Imagens das páginas
PDF
ePub

Chapter II.—Of Truth of Color.

PAGK

§ 1. Observations on the color of G. Poussin's La Riccia. 155

§ 2. As compared with the actual scene 155

§ 3. Turner himself is inferior in brilliancy to nature 157

§ 4. Impossible colors of Salvator, Titian 157

§ 5. Poussin, and Claude 158

§ 0. Turner's translation of colors 160

§ 7. Notice of effects in which no brilliancy of art can even approach that of reality 161

§ 8. Reasons for the usual incredulity of the observer with respect

to their representation 162

§ 9. Color of the Napoleon 163

§ 10. Necessary discrepancy between the attainable brilliancy of

color and light 164

§ 11. This discrepancy less in Turner than in other colorists 165

§ 12. Its great extent in a landscape attributed to Rubens 165

§ 13. Turner scarcely ever uses pure or vivid color 166

§ 14. The basis of gray, under all his vivid hues 167

§ 15. The variety and fulness even of his most simple tones 168

§ 16. Following the infinite and unapproachable variety of nature. 168 § 17. His dislike of purple, and fondness for the opposition of yellow and black. The principles of nature in this respect... 169

§ 18. His early works are false in color 170

§ 19. His drawings invariably perfect 171

§ 20. The subjection of his system of color to that of chiaroscuro.. 171

Chapter III.—Of Truth of Chiaroscuro.

§ 1. We are not at present to examine particular effects of light.. 174 § 2. And therefore the distinctness of shadows is the chief means

of expressing vividness of light 175

§ 3. Total absence of such distinctness in the works of the Italian

school 175

§ 4. And partial absence in the Dutch 176

§ 5. The perfection of Turner's works in this respect 177

§ 6. The effect of his shadows upon the light 178

§ 7. The distinction holds good between almost all the works of

the ancient and modern schools 179

§ 8. Second great principle of chiaroscuro. Both high light and

deep shadow are used in equal quantity, and only in points. 180 § 9. Neglect or contradiction of this principle by writers on art.. 180

§ 10. And consequent misguiding of the student 181

§ 11. The great value of a simple chiaroscuro 182

§ 12. The sharp separation of nature's lights from her middle tint. 182 fcj 13. The truth of Turner 188

Chapter IV.—Of Truth of Space :—First, as Dependent on the Focus of the Eye.

l:\r.F.

§ 1. Space is more clearly indicated by the drawing of objects

than by their hue 185

§ 2. It is impossible to see objects at unequal distances distinctly

at one moment 186

§ 3. Especially such as arc both comparatively near 186

§ 4. In painting, therefore, either the foreground or distance must

be partially sacrificed 187

§ 5. Which not being done by the old masters, they could not ex-
press space 187

§ 6. But modern artists have succeeded in fully carrying out this

principle 188

§ 7. Especially of Turner 189

g 8. Justification of the want of drawing in Turner's figures 189

Chapter V.—Of Truth of Space :—Secondly, as its Appearance is dependent on the Power of the Eye.

§ 1. The peculiar indistinctness dependent on the retirement of

objects from the eye 191

§ 2. Causes confusion, but not annihilation of details 191

§ 8. Instances in various objects 192

§ 4. Two great resultant truths; that nature is never distinct, and

never vacant 198

§ 5. Complete violation of both these principles by the old masters. They are either distinct or vacant 193

§ 6. Instances from Nicholas Poussin 194

§ 7. From Claude 194

§ 8. AndG. Poussin 195

§ 9. The imperative necessity, in landscape painting, of fulness

and finish 196

§ 10. Breadth is not vacancy 197

§ 11. The fulness and mystery of Turner's distances 198

§ 12. Farther illustrations in architectural drawing 199

§ 13. In near objects as well as distances 199

§ 14. Vacancy and falsehood of Canaletto 200

§ 15. Still greater fulness and finish in landscape foregrounds .. . 200 § 16. Space and size are destroyed alike by distinctness and by

vacancy 202

§ 17. Swift execution best secures perfection of details 202

§ 18. Finish is far more necessary in landscape than in historical

subjects 202

§ 19. Recapitulation of the section 20:3

SECTION III.

OF TRUTH OF SKIES.

Chapter I.—Of the Open Sky.

