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and corporate, and shall be known in law by the name of the 'Pueblo,' &c., (naming it,) and by that name they and their successors shall have perpetual succession, sue and be sued,” &c., &c.
These Indians are anxious to have schools established amongst them and to receive agricultural information, which if granted on a liberal scale, could not fail to produce marked and beneficial results, not only upon them, but upon all the tribes of the Territory. So soon as it may be attempted with propriety, it is my intention to visit the principal villages of this tribe, that I may from personal observation ascertain their true state and condition, and from them glean such information as they may be able to afford in relation to other tribes. At present, it is the opinion of Colonel Washington, the military commander of this division, that any attempt to conciliate the tribes who have caused the recent and present troubles in this Territory, would have a very injurious tendency. The Indians, presuming upon their knowledge of safe retreats in the mountains, and our entire ignorance of all avenues, except established military roads and well-known trails, are not to be subjected to just restraints until they are properly chastised. When they shall feel themselves so chastised, they will sue for peace, and it is respectfully suggested that the government of the United States ought to be prepared to meet them without delay. It may not be amiss to invite, for a moment, the attention of the department to, perhaps, the very gravest subject connected with our Indian affairs in this Territory.
There are wandering tribes, who have never cultivated the soil, and have supported themselves alone by depredations. This is the only labor known to them. The thought of annihilating these Indians cannot be entertained by an American public--nor can the Indians abandon their predatory incursions, and live and learn to support themselves by the sweat of their own brows, unsustained by a liberal philanthropy. This subject, I humbly conceive, should engage the earnest and early consideration of the Congress of the United States, for it is respectfully submitted, that no earthly power can prevent robberies and murders, unless the hungry wants of these people are provided for, both physically and mentally I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent Colonel Medill, Commissioner, &-c.
Santa Fe, New MEXICO,
August 15, 1849. Sir: I had hoped by the mail of to-day to have transmitted to you some agreeable intelligence. The Utah Indians promised to come in for the purpose of suing for peace; they have disappointed us. On to-morrow we leave for the Navajo territory, intending to return by way of the Utah country.
The Indians, generally, are in bad temper. The number of troops are not sufficient here to keep upon them a proper check; and infantry are useful only to protect posts, stations, and property. Mounted troops are the only military arm of this country that can be effectively used against the Indian tribes of this remote region. Colonel Washington goes in person in command of the expedition. With great respect, I am your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe. Colonel W. MEDILL,
Commissioner, f.C., c.
SANTA FE, NEw MEXICO,
September 25, 1849. Sir: With this note I transmit to you a copy of a treaty, the character of which will be elucidated by a reference to it.
With Governor Washington and others I returned to Santa Fe on the afternoon of the 23d instant.
During the expedition against the Navajoes my health was all that I could desire; but I am seriously threatened this morning, resulting, as I suppose, from occupying a room where the air is more confined than I have been accustomed to of late. I trust, however, my recuperative energies will come to the rescue in time to enable me to make you a more elaborate report before our mail is ordered to the United States.
I have no communication from the Department of the Interior of a later date than the 14th of May last.
Is it possible that no plan can be adopted to remedy the want of mail facilities of which we now complain? I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe. W. Menill, Esq.,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington city P. S. The great cañon, which we have spelt “cheille” in the treaty, is pronounced “ chey.". I am not at all satisfied as to the correct spelling, nor have I yet met with any one who could enlighten me in reference thereto.
J. S. C.
SANTA FE, NEw Mexico,
October 1, 1849. Sır: You were advised by my note of the 15th of August last, that on the ensuing day we were to leave on an expedition against the Navajoes, with the intention of returning through the Utah country. Governor Washington was so obliging as to extend to me an invitation to accompany him, which was readily accepted. Our rendezvous was Jemez, an Indian pueblo, fifty-seven 100 miles from Santa Fe, as indicated by Major Kendrick's viameter, and in a direction nearly due west.
