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merely private expression of the same, powered to represent Major-Geueral Freshall hereafter be made within the limits mont; and Colonel D. H. Armstrong. of the State of Missouri, and all persons Hon. J. Richard Barrelt, and Colonel who may have been arrested, and are Robert M. Reniek, or either of them, are now held to answer upon such charges hereby authorized and empowered to reonly, shall be forthwith released. But it present Major-General Price ; and the is expressly declared that nothing in this parties so named are hereby authorized, proclamation shall be construed to bar whenever applied to for that purpose, to or interfere with any of the usual and negotiate for the exchange of any and all regular proceedings of the established persons who may hereafter be taken courts and statutes and orders made and prisoners of war and released on parole ; provided for such offences. 2. All peace- such exchanges to be made upon the ably-disposed citizens who may have plan heretofore approved and acted been driven from their homes because of upon, to wit: grade for grade, or two their political opinions, or who may have officers of lower grade as an equivalent left them from fear of force and violence, in rank for one of a higher grade, as are hereby advised and permitted to shall be thought just and equitable. This return, upon the faith of our positive as- done and agreed at Springfield, Missouri, surances that while so returning they this first day of November, 1861. By shall receive protection from both armies order of Major-General Fremont. J.H. in the field, whenever it can be given. EATON, A. A. A. G. Major-General 3. All bodies of armed men, acting with Sterling Price. By HENRY W. WILout the authority or recognition of the LIAMS, D. ROBERT BARCLAY, CommisMajor-General before named, and not sioners.” legitimately connected with the armies in The Proclamation was signed by Genthe field, are hereby ordered at once to eral Price at Cassville on the 5th of disband. 4. Any violation of either of the November, but was not suffered, howforegoing articles shall subject the offend- ever, to be operative. General Hunter er to the penalty of military law, accord- thinking its provisions impolitic under ing to the nature of the offence. In the circumstances of the war, immetestimony whereof, the aforesaid John diately after taking command of the Charles Fremont, at Springfield, Mo., on army, addressed, on the 7th, a letter the first day of November, A. D. 1861, to General Price, stating that he could and Major-General Sterling Price, at “in no manner recognize the agreement,

on this day of November, or any of its provisions, whether implied A. D. 1861, have hereunto set their hands, or direct, and that he could neither and hereby mutually pledge their earnest issue, nor allow the joint Proclamation efforts to the enforcement of the above to be issried.” In communicating this articles of agreement, according to their letter to Adjutant-General Thomas, Genfull tenor and effect, to the best of their eral Hunter gave the following as the ability.

grounds of his repudiation of the conSecondly. Brigadier-General R. Cur- vention. "It would be, in my judgtis, or the officer in command at Benton ment, impolitic in the highest degree to barracks, is hereby authorized and em- | have ratified General Fremont's nego

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tiations, for the following, among many are contending, and a practical liberaother. obvious reasons : The second stip- tion, for use in other and more immeulation, if acceded to, would render the diately important localities, of all their enforcement of martial law in Missouri, forces now kept employed in this portion or any part of it, impossible, and would of the State.” give absolute liberty to the propagand- General Hunter, after remaining a few ists of treason throughout the length and days at Springfield, in accordance with breadth of the State. The third stipula- an order from the President, retreated tion, confining operations exclusively to in the direction of St. Louis. The army, ' armies in the field,' would practically formed in so short a time by the exerannul the Confiscation Act passed during tions of Fremont, and hurried forward the last session of Congress, and would with extraordinary effort, retraced its furnish perfect immunity to those dis- steps to the Missouri, and awaited the banded soldiers of Price's command who call of the new head of the Department, have now returned to their homes, but General Halleck, again to follow under with the intention, and under a pledge, less advantageous circumstances, at a of rejoining the rebel forces whenever less propitious period of the year, the called upon; and, lastly, because the still advancing, still retreating, ever refourth stipulation would blot out of ex- newed, ever dispersing rebel army of istence the loyal men of the Missouri Price. When the Statement of Fremont, Home Guard, who have not, it is alleged, in reply to the charges of General Thomas' been recognised by act of Congress, and Report was published, in the ensuing who, it would be claimed, are therefore March, it was received with favor and. ' not legitimately connected with the respect, and while the force of its explaarmies in the field. There are many nations was freely admitted—for every more objections quite as powerful and ingenuous mind rejoices when a load of obvious, which might be urged against obloquy is removed from the fair fame ratifying this agreement—its address to of a man like Fremont-it was yet felt all peaceably-disposed citizens of the that the best vindication of his hurried State of Missouri,' fairly allowing the in- military manœuvres, and the policy of ference to be drawn, that citizens of the his interrupted campaign, was the almost United States (the loyal and true men identical repetition of the movement in of Missouri) are not included in its bene- the recent entry of the Union troops fits. In fact, the agreement would seem into Springfield, and the pursuit, acto me, if ratified, a concession of all the cording to the original programme of the principles for which the rebel leaders still fugitive Price into Arkansas.

