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§ 5. All reflections on distant water are distinct 357

§ 6. The error of Vandcvelde 368

§ 7. Difference in arrangement of parts between the reflected object and its image 359

§ 8. Illustrated from the works of Turner 359

§ 9. The boldness and judgment shown in the observance of it... 360 § 10. The texture of surface in Turner's painting of calm water... 361

P § 11. Its united qualities 861

f § 12. Relation of various circumstances of past agitation, &c., by

the most trifling incidents, as in the Cowes 363

§ 13. In scenes on the Loire and Seine 363

§ 14. Expression of contrary waves caused by recoil from shore... 364

§ 15. Various other instances 364

§ 16. Turner's painting of distant expanses of water.—Calm, interrupted by ripple 365

§ 17. And rippled, crossed by sunshine 865

_ § 18. His drawing of distant rivers 366

§ 19. And of surface associated with mist 367

§ 20. His drawing of falling water, with peculiar expression of

weight 367

§ 21. The abandonment and plunge of great cataracts. How given

by him 868

§ 22. Difference in the action of water, when continuous and when interrupted. The interrupted stream fills the hollows of

its bed 369

§ 23. But the continuous stream takes the shape of its bed 870

§ 24. Its exquisite curved lines 870

§ 25. Turner's careful choice of the historical truth 370

§ 26. His exquisite drawing of the continuous torrent in the Llan

thony Abbey 371

§ 27. And of the interrupted torrent in the Mercury and Argus... 372

§ 28. Various cases 372

§ 29. Sea painting. Impossibility of truly representing foam 878

£ 30. Character of shore-breakers, also inexpressible 874

§ 31. Their effect how injured when seen from the shore 375

§ 32. Turner's expression of heavy rolling sea 876

§ 33. With peculiar expression of weight 376

§ 34. Peculiar action of recoiling waves 877

§ 35. And of the stroke of a breaker on the shore 377

§ 30. General character of sea on a rocky coast given by Turner in

the Land's End 378

§ 37. Open seas of Turner's earlier time 379

§ 38. Effect of sea after prolonged storm 380

( § 39. Turner's noblest work, the painting of the deep open sea in

the Slave Ship 382

§ 40. Its united excellences and perfection as a whole 883

SECTION VI.

OF TRUTH OF VEGETATION.—CONCLUSION.

Chapter I.—Of Truth of Vegetation.

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§ 1. Frequent occurrence of foliage in the works of the old masters 384

§ 2. Laws common to all forest trees. Their branches do not

taper, but only divide 385

§ 3. Appearance of tapering caused by frequent buds 385

§ 4. And care of nature to conceal the parallelism 386

§ 5. The degree of tapering which may be represented as continuous 386

§ 6. The trees of Gaspar Poussin 386

§ 7. And of the Italian school generally, defy this law 387

§ 8. The truth, as it is given by J. D. Harding 387

§ 9. Boughs, in consequence of this law, must diminish where they

divide. Those of the old masters often do not 388

§ 10. Boughs must multiply as they diminish. Those of the old

masters do not 389

§ 11. Bough-drawing of Salvator 390

§ 12. All these errors especially shown in Claude's sketches, and

concentrated in a work of G. Poussin's 391

§ 13. Impossibility of the angles of boughs being taken out of them

by wind 392

§ 14. Bough-drawing of Titian 392

§ 15. Bough-drawing of Turner 394

§ 16. Leafage. Its variety and symmet ry 394

§ 17. Perfect regularity of Poussin 395

§ 18. Exceeding intricacy of nature's foliage 396

§ 19. How contradicted by the tree-patterns of G. Poussin 396

§ 20. How followed by Creswick 397

§ 21. Perfect unity in nature's foliage 398

§ 22. Total want of it in Both and Hobbima 398

§ 23. How rendered by Turner 399

§ 24. The near leafage of Claude. His middle distances are good.. 399

§ 25. Universal termination of trees in symmetrical curves 400

§ 26. Altogether unobserved by the old masters. Always given by

Turner 401

§ 27. Foliage painting on the Continent 401

§ 28. Foliage of J. D. Harding. Its deficiencies 402

§ 29. His brilliancy of execution too manifest 403

§ 30. His bough-drawing, and choice of form 404

FAGE

§ 31. Local color, how far expressible in black and white, and with

what advantage 404

§ 32. Opposition between great manner and great knowledge.... 406

§ 33. Foliage of Cox, Fielding, and Cattermole 406

§ 34. Hunt and Creswick. Green, how to be rendered expressive

of light, and offensive if otherwise 407

§ 35. Conclusion. Works of J. Linnel and S. Palmer 407

Chapter II.—General remarks respecting the Truth of
Turner.

§ 1. No necessity of entering into discussion of architectural truth. 409 § 2. Extreme difficulty of illustrating or explaining the highest

truth 410

§ 3. The positive rank of Turner is in no degree shown in the foregoing pages, but only his relative rank 410

§ 4. The exceeding refinement of his truth 411

§ 5. There is nothing in his works which can be enjoyed without

knowledge 411

§ 6. And nothing which knowledge will not enable us to enjoy... 412

§ 7. His former rank and progress 412

§ 8. Standing of bis present works. Their mystery is the consequence of their fulness 413

Chapter III.—Conclusion.—Modern Art and Modern
Criticism.

§ 1. The entire prominence hitherto given to the works of one artist caused only by our not being abie to take cognizance

of character 414

§ 2. The feelings of different artists are incapable of full comparison 415

§ 3. But the fidelity and truth of each are capable of real comparison 415

§ 4. Especially because they are equally manifested in the treatment of all subjects 415

§ 5. No man draws one thing well, if he can draw nothing else. 416 § 6. General conclusions to be derived from our past investigation. 417

§ 7. Truth, a standard of all excellence. 417

§ 8. Modern criticism. Changefulness of public taste.... 418

§ 9. Yet associated with a certain degree of judgment 418

§ 10. Duty of the press 418

§ 11. Qualifications necessary for discharging it 418

§ 12. General incapability of modern critics 419

§ 13. And inconsistency with themselves 419

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§ 14. How the press may really advance the cause of art 420

§ 15. Morbid fondness at the present day for unfinished works.... 420

§ 16 By which the public defraud themselves 421

§ 17. And in pandering to which, artists ruin themselves 421

§ 18. Necessity of finishing works of art perfectly 421

§ 19. Sketclies not sufficiently encouraged 422

§ 20. Brilliancy of execution or efforts at invention not to be

tolerated in young artists ;.. 422

§ 21. The duty and after privileges of all students 423

§ 22. Necessity among our greater artists of more singleness of aim. 423

§ 23. What should be their general aim 425

% 24. Duty of the press with respect to the works of Turner 427

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