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but I must do him the justice to say tbat you wanted neither; and his TREVOR MSS, own zeal to serve you, made all intended good offices unnecessary. I am most particularly glad that your lot has happened to fall in my ground, which though possibly not the fairest, has, however, the advantage of being in a more temperate climate, where the sudden changes from heat to cold are not so frequent as here.

As I have long foreseen and foretold, necessity will soon do, what prudence ought to have done long ago; but with this material difference, that it will do, ill and with disgrace, what might have been done some months ago, well, and with honour. For I presume, that our late defeat in Flanders, our disappointment upon the coast of France, the abortion of the design of invading Provence, and the marriage of our good ally the King of Sardinia's daughter with the Dauphin, will rather add some advantageous articles to the contreprojet, than make it plus recevable. One thing I confess I do not comprehend, and did not expect; and that is, how the Dutch come to hold out as they do, and seem less frightened now, than they were at the beginning of the campaign, though I am sure they have much more reason. I own I always thought, by the regard which France showed for their territories, as well as by the French ministers calling upon the Dutch Plenipotentiaries to Signer, Signer, that a Provisional Treaty had been some months ago agreed upon between them, but not signed, in hopes of prevailing with us to concur with them, and unwilling (if they could avoid it) to take such a step without us, but that if they found (as I think they must have found by this time) that we were by no means in a pacific disposition, they would sign without us, and plead (not without reason) the imminency of their own danger, as well as their own inability, (to which they might have added other people's too) of repelling it. That moment though not yet come, cannot be far off, after which, instead of saying blessed are the peace-makers, I shall say, Lord have mercy upon them.”

RICHARD TRAVOR, the BISHOP OF Sr. David's, to his brother

ROBERT TREVOR. [1746], October 31 [-November 11]. Downing Street.—“ I came to town from Sussex on Tuesday last, and stept at once in a scene, which I have been some time apprehensive of, but did not think was so near, and which I am very sensibly concerned to find, you must bear so large & part in. Though I know you received last post an account of this event from a very friendly and a much more knowing hand (Mr. Pelham] than my own (a copy of whose letter has been shown to me by himself), yet I cannot help adding mine to the kind and honest advice, he has given on this emergency, to assure you, that I do entirely agree with his sentiments upon it ; though I was some time ago, upon Lord Sandwich's first going over, of opinion that you should try to weather the storm by lying by and delay, yet I now think that affairs are come to a crisis, that will not allow you to pursue that measure either with safety or credit. You will find Lord Sandwich's credentials arrive by this mail, which will give you a fair opportunity for desiring your revocation and take away all umbrage from the successor to the Northern Seals, who is now certainly Lord Chesterfield, and who is, I hear, very strong in his professions of regard to you. Whether Lord Harrington will be gratified with Ireland, I much doubt, should he be so, it will make your intended residence there more agreeable ; though, I imagine, the Duke of Dorset will be the person to succeed Lord Chesterfield, upon the foot, as it said, of an old promise but, I believe, as part of a very modern measure."


The Same to the SAME. [1746), November 4 (-15]. Downing Street..--" Since my last to you, nothing very new has happened upon this shifting stage. His Majesty is said to be much better, though I do not hear of any day being set for hiy removal to St. James's to keep his birthday. Ireland is still in suspense; Lord H[arringto]n is most talked of, but I much doubt how it will be, as he is too stout or too lazy to go directly to the Cloget for it. Lady Suffolk has lost her husband, Mr. Berkley, by whose death the mastership of St. Catherine's is vacant; I should be glad to see that snug preferment for life joined to a commission in Ireland, but I fear the times are too tender for such a proposal. I long to hear what effect our late change has on your side of the water; what relates to yourself, I grow better reconciled to, barring the circumstances of it; as it prevents, what I have sometimes lived in fear of for you, your being catch't at the Hague by a demise."

