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§ 22. The truth of this particular passage. Perfectly pure blue

sky only seen after rain, and how seen 256

§ 23. Absence of this effect in the works of the old masters 256

§ 24. Success of our water-color artists in its rendering. Use of it

by Turner 257

§ 25. Expression of near rain-cloud in the Gosport, and other

works 257

§ 26. Contrasted with Gaspar Poussin's rain-cloud in the Dido and

JEneas ( 258

§ 27. Turner's power of rendering mist 258

§ 28. His effects of mist so perfect, that if not at once understood, they can no more be explained or reasoned on than nature

herself 259

§ 29. Various instances 259

§ 30. Turner's more violent effects of tempest are never rendered

by engravers 260

§ 31. General system of landscape engraving 260

§ 32. The storm in the Stonehenge ' 260

§ 33. General character of such effects as given by Turner. His

expression of falling rain 261

§ 34. Recapitulation of the section 261

§ 35. Sketch of a few of the skies of nature, taken as a whole, compared with the works of Turner and of the old masters. Morning on the plains 262

§ 36. Noon with gathering storms 263

§ 37. Sunset in tempest. Serene midnight 264

§ 38. And sunrise on the Alps 264

Chapter V.—Effects of Light rendered by Modern Art.

g 1. Reasons for merely, at present, naming, without examining

the particular effects of light rendered by Turner 266

§ 2. Hopes of the author for assistance in the future investigation

of them • 266

SECTION IV.

OF TRUTH OF EARTH.

Chapter I.—Of General Structure.

§ 1. First laws of the organization of the earth, and their importance in art 270

§ 2. The slight attention ordinarily paid to them. Their careful

study by modern artists 271

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§ 3. General structure of the earth. The hills are its action, the

plains its rest 271

§ 4. Mountains come out from underneath the plains, and are

their support 272

§ 5. Structure of the plains themselves. Their perfect level,

when deposited by quiet water 278

§ 6. Illustrated by Turner's Marengo 273

§ 7. General divisions of formation resulting from this arrangement. Plan of investigation 274

Chapter II.—Of the Central Mountains.

Similar character of the central peaks in all parts of the

world 275

Their arrangements in pyramids or wedges, divided by verti-
cal fissures 275

Causing groups of rock resembling an artichoke or rose 276

The faithful statement of these facts by Turner in his Alps

at Daybreak 276

Vignette of the Andes and others 277

Necessary distance, and consequent aerial effect on all such

mountains 277

Total want of any rendering of their phenomena in ancient

art 278

Character of the representations of Alps in the distances of

Claude 278

Their total want of magnitude and aerial distance 279

And violation of specific form 280

Even in his best works 280

Farther illustration of the distant character of mountain

chains 281

Their excessive appearance of transparency 281

Illustrated from the works of Turner and Stanfield. The

Borromean Islands of the latter 282

Turner's Arona 283

Extreme distance of large objects always characterized by

very sharp outline 283

Want of this decision in Claude 284

The perpetual rendering of it by Turner 285

Effects of snow, how imperfectly studied 285

General principles of its forms on the Alps 287

Average paintings of Switzerland. Its real spirit has scarcely

yet been caught 289 Chapter III.—Of the Inferior Mountains.

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§ 1. The inferior mountains are distinguished from the central,

by being divided into beds 290

§ 2. Farther division of these beds by joints 290

§ 3. And by lines of lamination 291

§ 4. Variety and seeming uncertainty under which these laws are

manifested 291

§ 5. The perfect expression of them in Turner's Loch Coriskin... 292

§ 6. Qlencoe and other works 298

§ 7. Especially the Mount Lebanon 298

§ 8. Compared with the work of Salvator 294

§ 9. AndofPoussin 295

§ 10. Effects of external influence on mountain form 296

§ 11. The gentle convexity caused by aqueous erosion 297

§ 12. And the effect of the action of torrents 297

§ 13. The exceeding simplicity of contour caused by these influences 298

§ 14. And multiplicity of feature 299

§ 15. Both utterly neglected in ancient art 299

§ 16. The fidelity of treatment in Turner's Daphne and Leucippus. 800

§ 17. And in the Avalanche and Inundation 800

§ 18. The rarity among secondary hills of steep slopes or high precipices 301

§ 19. And consequent expression of horizontal distance in their

ascent 302

§ 20. Full statement of all these facts in various works of Turner.

