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§ 4. There are two modes of receiving ideas of power, commonly

inconsistent 33

§ 5. First reason of the inconsistency 33

§ 6. Second reason for the inconsistency 34

t? 7. The sensation of power ought not to be sought in imperfect art 34

§ 8. Instances in pictures of modern artists 35

§9. Connection between ideas of power and modes of execution.. 35

Chapter II.—Of Ideas of Power, as they are dependent upon Execution.

§ 1. Meaning of the term " execution" 36

§ 2. The first quality of execution is truth 36

§ 3. The second, simplicity 36

§ 4. The third, mystery.. 37

§ 5. The fourth, inadequacy; and the fifth, decision '... 37

§ 6. The sixth, velocity 37

§ 7. Strangeness an illegitimate source of pleasure in execution... 37 § 8. Yet even the legitimate sources of pleasure in execution are

inconsistent with each other 38

§ 9. And fondness for ideas of power leads to the adoption of the

lowest * 39

§ 10. Therefore perilous 40

§ 11. Recapitulation 40

Chapter III.—Of the Sublime.

§ 1. Sublimity is the effect upon the mind of anything above it... 41 § 2. Burke's theory of the nature of the sublime incorrect, and

why 41

§ 3. Danger is sublime, but not the fear of it 42

§ 4. The highest beauty is sublime 42

§ 5. And generally whatever elevates the mind 42

§ 6. The former division of the subject is therefore sufficient 42

PART II.

OF TRUTH.

SECTION I.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES RESPECTING IDEAS OF TRUTH.

Chapter I.—Of Ideas of Truth in their connection with
those of Beauty and Relation.

§ 1. The two great ends of landscape painting are the representa-
tion of facts and thoughts 44

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§ 2. They induce a different choice of material subjects 4.1

§ 3. The first mode of selection apt to produce sameness and repetition 45

§ 4. The second necessitating variety 45

§ 5. Yet the first is delightful to all 46

§ 6. The second only to a few 46

§ 7. The first necessary to the second 47

§ 8. The exceeding importance of truth 48

§ 9. Coldness or want of beauty no sign of truth 48

§ 10. How truth may be considered a just criterion of all art 48

Chapter II.—That the Truth of Nature is not to be discerned by the Uneducated Senses.

4

§ 1. The common self-deception of men with respect to their

power of discerning truth 50

§ 2. Men usually see little of what is before their eyes 51

§ 3. But more or less in proportion to their natural sensibility to

what is beautiful 52

§ 4. Connected with a perfect state of moral feeling 52

§ 5. And of the intellectual powers 53

§ 6. How sight depends upon previous knowledge 54

§ 7. The difficulty increased by the variety of truths in nature... 55 § 8. We recognize objects by their least important attributes.

Compare Part I. Sect. I. Chap. 4 55

Chapter III.—Of the Relative Importance of Truths :— First, that Particular Truths are more important than General Ones.

§ 1. Necessity of determining the relative importance of truths... 58 § 2. Misapplication of the aphorism: "General truths are more

important than particular ones" 58

§ 3. Falseness ef this maxim, taken without explanation 59

§ 4. Generality important in the subject, particularity in the predicate 59

§ 5. The importance of truths of species is not owing to their

generality 60

§ 6. All truths valuable as they are characteristic 61

§ 7. Otherwise truths of species are valuable, because beautiful... 61 § 8. And many truths, valuable if separate, may be objectionable

in connection with others 62

§ 9. Recapitulation 03

Chapter IV.—Of the Relative Importance of Truths :— Secondly, that Rare Truths are more important than Frequent Ones.

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§ 1. No accidental violation of nature's principles should be represented 64

§ 2. But the cases in which those principles have been strikingly

exemplified 65

§ 3. Which are comparatively rare 65

§ 4. All repetition is blamable 65

§ 5. The duty of the painter is the same as that of a preacher 66

Chapter V.—Of the Relative Importance of Truths :— Thirdly, that Truths of Color are the least important of all Truths.

§ 1. Difference between primary and secondary qualities in bodies. 67

§ 2. The first are fully characteristic, the second imperfectly so.. 67 § 8. Color is a secondary quality, therefore less important than

form 68

§ 4. Color no distinction between objects of the same species 68

§ 5. And different in association from what it is alone 69

§ 6. It is not certain whether any two people see the same colors

in things 69

§ 7. Form, considered as an element of landscape, includes light

and shade 69

§ 8. Importance of light and shade in expressing the character of

bodies, and unimportance of color 70

§ 9. Recapitulation 71

Chapter VI.—Recapitulation.

§ 1. The importance of historical truths 72

§ 2. Form, as explained by light and shade, the first of all truths.