We marched from Jemez on the 22d of August for the cañon of Cheille, the capital spot of the Navajo tribe of Indians, and by them supposed, or rather reported to be, entirely impracticable of approach by an American army. Passing over an exceedingly rugged country, checkered occa. sionally by beantiful, fertile, and extensive valleys, and encamping some. times where we could not obtain wood, water, or grass, we pitched our tents in a cornfield in the cañon of Cheille, on the evening of the 6th day of September last, apparently to the utter amazement of several hundred Navajoes, who, during the evening, and until a treaty was concluded with them, continued to occupy the surrounding heights, dashing with great speed from point to point, evidently in great perturbatiorf.
It is proper here to mention an incident that occurred on the east side of the mountain range from Cheille!
On the afternoon of the 30th of August we encamped near extensive cornfields belonging to the Navajoes, in the valley of Tunicha, where we were met by several hundreds of their tribe. They asked for permission to confer with the governor, which was conceded to the chiefs. The governor frankly stated to them that his purpose was to chastise them for their bad conduct in committing murders and stealing horses, sheep, and everything else they could put their hands upon. The chiefs replied that lawless men were to be found everywhere; that such secreted themselves during the day, and prowled about at night; that their utmost vigilance had not rendered it possible for the chiefs and good men to apprehend the guilty, or to restrain the wicked; but that they were ready to make every possible restitution by returning an equal number of animals stolen, returning certain captives, and delivering the murderer or murderers of Micento Garcia, to be dealt with as justice might decree. In short, they were ready to submit themselves and their interests to the authorities of the United States, as the best means of securing the prosperity and happiness of all concerned. A skeleton of a treaty, in substance the same as the treaty concluded at.. Cheille, was immediately submitted and thoroughly discussed and agreed to, and certain chiefs named to accompany us to Cheille, the residence, so far as he has one, of the head chief, and the seat of the supreme power of the Navajo tribe of Indians. As an earnest of their intentions they delivered to us one hundred and thirty sheep, and some four or five mules and horses. This accomplished, orders were given to prepare to resume our march. In the mean time the Indians were all permitted to descend from the heights, and to occupy a level space, commencing within fifty paces. of the governor's quarters. The actings and doings of the parties were duly explained to them by a long and noisy harangue from a Navajo. They were further informed that a certain horse, which was pointed out. to them, was the property of a Pueblo Indian then present, and that the horse must be delivered to the proper owner at once. The fact of having stolen the horse was not denied, but a statute of limitation was suggested by the reply that the horse had been rode back to the country from whence the animal was taken, and that that was the time to have claimed him; and ended by the inquiry, why he was not then claimed? This conversation was reported to Governor Washington in the presence of several chiefs, who were distinctly notified by him that he required the immediate delivery of the horse. The chiefs, among them the senior chief on the east side of the beforementioned mountain range, left the governor's tent, as was supposed, to instruct their people what they should do. The governor having waited a sufficient length of time without the returp of a single chief,
or any report from them, ordered a small detachment of the guard to pri ceed to the crowd, with instructions to the officer of the guard to deman the immediate surrender of the horse, and walked out in person to supe intend the execution of the order. The demand not producing the de sired effect, Lieutenant Torez, the officer of the guard, was directed by th governor to seize the horse and his rider, and to bring them before him. Th moment the guard was ordered forward, every Navajo Indian in the crowd -supposed to number from three to four hundred, all mounted and armed and their arms in their hands, wheeled, and put spur to their horses; upo which, the governor ordered the guard to fire. The senior chief, Na bone, was left lifeless upon the ground, and several others were foun dead in the vicinity. The Indians did not attempt to fire until their ow and our forces were scattered, when feeble efforts to kill and cut off sma parties were unsuccessfully made. Except the killing of a few horse and the loss of a few mules, we sustained no injury. The distance from Santa Fe to Tunicha is one hundred and ninety-eight 87 miles.
In pursuance of orders previously given, we marched during the after noon of that day about six miles in the direction of Cheille, and encampe adjoining cornfields belonging to Narbone, the chief killed at Tunicha During the same afternoon, and every day thereafter, on our march Cheille, Indians of the tribe would come within hallooing distance, and new expressions of their desire for peace, and of their intention to compl with the terms which their chiefs had agreed to. On the evening that w entered the cañon of Cheille we were again spoken to from the height when it was announced they were ready to comply with the governor demands; and as the governor did not order a halt, they said the govern did not want peace; or why persist in going into the cañon? The govern ordered our Indians who were talking to the Navajoes to be silent, and w quietly entered the much-talked-of cañon, 284 Tóy miles from Santa F rich in its valleys, rich in its fields of grain, and rich in its vegetables an peach orchards. Water at this season of the year may be had in an desirable quantity by digging a few feet, and wood in abundance-pia juniper, and cedar-a few miles off. The quantity of water that ru through and under the surface of the cañon is immense, and in man places above Cheille there is a bold and continuous stream of pure wate but as it reaches the debouching point, the earth becomes quite porous, an the water sinks a few feet.