—Caudebec, etc 302

§ 21. The use of considering geological truths 303

§ 22. Expression of retiring surface by Turner contrasted with the

work of Claude 804

§ 23. The same moderation of slope in the contours of his higher

hills 304

§ 24. The peculiar difficulty of investigating the more essential

truths of hill outline 305

§ 25. Works of other modern artists.—Clarkson Stanfleld 305

§ 26. Importance of particular and individual truth in hill drawing. 306

§ 27. Works of Copley Fielding. His high feeling 307

§ 28. Works of J. D. Harding and others 308

Chapter IV.—Of the Foreground.

^ 1. What rocks were the chief components of ancient landscape

foreground 809

§ 2. Salvator's limestones. The real characters of the rock. Its

fractures, and obtuseness of angles 309

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§ 3. Salvator's acute angles caused by the meeting of concave

curves 310

§ 4. Peculiar distinctness of light and shade in the rocks of nature. 311

'§ S. Peculiar confusion of both in the rocks of Salvator 311

§ 6. And total want of any expression of hardness or brittleness.. 311

§ 7. Instances in particular pictures 312

§ 8. Compared with the works of Stanfield 312

§ 9. Their absolute opposition in every particular 313

§ 10. The rocks of J. D. Harding 313

§ 11. Characters of loose earth and soil 314

§ 12. Its exceeding grace and fulness of feature 315

§ 13. The ground of Teniers 315

§ 14. Importance of these minor parts and points ... 316

§ 15. The observance of them is the real distinction between the

master and the novice 316

§ 16. Ground of Cuyp 317

§ 17. And of Claude 317

§ 18. The entire weakness and childishness of the latter 318

§ 19. Compared with the work of Turner 318

§ 20. General features of Turner'6 foreground .. 319

§ 21. Geological structure of his rocks in the Full of the Tees 319

§ 22. Their convex surfaces and fractured edges 319

§ 23. And perfect unity 320

§ 24. Various parts whose history is told us by the details of the

drawing 321

§ 25. Beautiful instance of an exception to general rules in the

Llanthony 321

§ 26. Turner's drawing of detached blocks of weathered stone.... 322

§ 27. And of complicated foreground 323

§ 28. And of loose soil 323

§ 29. The unison of all in the ideal foregrounds of the Academy

pictures 324

§ 30. And the great lesson to be received from all 324

SECTION V.

OF TRUTH OF WATER.

Chapter I.—Of Water, as Painted by the Ancients.

§ 1. Sketch of the functions and infinite agency of water 325

§ 2. The ease with which a common representation of it may be

given. The impossibility of a faithful one 325

§ 3. Difficulty of properly dividing the subject 326

§ 4. Inaccuracy of study of water-effect among all painters 326

§ 5. Difficulty of treating this part of the subject 328 § 1. The difficulty of giving surface to smooth water 355

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§ 6. General laws which regulate the phenomena of water. First,

The imperfection of its reflective surface 329

§ 7. The inherent hue of water modifies dark reflections, and does

not affect right ones 830

§ 8. Water takes no shallow 331

§ 9. Modification of dark reflections by shadow 332

§ 10. Examples on the waters of the Rhone 333

§ 11. Effect of ripple on distant water 335

§ 12. Elongation of reflections by moving water 335

§ 13. Effect of rippled water on horizontal and inclined images.... 336

§ 14. To what extent reflection is visible from above 336

§ 15. Deflection of images on agitated water 337

§ 16. Necessity of watchfulness as well as of science. Licenses,

how taken by great men 337

§ 17. Various licenses or errors in water painting of Claude, Cuyp,

Vandevelde 339

§ 18. And Canaletto 341

§ 19. Why unpardonable 342

§ 20. The Dutch painters of sea 343

§ 21. Ruysdael, Claude, and Salvator 344

§ 22. Nicolo Poussin 345

§ 23. Venetians and Florentines. Conclusion 346

Chapter II.—Of Water, as Painted by the Moderns.

§ 1. General power of the moderns in painting quiet water. The

lakes of Fielding 348

§ 2. The calm rivers of De Wint, J. Holland, &c 348

§ 3. The character of bright and violent falling water 349

§ 4. As given by Nesfield 349

§ 5. The admirable water-drawing of J. D. Harding 350

§ 6. His color ; and painting of sea 350

§ 7. The sea of Copley Fielding. Its exceeding grace and rapidity. 351

§ 8. Its high aim at character 351

§ 9. But deficiency in the requisite quality of grays 352

§ 10. Variety of the grays of nature 852

§ 11. Works of Stanfield. His perfect knowledge and power 358

§ 12. But want of feeling. General sum of truth presented by

modern art 353

Chapter III.—Of Water, as Painted by Turner.

§ 2. Is dependent on the structure of the eye, and the focus by

which the reflected rays are perceived 355

§ 3. Morbid clearness occasioned in painting of water by distinctness of reflections 356

§ 4. How avoided by Turner 357

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