ROBERT Trevor to HENRY PELHAM. 1746, November 22. The Hague.-“As your advice will always pass with me for a command, I have, without hesitation endeavoured to carry it into execution in my letters of this post to your brother and Lord Chesterfield ; and I now leave the sequel of this affair, and indeed of my whole fortunes to your kind countenance, direction, and management. I must only apprise you betimes that when I have obtained my letters of revocation, I shall not be able to make use of them here, before I am enabled by suitable remittances to provide for the dignity of the King's Commission, and indeed the safety of my own person, the lowness of my private purse putting it morally out of my power to supply the vuide of my arrears; and consequently to comply with the immemorial custom established here. . . . of all Public Ministers, even from the most indigent Courts, challenging before they quit this residence all their creditors by public beat of drum for three days running to serve any pretension to their charge.”


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(Continued from the Eighth Report of the Commission.)


to EDMUND S. PERY. “ 1780, January 28. Thurles, near Cashel. --Nothing can apologise for my breaking in upon your attention at so busy a time, but that same benevolent disposition which I so often experienced when I took the liberty of calling on you during my stay in Dublin last November. It is it, Sir, alone that encourages me to write to you at this critical period to request you will let me know, whether now, as all troubles are subsided and the calm returned, any further indulgence is to be expected for the Roman Catholicks of this kingdom, whether a bill in our favour brought into Parliament would meet with the desired success. As there is no one in whose goodness of heart I have a greater confidence, or to whose judgment I pay a greater deference, your obliging me in this particular will meet with a return of gratitude equal to the warm part you take in all that interests the welfare of the Roman Catholicks in this kingdom.”

2.—Thomas PowNALL? to Pery. 1780, Feb. 9. London.— In consequence of your remark on the letter of the chairman of the deputies of the woollen manufacturers, I had further communication with them. In answer, I received a letter from their chairman, dated Leeds, Feb. 1, 1780, in which are the following words, part of the report from a committee to the meeting :

'It is our opinion that it will be very injurious to the country to hare duties continued on English woollens and stuffs imported into Ireland ; nor do this committee see at present in what instances this country would be affected by repealing all laws imposing duties on woollen or worsted stuffs imported from Ireland into Great Britain.'

I showed this letter to Lord North. He said that he understood that your opinion was against opening a free and reciprocal trade between England and Ireland, particularly in the article of woollens, by reciprocal taking off of the duty.

On the subject of a scheme of a paper money issued by public loan on landed or other solid security, for a limited time to each borrower, by which the government is constantly re-absorbing it before re-issues are made, which scheme I mentioned to you as drawn up by Dr. Franklin and myself, I would first wish you to read the scheme, which you will find in the 8th or 9th chapter of the 'Administration of the Colonies,' edit. 9th. There were prudential reasons with respect to the opinions of his constituents in America not then to mention bis name publicly.

1 Appointed 1773, died 1791.
2 See Eighth Report, Hist. MSS. Commission, 1881, p. 207.


The first thing which occurs to me on the subject is, that some such scheme was always necessary to a country whose outpayments drew off annually so large a portion of its circulation ; but that now you have begun to speculate on plans of trade and foreign commerce, I may venture to say that if you did not before see the necessity of such a measure, the necessity of and want of stock to actuate the new acquired powers of trade will make you feel it.

Until, upon your reading over the scheme itself, I hear your opinion on the matter and on the form as it might be accommodated to Ireland, I do not know what particularly to say more of it than I have done. If you and the well wishers of the public interest should so far approve it as upon a general view to think it might be adopted, I will not only in writing and opinion but in every line of execution give you my assistance it is a matter of experience in which my friend and I were very well au fait.

P.S.-I went to Richmond this morning to carry 'this to my old friend, H. Hobart, but I missed him by two hours. Otherwise, I should have required your acceptance of a copy of the Administration of the Colonies.'--I congratulate you on Rodney's success.”

3.-EARL OF BRISTOL, BISHOP OF Derry, to Pery. “1780, Feb. 11th. Calledon.--As I rarely look into the newspapers, I have but just seen the intelligence of my friend Mr. Alexander confirmed by the gazette that I have the good fortune to have your brother 1 appointed to the deanery of Derry. Apart from the regard I bear to himself, I am happy in the opportunity of shewing every possible attention to your brother and to the father of so excellent a young man as Mr. Pery. If I knew the time he appoints to come to the deanery, I would endeavour to meet him, or if my house would be more convenient to him, I shall be happy to receive him there, or at all events to have it ready to receive him. Pray write me three lines to Derry, to inform me if there will be any opposition to the repeal of the Test Act in our house."

