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. We continue to complain that we are withoui a mail or proper mail facilities. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Col. W. MEDILL,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington city, D. C.
P.S. Since the foregoing was written, I have been informed an arrangement with merchants has been effected, by which the Pueblo Indians who accompanied Governor Washington in his late Navajo expedition have been satisfied for their services.
J. S. C.
INDIAN AGENCY, SANTA FE,
October 5, 1849. SIR: Since my letter of yesterday's date, I regret to say rumors of Indian troubles have increased, and received some confirmation by the murder of a Mexican within three miles of this place. The surgeon who examined the wounded man on yesterday says he was shot with sixteen arrows in the back and two in front; that he found arrows upon the ground, and that the trail indicated the number of Indians as unusually large. Several Indians from Ildefonso came to me yesterday, also, saying the Navajoes were impudent, troublesome, and dangerous, and that they were in every nook and corner of the country.
A few moments since, the governor and others of Santa Domingo, thirtyone miles west of Santa Fe, came to give me similar intelligence. One of the owners of Bent's Fort has removed all property from it, and caused the fort to be burnt. Mr. St. Vrain, long a citizen here, every way reliable and intelligent, says a worse state of things has not existed in this country since he has been an inhabitant of it. This fact is sustained by Mr. Folger and others--among them Mr. Smith, who will be in Washington at an early day, as the delegate of a convention assembled here on the 24th of last month, to consider of the public good.
The number of discontented Indians in this Territory is not small; and I regret to add, they are not the only evil people in it.
This whole country requires a thorough purging, which can be accom. plished only by a thorough exploration of every hole and corner in it. The entire country should be immediately examined and surveyed, and military roads should be opened, and posts and depots established.
This policy would render it absolutely necessary to send out one or two additional regiments, (mounted) as the surest and only plan of economizing in this branch of the public service; and with this branch, should one or more additional regiments be raised, I should be pleased to be associated, as I have written to you and to the Secretary of War heretofore.
Governor Washington left for Taos on yesterday morning, to be absent for a few days only. I am arranging to leave for Jemez on to-morrow, where, it is understood, a number of the chief officials of several pueblos are to be on the 8th of the present month.
Colonel Monroc has not arrived. No report of troops approaching from the States, and we are yet without a mail. I am your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Col. MEDILL,
Commissioner, foc., Washington city.
October 13, 1849. Sir: For obvious reasons, my communications to the department should have been numbered. To remedy the omission, as far as practicable, is now my purpose.
Since my arrival at Santa Fe, on the 22d of July last, the following is the order of my letters to the department: No. 1
July 29, 1849.
August 15, 3
September 25, < 4
October 5 5
October 4, 66 6
October Will you oblige me so far as to cause the foregoing numbers and dates to be appropriately endorsed on my letters, which you will have received before this my seventh. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe. Col. W. MediLL,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Santa Fe, New Mexico, Octuber 13, 1849. Sir: My intention to visit Jemez was announced to you in my letter of the 5th instant, which should have been numbered 6. ' I reached Jemez on the afternoon of the 7th instant, and departed therefrom on the morning of the 10th.
In the first place, it is proper to state, during my stay at Jemez not one word of reliable information was received from the Navajo tribe of Indians, who, through their first and second chiefs, had bound themselves, by the fifth article of a treaty, a copy of which was forwarded to you on the 25th of last month, (No. 3) to be there in such a way as to comply with certain stipulations contained in said treaty. Whether they failed to be there by design, or were operated upon and kept away by the artful misrepresentations of thieves and robbers, and their associates, is not yet reIn a very
vealed. It is a matter of no little import, in my opinion, to ascertain the cause of their absence, and I have put in requisition everything at my command for the purpose of ascertaining the facts in the case. few days, I trust, 1 shall be able to afford you some light upon this subject.
While at Jemez, I met with the governors, war captains, alcaldes, and other controlling individuals, from twelve pueblos, viz: Jernez, Laguna, Acoma, Santa Domingo, San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, Namba, Pojoaque, Cice, Santa Ana, Sandia. No information, of a perfectly satisfactory character, can be obtained as to the nuinber of pueblos, the number of inhabitants in each, and their respective languages. If, as far as it goes, the information in these particulars, transmitted to you in my letter of the 4th instant, (No. 5,) and the statements made to me at Jemez by the most intelligent Indians, be correct, there are twenty-three pueblos east of Zunia; inclusive of these, I am informed by intelligent Indians, five use a language in common, without having sprung from a common tribe. Two of these are near to Taos, two near Albuquerque, and one below El Paso. There are six who have a common language, peculiar to them. selves, and altogether unknown to others. To seven others the same remarks are applicable, as their language differs from all others. Jemez has its owo peculiar language, and so has Zunia. In relation to the languages of the pueblos of Gleta, Socoro, and Seneco, I have found no one who could give me information upon the subject.
It must be remembered, the Indians using the same language are not confined to the same section of country. For instance, of the five pueblos first spoken of, Taos and Pecora are near Taos, seventy-five miles north of Santa Fe; Sandia and Isletta are from sixty to eighty miles south of Santa Fe; and another Isletta, near El Paso, more than four hundred miles from the two first named. All the others lie between the extremes men. tioned, running west about two hundred miles.
The Indians informed me at Jemez there were seven pueblos of Moques, six having a language of their own, and differing from all others, and one the language of the six first before mentioned.