Tone, light, and color, are secondary 72

§ 3. And deceptive chiaroscuro the lowest of all 73

Chapter VII.—General Application of the Foregoing Principles.

§ 1. The different selection of facts consequent on the several aims

at imitation or at truth 74

§ 2. The old masters, as a body, aim only at imitation 74

§ 3. What truths they gave 75

§ 4. The principles of selection adopted by modern artists 76

§ 5. General feeling of Claude, Salvator, and G. Poussin, contrasted with the freedom and vastness of nature 77

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§ 6. Inadequacy of the landscape of Titian and Tintoret 78

§ 7. Causes of its want of influence on subsequent schools 79

§ 8. The value of inferior works of art, how to be estimated 80

§ 9. Religious landscape of Italy The admirableness of its com-

pletion 81

§ 10. Finish, and the want of it, how right—and how wrong 82

§ 11. The open skies of the religious schools, how valuable. Moun-

tain drawing of Masaccio. Landscape of the Bellinis and

Giorgione 84

§ 12. Landscape of Titian and Tintoret 86

§ 13. Schools of Florence, Milan, and Bologna 88

§ 14. Claude, Salvator, and the Poussins 89

§ 15. German and Flemish landscape 90

§ 16. The lower Dutch schools 92

§ 17. English school, Wilson and Gainsborough 92

§ 18. Constable, Callcott 94

§ 19. Peculiar tendency of recent landscape 95

§ 20. G. Robson, D. Cox. False use of the term " style" 95

§ 21. Copley Fielding. Phenomena of distant color 97

§ 22. Beauty of mountain foreground ... 99

§ 23. De Wint 101

§ 24. Influence of Engraving. J. D. Harding 101

§ 25. Samuel Prout. Early painting of architecture, how deficient 103

§ 26. Effects of age upon buildings, how far desirable 104

§ 27. Effects of light, how necessary to the understanding of detail 106

§ 28. Architectural painting of Gentile Bellini and Vittor Carpaccio 107

§ 29. And of the Venetians generally 109

§ 30. Fresco painting of the Venetian exteriors. Canaletto 110

. § 81. Expression of the effects of age on Architecture by S. Prout 112

§ 32. His excellent composition and color 114

§ 33. Modern architectural painting generally. G. Cattermole 115

§ 34. The evil in an archaeological point of view of misapplied in-

vention, in architectural subject 117

§ 85. Works of David Roberts: their fidelity and grace 118

§ 36 Clarksou Stanfield 121

§ 37. J. M. W. Turner. Force of national feeling in all great

painters 128

§ 38. Influence of this feeling on the choice of Landscape subject. 125

§ 39. Its peculiar manifestation in Turner 125

§ 40. The domestic subjects of the Liber Studiorum.. 127

§ 41. Turner's painting of French and Swiss landscape. The lat-

ter deficient 129

§ 42. His rendering of Italian character still less successful. His

large compositions how failing 130

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§ 43. His views of Italy destroyed by brilliancy and redundant

quantity , 132

§ 44. Changes introduced by him in the received system of art.... 133

§45. Difficulties of his later manner. Resultant deficiencies 134

§ 46. Reflection of his very recent works 137

§ 47. Difficulty of demonstration in such subjects 139

SECTION II.

OF GENERAL TRUTHS.

Chapter I.—Of Truth of Tone.

§ 1. Meanings of the word " tone :"—First, the right relation of

objects in shadow to the principal light 140

§ 2. Secondly, the quality of color by which it is felt to owe part

of its brightness to the hue of light upon it 140

§ 3. Difference between tone in its first sense and aerial perspec-
tive , 141

§ 4. The pictures of the old masters perfect in relation of middle

tints to light 141

§ 5. And consequently totally false in relation of middle tints to

darkness 141

§ 6. General falsehood of such a system 143

§ 7. The principle of Turner in this respect 143

§ 8. Comparison of N. Poussin's " Phocion" 144

§ 9. With Turner's " Mercury and Argus" 145

§ 10 And with the " Datur Hora Quieti" 145

§ 11. The second sense of the word " tone" 146

§ 13. Remarkable difference in this respect between the paintings

and drawings of Turner 146

§ 13. Not owing to want of power over the material 146

§ 14. The two distinct qualities of light to be considered 147

§ 15. Falsehoods by which Titian attains the appearance of quality

in light 148

§ 16. Turner will not use such means 148

§ 17. But gains in essential truth by the sacrifice 148

§ 18. The second quality of light 148

§ 19. The perfection of Cuyp in this respect interfered with by

numerous solecisms 150

§ 20. Turner is not so perfect in parts—far more so in the whole.. 151

§ 21. The power in Turner of uniting a number of tones 152

§ 22. Recapitulation 153

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