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Childlike though the voices be,
And untunable the parts, Thou wilt own the minstrelsy,
If it flow from childlike hearts.
was really the first moving cause of a reaction at Oxford that carried some over to Rome; but his devotion to the Church in all her ordinances was so inseparable from a life that in all its acts and utterances looked to heaven, that in the hottest strife of parties no man has supposed Keble to be an enemy. Within twenty-six years after the publication of the “ Christian Year” 108,000 copies had been sold in forty-three editions. After Keble's death there were in nine months seven editions or 11,000 copies sold. The spirit in which Keble used his gift of song, and which is at the soul of the best poetry of England—Chaucer's, Shakespeare's, Spenser's, Milton's, Wordsworth's—whether or not its themes be formally religious, is expressed in this piece written for
This is one of the poems written for a Saint's Day :
ST. ANDREW'S DAY.
What gift may most endearing prove
'Tis true, bright hours together told,
And blissful dreams ir secret shar'd, Serene or solemn, gay or bold,
Shall last in fancy unimpair'd.
Assize Sermon at Oxford, and published his sermon, reaction against the continued strengthening of that with the title “ National Apostasy." Dr. Newman tendency in the Church against which Matthew held the publication of this sermon to be the starting- Parker, Whitgift, Laud, and others had contended. point of the religious movement of 1833.
When our Church parted from the Church of Rome, Of this we have next to speak, but may first add there was a certain compromise, both as regards a word or two upon the latter days of Keble. Be ceremonial and doctrine, which led, as we have seen, sides his edition of Hooker, and other writings, he to active differences of opinion among Christians produced in 1846 another collection of poems, “ Lyra equally devout. We need only recall the controversy Innocentium,” in which he looks at the doctrines of that gave rise to Hooker's “ Ecclesiastical Polity." the Church in association with child-life. Though In the eighteenth century the great balance of zeal childless, he had a tender love for childhood. Keble's was so much against the Church system of Rome father died in his ninetieth year, in January, 1835. that it led even to a considerable secession from the Later in the year the course of events advanced Church of England, due in great measure to the feeble Keble from the curacy to the vicarage of Hursley, energies of a clergy that, if not touched with that and in October, 1835, he married Miss Charlotte form of zeal, had, as a body, no other in which there Clarke, daughter of an old friend of his father's—a was united force. Such ornamental proprieties as lady whom he had known from childhood, and whose Blair's sermons were read with critical satisfaction, mother had been for some years a widow. Keble though in the second half of the nineteenth century lived an active, happy life until March, 1866. In no critic would assign them value. The sceptical spirit the following May his wife was buried by his side. in society was met with the reasoning of Butler, who
did value ecclesiastical forms, and was accused even of a leaning to Catholicism, and by Paley, who was thought to share the tendency of his time in having, at least, no very great zeal for the established forms of ceremonial and doctrine as such, however much he valued them as aids to a useful religion. Unless a type of thought which had run through the history of many a past civil and religious struggle was really disappearing from amongst us, a reaction was inevitable. Given, in the nineteenth century, a few men as completely possessed with enthusiasm for their cause as the Wesleys were in the eighteenth, and as far as there were men in England apt to yield to the claim of supreme Church authority they could spread their opinions. The movement, like that of a century before, began at Oxford with about a dozen men; these, however, were not undergraduates, but men mature in power, with variety of gifts.
The devout imagination of John Keble fastened strongly upon the ecclesiastical system of the Church; its ordained ministers were the only ministers ; its sacraments had mystical power in themselves; bap tismal regeneration was a mystery of God dependent
on the rite of the Church, and, loving children, be is John KEBLE. (From a Photograph.)