I'M.K

§ 1. The peculiar adaptation of the sky to the pleasing and teaching of man 204

§ 2. The carelessness with which its lessons are received 205

§ 3. The most essential of these lessons are the gentlest 205

§ 4. Many of our ideas of sky altogether conventional 206

§ 5. Nature, and essential qualities of the open blue 206

§ 6. Its connection with clouds 207

§ 7. Its exceeding depth 207

§ 8. These qualities are especially given by modern masters 207

§ 9. And by Claude 208

§ 10. Total absence of them in Poussin. Physical errors in his

general treutment of open sky 208

§ 11. Errors of Cuyp in graduation of color 209

§ 12. The exceeding value of the skies of the early Italian and Dutch schools. Their qualities are unattainable in modern

times 210

§ 13. Phenomena of visible sunbeams. Their nature and cause... 211 § 14. They are only illuminated mist, and cannot appear when the

sky is free from vapor, nor when it is without clouds 211

§ 15. Erroneous tendency in the representation of such phenomena

by the old masters 212

§ 16. The ray which appears in the dazzled eye should not be represented 213

§ 17. The practice of Turner. His keen perception of the more

delicate phenomena of rays 213

§ 18. The total absence of any evidence of such perception in the

works of the old masters 213

§ 19. Truth of the skies of modern drawings 214

§ 20. Recapitulation. The best skies of the ancients are, in quality, inimitable, but in rendering of various truth, childish. 215

Chapter II.—Of Truth of Clouds :—First, of the Region of the Cirrus.

| 1. Difficulty of ascertaining wherein the truth of clouds consists. 216 § 2. Variation of their character at different elevations. The three regions to which they may conveniently be considered as belonging 216

§ 3. Extent of the upper region 217

[table]

PAGE

The symmetrical arrangement of its clouds 217

Their exceeding delicacy 218

Their number 218

Causes of their peculiarly delicate coloring 219

Their variety of form 219

Total absence of even the slightest effort at their representa-
tion, in ancient landscape 220

The intense and constant study of them by Turner 221

His vignette, Sunrise on the Sea 222

His use of the cirrus in expressing mist 223

His consistency in every minor feature 224

The color of the upper clouds 224

§ 15. Recapitulation 225

Chapter III.—Of Truth of Clouds :—Secondly, of the Central Cloud Region.

§ 1. Extent and typical character of the central cloud region 226

§ 2. Its characteristic clouds, requiring no attention nor thought for their representation, are therefore favorite subjects

with the old masters 226

§ 3. The clouds of Salvator and Poussin 227

§ 4. Their essential characters 227

§ 5. Their angular forms and general decision of outline 228

§ 6. The composition of their minor curves 229

§ 7. Their characters, as given by S. Rosa 230

§ 8. Monotony and falsehood of the clouds of the Italian school

generally 239

§ 9. Vast size of congregated masses of cloud 231

§ 10. Demonstrable by comparison with mountain ranges 231

§ 11. And consequent divisions and varieties of feature 232

§ 12. Not lightly to be omitted 232

§ 13. Imperfect conceptions of this size and extent in ancient landscape 233

§ 14. Total want of transparency and evanescence in the clouds of

ancient landscape 234

§ 15. Farther proof of their deficiency in space 235

§ 16. Instance of perfect truth in the sky of Turner's Babylon 236

§ 17. And in his Pools of Solomon 287

§ 18. Truths of outline and character in his Como 287

§ 19. Association of the cirrostratus with the cumulus 238

§ 20. The deep-based knowledge of the Alps in Turner's Lake of

Geneva 238

§ 21. Farther principles of cloud form exemplified in his Amalfi... 239

PAGE

§ 22. Reasons for insisting on the infinity of Turner's works. Infinity is almost an unerring test of all truth 239

§ 23. Instances of the total want of it in the works of Salvator 240

§ 24. And of the universal presence of it in those of Turner. The

conclusions which may be arrived at from it 240

§ 25. The multiplication of objects, or increase of their size, will not give the impression of infinity, but is the resource of

novices 241

§ 26. Farther instances of infinity in the gray skies of Turner 242

§ 27. The excellence of the cloud-drawing of Stanfield 242

§ 28. The average standing of the English school 243

Chapter IV.—Of Truth of Clouds :—Thirdly, of the Hegion of the Rain-Cloud.

§ 1. The apparent difference in character between the lower and

central clouds is dependent chiefly on proximity 244

§ 2. Their marked differences in color 244

§ 3. And in definiteness of form 245

§ 4. They are subject to precisely the same great laws 245

§ 5. Value, to the painter, of the rain-cloud 246

§ 6. The old masters have not left a single instance of the painting of the rain-cloud, and very few efforts at it. Gaspar

Poussin's storms 247

§ 7. The great power of the moderns in this respect 248

§ 8. Works of Copley Fielding 248

§ 9. His peculiar truth 248

§ 10. His weakness, and its probable cause 249

§ 11. Impossibility of reasoning on the rain-clouds of Turner from

engravings 250

§ 12. His rendering of Fielding's particular moment in the Jumi

eges 250

§ 13. Illustration of the nature of clouds in the opposed forms of

smoke and steam 250

§ 14. Moment of retiring rain in the Llanthony 251

§ 15. And of commencing, chosen with peculiar meaning for Loch

Coriskin 252

§ 16. The drawing of transparent vapor in the Land's End 253

§ 17. The individual character of its parts 258

§ 18. Deep-studied form of swift rain-cloud in the Coventry 254

§ 19. Compared with forms given by Salvator 254

§ 20. Entire expression of tempest by minute touches and circumstances in the Coventry 255

§ 21. Especially by contrast with a passage of extreme repose 256

« AnteriorContinuar »