4.--LORD BUCKINGHAM 2 to PERY. 66 1780, Feb. 29th.-As you are without comparison the person who, of all others, best understand the situation of Ireland and whose senti

zeal for the interests of both kingdoms induces me to express a wish that you would take the opportunity of the recess to pass a few days in London. This proposition may very possibly be equally inconvenient and disagreeable to you. Excuse it, however, as arising from my having an equal confidence in your discretion, ability, and integrity.

Should you be induced to undertake so fatiguing an expedition, it may bo better to have it understood, as well in England as in Ireland, that you were determined by your own private business.—Believe me with the greatest truth and regard, dear sir, your most faithful and most obedient servant, BUCKINGHAM."

i William Cecil Pery, chaplain to the House of Commons, Ireland, Dean of Killaloe, 1772-80, Dean of Derry in 1780, Bishop of Killala in 1781, Bishop of Limerick in 1784, created Baron Glentworth, in 1790, died in 1794.

2 John, Earl of Buckinghamshire, appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 7 December, 1776 ; succeeded by the Earl of Carlisle, in 1780,


5.-LORD BUCKINGHAM to Pery. "1780, March the 16th. Dublin Castle. Though some of your anxious friends apprehend that the Black Prince' may have steered northward to give you a meeting in your passage from Donoghadee, I will flatter myself that this may find you safe in London without having incurred any further inconvenience than a lengthened journey.

The accounts which in general have reached me from the assizes are by no means of a disagreeable cast. The Dublin Patriots continue to hold the same indiscreet pernicious language.

The troubling you with a few lines is as agreeable as a becoming attention, but I have nothing bordering upon business to mention except to entreat you to recommend (from yourself) the most profound secrecy with respect to the determination of the English Government upon Irish measures.

Intelligence has, I know full well, during this whole session, been communicated to one gentleman, who has made the most use of it.

The lord mayor was with me a few days ago, and has promised to exert his best endeavours to promote decency and good order amongst his fellow-citizens. Your further advice has also been attended to with that deference which it must ever command from, dear Sir, your most faithful and most obedient servant, BUCKINGHAM.

Three mails are due, and the wind blows at N-west. Sir R. Heron's? arrival in London has not as yet been notified.”

6.–PERY to Lord BUCKINGHAM. “ 1780, 28 March. London.--I deferred acknowledging the honor of your Excellency's letter of the 16th instant till I had an opportunity of seeing Lord North in private. I was two hours with him yesterday, and as many this morning. He told me the cabinet had resolved not to admit of any innovation in the constitution of Ireland, and this is the public language of all persons connected with the administration.

I asked if the judges and Habeas Corpus bills were considered within that line. He said they were. I stated to him my reasons for presuming to doubt the wisdom of such resolution. Some of them seemed to have weight with him ; but though he appeared to me not unwilling to relax in some points, yet he said he could not take upon himself alone to do it.

The business of sugars is not as yet adjusted. My Lord North seems to be directed upon that subject rather by the opinion of Mr. Robinson, who does not appear friendly, than his own. However, I am not without hopes that it will still be settled to our satisfaction.

Mr. Attorney-General called upon me this morning, and spent some time with me. He will report in favor of the Habeas Corpus bill, and also of the judges bill, and thinks they will both be returned, notwithstanding I told him what Lord North had said to me upon the subject. He has likewise promised me to forward our wishes about the sugars, and to represent the bad consequences of not complying with them, which I stated to him very strongly.

I propose setting out for Ireland on Saturday, and hope to pay my respects to your Excellency on the Wednesday following.--I am, etc., [E. S. Pery.]

Sir Richard Heron, Bart., member for borough of Lisburn, and a privy councillor in Ireland.

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