said to have held in his arms a child that he had
newly baptised, gazing down upon it with a tender The Oxford movement, which may be said to have adoration of the mystery by which it had been made attained full vigour in 1833, was in some respects clear from sin. This living faith in ceremonial shone the converse of that which began in the same uni from a life pure and beautiful, and in Keble the ties versity with the Wesleys just a hundred years before. | of home, and loving fidelity to its traditions as well In 1733, Whitefield had been a year at Oxford, and as to traditions of the Church, made that spiritual was associating himself with the small enthusiastic life of love, which is the chief mark of Christianity, band of Methodists, who were to have a lasting his most obvious characteristic, and kept him within influence on some of the forms of English religion. the fold in which he had been born. The Wesleys and their followers held by the Church, His friend, John Henry Newman, much influenced but laid more stress upon fellowship in realisation by Keble at Oxford, was urged by the energies of a of the Christian life than upon ceremonial religion. vigorous mind to a foremost place in battle for the They were forced out of the Church of England, cause to which he gave both heart and intellect. The although not into antagonism with it, and their same vigour of mind caused him at last to accept the doctrinal opinions joined them in closest sympathy | logical conclusion of his argument, and find all that
t of the Church which had least sym- | he strove for by entering into communion with the pathy with Rome. They belonged to that section Church of Rome. In the beginning of 1864, Charles of religious thought which had been represented by | Kingsley, who felt deeply the Romeward tendency the Puritans of former time. The next great wave of this reaction, expressed a belief that English of enthusiasm that spread from Oxford, arose from l clergymen had been deliberately drawn to Rome. Dr. Newman defended himself by an Apologia, / make use of the offices of the Liturgy; for when which was published in 1865, divested of the per-| God appoints means of grace, they are the means." sonality of controversy, as “ History of my Religious In the same year, 1833, when the “ Tracts for the Opinions." He was brought up to take great delight Times” were begun, their founder says: “I called in reading the Bible, and recalls as faithfully as he upon clergy in various parts of the country, whether can the shifting religious impressions in his childhood I was acquainted with them or not, and I attended and youth. He was born in 1801, and is therefore at the houses of friends where several of them were. ove year younger than the century. His father was from time to time assembled. I do not think that a banker in Lombard Street, and he was educated much came of such attempts, nor were they quite in at Ealing School before he went to Trinity College, my way. Also I wrote various letters to clergymen, Oxford, where he was elected to a scholarship when which fared not much better, except that they adververy young. He graduated with classical honours tised the fact that a rally in favour of the Church in 1820, and obtained a fellowship at Oriel. In was commencing.” The second Tract argued that the 1825 he became Vice-Principal to Dr. Whately, who one Catholic Apostolic Church, of which the Sacrawas then Principal at St. Alban's Hall, but gave up ments and the Communion are necessary to salvation that office in 1826, and became one of the tutors of in the case of those who can obtain it, is the Church his college. He then preached his first university thus formed by bishops, priests, and deacons. “And sermon ; in 1827 he was one of the public examiners when men say the day is past for stickling about for the B.A. degree, and in 1828 he became Vicar of ecclesiastical rights,' let them see to it, lest they use St. Mary's. When the Fellows of Oriel had joined substantially the same arguments to maintain their in welcoming him to their body, Newinan wrote to position as those who say “the day is past for being a friend at the time : “I bore it till Keble took my a Christian.'” The next Tract was against any hand, and then felt so abashed and unworthy of the alteration of the Liturgy; the next upon objection honour done me, that I seemed desirous of quite to reading the burial-service over those who are a sinking into the ground." In 1827 the appearance scandal to religion—an objection to be met not by of Keble's “ Christian Year” had deepened his in change of the service, but by adherence to the words fluence over his friends, and Newman found in it, of the Church introducing it, and restoration of the he said—as in Butler's “Analogy"—what may be practice of excommunication. A note is added on called, in a large sense of the word, the Sacramental Episcopacy as the Principle of Unity. Following system ; that is, the doctrine that material pheno Tracts dealt much with the doctrine of episcopal sucmena are both the types and the instruments of cession, urged return to primitive practice, and rereal things unseen-a doctrine which embraces in its sisted all change in the way of innovation. As the fulness not only what Anglicans as well as Catholics Tracts proceeded, interpretation by light of the past believe about sacraments, properly so called, but also led to argument, beginning in Tract 38 (“Ad Scholas”), the article of “the Communion of Saints," and like for a Via Media, which met the objection that the wise the “Mysteries of the Faith ;” and also, as in religious system here enforced and by some called Butler, through the doctrine that Probability is the Apostolical was “ like that against which our foreguide of life, a sense of the logical cogency of Faith. | fathers protested at the Reformation." It is argued In December, 1832, Newman visited with congenial in dialogue between “ Laicus” and “ Clericus” that friends the south of Europe, and during that excur the Reformers of the sixteenth century held. opinions sion wrote most of the verses afterwards collected, which many in the nineteenth account Popish ; " and with verse of Keble and other fellow-thinkers, in the is it wonderful," asks “Clericus," “if such as I should “Lyra Apostolica.” When he came home, in 1833, be called Popish, if the Church services themselves the Oxford movement had commenced, and Newman are considered so ? . . . Men seem to think that. devised the plan of supporting it by a series of “Tracts we are plainly and indisputably proved to be Popish, for the Times,” addressed partly to the clergy, headed if we are proved to differ from the generality of “Ad Clerum,” partly to Churchmen at large, headed Churchmen, now-a-days. Upon which “ Laicus”. “Ad Populum.” They were sold at the price of says :twopence for an octavo sheet. The first Tract, sold for a penny, was an address to the clergy, in four pages, of “Thoughts on the Ministerial Commission.”
