book and this sermon by Dr. Hoadly, Bishop of 1 Vaga, the Wye. Ross is a town of about 3,000 inhabitants, beauBangor, arose a hot argument known as the “Ban- | tifully placed by the Wye, on the top of a precipice, twelve miles from gorian Controversy.” The Lower House of Con

Hereford. The toll, "heaven-directed spire" of the church, rising

from among trees, is seen from afar. John Kyrle, who was born at vocation lost no time in issuing a “Representation ".

Ross in 1637, in a house yet standing, cared for the beauty of the of what it regarded as the dangerous tendency of churchyard and planted elms. It is said that when two of the the Bishop of Bangor's arguments. The bishop who elms were afterwards cut down, by order of a dull churchwarden, especially represented the form of opinion on civil

the roots started off vigorous shoots that pierced the wall under.

| ground, and came up in the church within the pew that had been · and religious policy to which Hoadly opposed himself, Kyrle's

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