The best information I could obtain in relation to these people, induces me to locate them about one hundred miles west of Zunia, in an excellent country, through which a road must run to the Pacific. Indeed, it is said a large number of emigrants selected that route this season. They are supposed to be decidedly pacific in their character, opposed to all wars, quite honest, and very industrious. It is said, in years gone by, these Indians abandoned a village because its soil had been stained with the blood of a human being. I deeply regret that I have not been able to visit these and all other pueblos in this country, that I might be able to Jay before you information of a character more precise and accurate.
The Indians at Jemez, with one voice, renewed their complaints of gross wrongs to which they have been compelled to submit; and they are such, too, as require immediate remedial measures. The lawlessness, the outrages of roving ossociations, comprising all colors and dialects, cannot be seen, and felt, and appreciated in Washington as the truth would sanction. And even here, so much of it comes to our knowledge, we become more indifferent to our own possible fate every day.
But a short time since, a band said to be commanded by an English: man, well known in Santa Fe, ordered, in the name of the United States, the pueblo of Laguna to furnish them with twenty-five horses, and to call upon the quartermaster in Santa Fe for payment. The order was promptly obeyed, and the Indians do not yet understand the contrivance by which they lost their horses.
The frauds and impositions of certain alcaldes, unknown to their laws, ought not to be endured, if their various statements are correct; and these Indians have not given me one reason to question their veracity.
It is a matter of no moment whether an Indian is in debt or not; a judg. ment can be obtained against him, which inust be paid in cash, or the spirit of the 6th article of the ordinance of 1787 is immediately violated.
Again: the prefects, who, to some extent, govern each a district, the alcaldes being subordinate, and their jurisdictions, so far as the Indians are concerned, confined to the pueblos to which they are appointed, do not, in my opinion, use their authority, whatever it may be, without abusing it. Contributions upon their labor and property are frequently made by the law, or laws, which alcaldes and prefects manufacture to suit the occasion. Many facts of this character were mentioned to me, that it is useless to record for your reading.
There are clever alcaldes and prefects in this Territory, who are not to be subjected to the above condemnatory suggestions.
To wderstand the condition of these people, it must not be forgotten they hold possession of the lands which they occupy and till, by special grants from the government of Spain or Mexico.
The extent of these grants is not well understood here.
Chequered throughout the whole country of which I have any knowledge, old Spanish villages are yet to be found, inhabited by a people almost in utter seclusion. The extent of the grants and privileges to the proprietors of these villages is not yet known, and the spurious claims will be in proper form in time to meet the legislation of the Congress of the United States.
Let me add, these Pueblo Indians pride themselves upon their Catholicism, without having abandoned the queer ceremonials of a very remote and superstitious parentage, and they make no prisoners in war.
To the Indians of Jemez I explained the relation in which they stood to the government of the United States, and to the powers controlling in New Mexico. They were made to comprehend the laws enacted by Con gress for the government of our Indian relations; and, as they understood the design and effect of said laws, they foreshadowed a better state of things; and they urged, with much emphasis, the application of these remedial measures to their present wants and necessities. To this end four of the Pueblos have signified their wish to make a treaty.
What ought to be done?
In a day or two I may again have occasion to review this subject, and will
, if possible, condense and present in one view all the suggestions 1 have heretofore made, in compliance with your instructions to me. I am, with very great respect, your obedient servant,
J. S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Colonel W. MEDILL,
Commissioner Indian Affairs, Washington city, D. C.
SANTA FE, NEw MEXICO,
October 14, 1849. Sir: It may not be amiss to advise you that your letter of instruction, with accompanying papers, of May the 14th, 1849, is the last and only communication I have received from the department since my departure from St. Louis to this place. This information may be important to the department, inasmuch as I am aware it was intended to give me special instructions in relation to Mexican captives, so soon as the Mex. ican minister should be more precise in compliance with the terms of the treaty between the respective governments.
Some time during the latter part of August, while we were out on the Navajo expedition, a mail was received here, and despatched for Governor Washington's headquarters. The carrier and his guide were intercepted, killed, and the mail distributed to suit the fancy of the Indians then present; and it is said they lost eight men before they succeeded in overpowering Mr. Charles Malone, the carrier, and his Mexican guide.
These murders were committed about the 5th of September last, near forty miles east of Tunicha, and one hundred and fifty west of Santa Fe, by Navajo Indians. These facts have been elicited by inquiries instituted by Governor Washington, whose agent returned some eight or ten days since, and encourages the hope that a large portion of the mail may yet be recovered. Let me add, however, by the last mail none came to this place to my address; a large package of newspapers was received, and despatched as before said.
During my absence at Jemez a mail was received here, and by it I received nought but a solitary letter from the States. Colonel Monroe is expected in six or eight days, when it is hoped we may have some intelligence from home. With great respect, I am your
J. S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Colonel W. MEDILL,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washing'on city, D. C.
Santu Fe, New Mexico, October 15, 1849. Sir: Before I proceed to the consideration of the primary objects of this communication, let me first premise Governor Washington has afforded me every possible facility in the execution of your instructions of the 7th of April last.
Where I have in my former letters (or may in this) referred to ascertained distances, I am indebted to Brevet Major Kendrick, of the artillery a gentleman of distinguished merit.
General Cyrus Choice, William E. Love, and John G. Jones, have ac. companied me in all my trips to the Indian country, and were especially useful in the Navajo expedition.