L. All, however, will allow, I suppose, that our ReforThe clergy were called on to support their bishops
mation was never completed in its details. The final judgas successors of the Apostles, and oppose the world
ment was not passed upon parts of the Prayer Book. There
were, you know, alterations in the second edition of it pubby virtue of their own apostolical descent, received,
lished in King Edward's time; and these tended to a more through imposition of hands, from their bishops.
Protestant doctrine than that which had first been adopted. “ All we who have been ordained clergy in the very
For instance, in King Edward's first book the dead in form of our ordination acknowledged the doctrine of
Christ were prayed for; in the second this commemoration the apostolical succession. And for the same reason
was omitted. Again, in the first book the elements of the we must necessarily consider none to be really
Lord's Supper were more distinctly offered up to God, and ordained who have not thus been ordained. For if
more formally consecrated than in the second edition, or at ordination is a divine ordinance, it must be necessary; present. Had Queen Mary not succeeded, perhaps the men and if it is not a divine ordinance, how dare we use who effected this would have gone further. it? Therefore all who use it, all of us, must con C. I believe they would; nay, indeed they did at a subsesider it necessary. As well might we pretend the quent period. They took away the Liturgy altogether, and Sacraments are not necessary to salvation, while we substituted a Directory.
L. They? the same men ?
at this, nor any other time of my life, not even when I was C. Yes, the foreign party: who afterwards went by the fiercest, could I have even cut off a Puritan's ears, and I name of Puritans. Bucer, who altered in King Edward's think the sight of a Spanish auto-da-fè would have been the time, and the Puritans, who destroyed in King Charles's, death of me. Again, when one of my friends, of liberal both came from the same religious quarter.
and evangelical opinions, wrote to expostulate with me on L. Ought you so to speak of the foreign Reformers? to the course I was taking, I said that we would ride over him them we owe the Protestant doctrine altogether.
and his, as Othniel prevailed over Chushan-rishathaim, King C. I like foreign interference as little from Geneva, as of Mesopotamia. Again, I would have no dealings with from Rome. Geneva at least never converted a part of my brother, and I put my conduct upon a syllogism. I England from heathenism, nor could lay claim to patriarchal said, “St. Paul bids us avoid those who cause divisions ; authority over it. Why could we not be let alone, and you cause divisions: therefore I must avoid you." I dissuffered to reform ourselves ?
suaded a lady from attending the marriage of a sister L. You separate then your creed and cause from that of who had seceded from the Anglican Church. No wonder the Reformed Churches of the Continent ?
that Blanco White, who had known me under such different C. Not altogether; but I protest against being brought circumstances, now hearing the general course that I was into that close alliance with them which the world now-a taking, was amazed at the change which he recognised days would force upon us. The glory of the English Church
in me. is, that it has taken the via media, as it has been called. It lies between the (so-called) Reformers and the Romanists; Meanwhile he was losing as well as winning whereas there are religious circles, and influential too, where friends, was exposed not only to the wrestle of it is thought enough to prove an English clergyman unfaith argument, but to the fierceness too common in all ful to his Church, if he prcaches anything at variance with
religious contests, and that was not wanting in his the opinions of the Diet of Augsburg, or the Confessions of
opponents. The inner spirit of the man who had the Waldenses.