Early on the day after our arrival at Cheille, the head chief of the trib having ascertained by what process he could approach the governot, P sented himself at headquarters, heard the demands of the governor, an after a rather long talk, pledged himself to a compliance, and appointe the second day thereafter as the time to consummate the agreement. the appointed time, the head chief, with the second, appeared, and nounced their readiness and their full authority to redeem the pledges the head chief, at the same time bringing forward 104 sheep, 4 mules ar horses, and delivering 4 captives.
Merican captives delivered.—1st. Anto. Josea, about ten years old: take from Jemez, where his parents now live, by the Navajo who delivere him. A flock of goats and sheep were stolen at the same time.
He saj he was well treated.
2d. Teodosia Gonzales, twelve years of age : was taken, about six yea ago, from a corrāl near the Rio Grande, where he supposes his parents no
ve. He was stolen while herding goats, but no effort was made to take he goats. He was well treated. 38. Marceta, eighteen years of age: was taken from Socorro, and knows othing of his parents, nor how long he has been a captive. He has evi. ently been a captive many years, as he has entirely forgotten his native ngue. The novelty of a home, as explained to him, seemed to excite im somewhat.
4th. Josea Ignacio Anañe: became a prisoner seventeen years ago: taken then quite a boy, by a roving band of Navajoes, at Tuckolotoe. His arents then lived at Santa Fe, where he supposes they now reside. He
the fortunate possessor of two wives and three children, living at Mecina korda, (Big Oak,) north of Cheille two and a half days' travel. He was riginally sold to an Indian named Waro, to whom he yet belongs. I do ot think he is under many restraints, for he prefers most decidedly to remain with the Navajoes, notwithstanding his peonage.
Subsequently, at Žunia, the Navajoes brought to us Manuel Lucina, taken tom Delhansiña, two years since, while herding sheep. The Indians ook only such sheep as were needed at the moment. He is about fouren years of age, and has been sold several times, and badly treated, by ogging, &c. His parents are said to be living near the place where he
as stolen from. At the same time, a brother of Manuel's was taken; but e was returned last year.
These captives, except the one so fortunately married, have been placed n the hands of the friends and acquaintances of their parents.
The treaty, a copy of which I have already addressed to you, having een duly executed, on the 10th of September we marched for Zunia, a istance of 106.17 miles, in a southwestern direction, instead of returning y way of the Utah country. Governor Washington, previous to marchng from Santa Fe, ordered about three hundred mounted troops into the
cah country, for the purpose of repressing disturbances, checking deprelations, and to recover lost and stolen property. Two of the companies were ordered, if practicable, to effect a junction with the troops under the governor's immediate command, before they reached Cheille. It is matter s regret that this could not be done. The governor, having no reliable information as to what had been done against the Utahs, and hearing what was believed to be true, and which proved to be false) that the Apaches had entered Zunia, killed a number of its inhabitants, and driven
a great many horses, mules, and sheep, changed the route of his return march, as before stated.
The pueblo of Zunia contains, in my opinion, more than five hundred Indians a hardy, well-fed, and well-clothed race; and, their location being more than two hundred miles from Santa Fe, and one hundred and thirty miles from Albuquerqne, on a good road in every respect, now growing into favor as the best route to California, are subjected to serious annoyances from Navajoes north and northwest, and the Apaches south and southeast. But, what is shockingly discreditable to the American name, emigrants commit the grossest wrongs against these excellent Indians, by taking, in the name of the United States, such horses, mules, and sheep, and grain, as they desire, carefully concealing their true names, but assuming official authority and bearing. A wrong of this kind had been perretrated a few days previous to our arrival there.
About the same time, the Navajoes descended from the mountains, and