organised the movement in the Church which was
called, after the “ Tracts for the Times," “ TracMany who were stirred by the deep-seated enthu tarian," may be gathered from this poem of J. H. siasm and various ability of the leaders of this Newman's in the “ Lyra Apostolica : ”movement found it difficult to accept all the counsel they received and keep the Via Media, the Middle
Time was I shrank from what was right, Way. In the “History of his Religious Opinions"
From fear of what was wrong; Dr. Newman confesses, with the frank sincerity of
I would not brave the sacred fight, a man who seeks absolute truth, the touch of
Because the foe was strong. polemical fierceness that was at this time in his zeal for his opinions :
But now I cast that finer sense
And sorer shame aside;
Such dread of sin was indolence, This absolute confidence in my cause, which led me to the
Such aim at heaven was pride. negligence or wantonness which I have been instancing, also laid me open, not unfairly, to the opposite charge of fierce
So, when my Saviour calls, I rise ness in certain steps which I took, or words which I pub
And calmly do my best ; lished. In the “Lyra Apostolica," I have said that before
Leaving to Him, with silent eyes learning to love, we must “ learn to hate;" though I had
Of hope and fear, the rest. explained my words by adding “hatred of sin.” In one of my first Sermons I said, “I do not shrink from uttering my
I step, I mount where He has led; firm conviction that it would be a gain to the country were
Men count my haltings o'er ;it vastly more superstitious, more bigoted, more gloomy,
I know them; yet, though self I dread, more fierce in its religion than at present it shows itself
I love His precept more. to be." I added, of course, that it would be an absurdity to suppose such tempers of mind desirable in themselves.
At the close of 1833 Dr. Pusey, who was Regius The corrector of the press bore these strong epithets till Professor of Hebrew in the University, joined in the he got to “more fierce," and then he put in the margin a
movement. Edward Bouverie Pusey, born in 1800, query. In the very first page of the first Tract, I said of
was son of the Hon. Philip Bouverie, who had taken the Bishops, that, “ black event though it would be for the
the name of Pusey by royal licence. He had been country, yet we could not wish themi a more blessed termination of their course, than the spoiling of their goods
educated at Christ Church, and he also became one of and martyrdom.” In consequence of a passage in my work
the Fellows of Oriel, at a time when the Fellows of upon the Arian History, a Northern dignitary wrote to
Oriel represented a compact body of the best intellect accuse me of wishing to re-establish the blood and torture
in the University. He became Regius Professor of of the Inquisition, Contrasting heretics and heresiarchs,
Hebrew and Canon of Christ Church in 1828. In I had said, “The latter should meet with no mercy: he
December, 1833, he contributed to the “ Tracts for assumes the office of the Tempter; and, so far forth as his
the Times " the twenty-first of the series, on behalf error goes, must be dealt with by the competent authority,
of Fasting—" Mortification of the Flesh a Scripture as if he were embodied evil. To spare him is a false and
Duty;" but it was not until 1835 and 1836 that he dangerous pity. It is to endanger the souls of thousands,
became fully associated with the movement. His and it is uncharitable towards himself.” I cannot deny that
four tracts, 67, 68, 69, and 70, entitled “Scriptural this is a very fierce passage ; but Arius was banished, notViews of Holy Baptism, as established by the conburned; and it is only fair to myself to say that neither sent of the Ancient Church, and contrasted with the
system of Modern Schools,” formed a volume of 400 answer. “What do you mean by Rome ?!" and then I pages, and passed through several editions. It was proceeded to make distinctions, of which I shall now give introduced by a verse from Keble's “ Christian an account. Year”
By “Roman doctrine” might be meant one of three
things: 1, the Catholic teaching of the early centuries; or, 2, " What sparkles in that lucid flood
the formal dogmas of Rome as contained in the later Councils, Is water, by gross mortals eyed; But seen by Faith, 'tis Blood
especially the Council of Trent, and as condensed in the
Creed of Pope Pius IV.; 3, the actual popular beliefs and Out of a dear Friend's side.”
usages sanctioned by Rome in the countries in communion
with it, over and above the dogmas; and these I called The aim of the treatise was to enforce the doctrine “ dominant errors.” Now Protestants commonly thought of Baptismal Regeneration-baptism being set forth that in all three senses, “ Roman doctrine" was condemned as the only spiritual New Birth---and the necessity in the Articles : I thought that the Catholic teaching was of Faith with Baptism to Salvation. Its writer said, not condemned; that the dominant errors were; and as to the “ St. Matthew records the words of the commission formal dogmas, that some were, some were not, and that the given through the Apostles to the Church ; St. Mark line had to be drawn between them. Thus, 1. The use of adds the awful sanction, ‘He that believeth and is Prayers for the dead was a Catholic doctrine,—not condemned baptised shall be saved; and he that believeth not in the Articles; 2. The prison of Purgatory was a Roman shall be damned.' Our Lord thus states positively dogma,—which was condemned in them; but the infallibility what He had before to Nicodemus said negatively. of Ecumenical Councils was a Roman dogma,-not conThrough Nicodemus. He warned us that without demned; and 3. The fire of Purgatory was an authorised Baptism there was no entrance into His Kingdom : | and popular error, not a dogma,--which was condemned. here he tells us, that whoso believeth in Him shall
Further, I considered that the difficulties, felt by the per. then have the blessings, which are in Him, imparted
sons whom I have mentioned, mainly lay in their mistaking, to him if he be baptised.” Dr. Pusey also established
1, Catholic teaching, which was not condemned in the the publication of a “Library of the Fathers” in
Articles, for Roman dogma which was condemned; and 2, aid of a reaction towards past opinions in the Church,
Roman dogma, which was not condemned in the Articles,
for dominant error which was. If they went further than and became thenceforth so prominently connected with the movement, that its supporters were often
this, I had nothing more to say to them.
A further motive which I had for my attempt, was the called by his name—“ Puseyites.” Dr. Pusey's
desire to ascertain the ultimate points of contrariety between example caused Dr. Newman also to enter upon
the Roman and Anglican creeds, and to make them as few as larger works of publication.
possible. I thought that each creed was obscured and misrepresented by a dominant circumambient “Popery” and “ Protestantism.”
The main thesis then of my Essay was this :- the Articles CHAPTER XIV.
do not oppose Catholic teaching; they but partially oppose FORTY YEARS UNDER VICTORIA.—NEWMAN, ARNOLD,
Roman dogma; they for the most part oppose the dominant MAURICE, KINGSLEY, CARLYLE, TENNYSON, BROWN
errors of Rome. And the problem was, as I have said, to
draw the line as to what they allowed and what they conING, AND OTHERS.-A.D. 1837 to A.D. 1877.
demned. The tendency towards Rome and the actual passing Such being the object which I had in view, what were my over of young clergymen into the Roman communion prospects of widening and of defining their meaning ? The after they had been for some time under his teach prospect was encouraging; there was no doubt at all of the ing, caused Dr. Newman to consider how far he might
elasticity of the Articles: to take a palmary instance, the satisfy the consciences of those who, with Roman
seventeenth was assumed by one party to be Lutheran, by opinions, felt unable to remain within the English another Calvinistic, though the two interpretations were Church. The Thirty-nine Articles were said to be in
contradictory of each other; why then should not other part levelled against the doctrines now associated
Articles be drawn up with a vagueness of an equally intense with the Via Media of the English Church as writers
character? I wanted to ascertain what was the limit of that of the Tracts wished it to be. Early in 1841 Dr.
elasticity in the direction of Roman dogma. Newman resolved to write a Tract for the purpose of showing that the Thirty-nine Articles of the English The result was, in February, 1841, No. 90 of Church were elastic enough to include the opinions the “ Tracts for the Times,” which made a very great at which he. and his companions and followers had stir in the Church. It was headed “Remarks on now arrived. He says, “The actual cause of my Certain Passages in the Thirty-nine Articles.” The doing so was the restlessness, active and prospective, storm raised by this Tract brought its writer face of those who neither liked the Via Media, nor my to face with his actual position. Confidence in him strong judgment against Rome.”
was lost, but he had lost, he says, full confidence in
himself. He admitted doubt as to his future I had been enjoined, I think by my Bishop, to keep these
opinions, and felt that this breaking of his influence men straight, and I wished so to do: but their tangible
within the English Church had saved him from an difficulty was subscription to the Articles; and thus the
impossible position in the future. The bishops one question of the Articles came before me. It was thrown in after another directed their charges against him, our teeth; “How can you manage to sign the Articles ? they , and he writes, “From the end of 1841, I was on are directly against Rome.” “ Against Rome?” I made my death-bed as regards my membership with the