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CHAPTER X X X VIII.

MILITARY AND NAVAL ENGAGEMENTS AT SANTA ROSAS ISLAND AND THE PASSES OF

THE MISSISSIPPI, SEPTEMBER-NOVEMBER, 1861.

AFTER the reinforcement, in April, of the Navy Yard. “An aide-de-camp the little garrison with which Lieutenant from General Bragg entered as we were Slemmer gallantly seized and held Fort sitting at table, and invited me to attend Pickens, that important position, under him to the General's quarters. The the energetic command of Colonel Har- road, as I found, was very long and very vey Brown, for many months continued disagreeable, owing to the depth of the to attract the attention of the public, ex- sand, into which the foot sank at every pectation being at one time excited by step up to the ankle. Passing the front of the prospect of the recovery of the aban- an extended row of the clean, airy, pretty doned ground on the mainland at Pen- villas inside the Navy Yard, we passed sacola, at another by the danger to the the gate on exhibiting our passes, and fort itself from attack by the insurgents. proceeded by the sea-beach, one side of A description of a visit to these scenes which is lined with houses, a few yards in April, by Mr. Russell, the correspond from the surf. These houses are all ocent of the London Times, affords us the cupied by troops, or are used as barunusual opportunity of an intelligent rooms or magazines. At intervals a few view of what was going on in both camps guns have been placed along the beach, at the same time. Accompanied by sev- covered by sand-bags, parapets and tracral friends, he ran down in a small verses. As we toiled along in the sand schooner from Mobile, was admitted, by the aide hailed a cart, pressed it into the the courtesy of the United States officers service, and we continued our journey off Pensacola, to pass the blockade, and less painfully. Suddenly a tall, straightafter a day spent with the Confederates backed man in a blue frock-coat, with a among their defences on the mainland, star on the epaulette strap, a smart kepi, had the privilege of a leisurely inspection and trousers with gold stripe, and large of Fort Pickens and Santa Rosas Island. brass spurs, rode past on a high-stepping, He found General Braxton Bragg in powerful charger, followed by an ordercommand of the Confederates. A native ly. “There is General Bragg,' said his of a Southern State, this officer had been aide. The General turned round, reined educated at West Point, and had served up, and I was presented as I sat in my for many years with distinction in the state chariot. The commander of the United States army. He is thus intro- Confederated States army at Pensacola duced to us in the vivid and entertaining is about forty-two years of age, of a narrative of Mr. Russell, who, on land- spare and powerful frame ; his face is ing, has been received with due hospital- dark, and marked with deep lines, his ity by a mess of New Orleans officers mouth large, and squarely set in deterestablished in the pleasant quarters about | mined jaws, and his eyes, sagacious, pen

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etrating, and not by any means unkind- could only wonder at the difference ly, look out at you from beetle-brows made by the 'stand-point from which which run straight across and spring into the question is reviewed. . . . Before I a thick tuft of black hair, which is thick- left General Bragg he was good enough est over the nose, where naturally it to say he would send down one of his usually leaves an intervening space. His aides-de-camp and horses early in the hair is dark, and he wears such regula- morning to give me a look at the works.” tion whiskers as were the delight of our The tour of the works next day affords generals a few years ago. His manner us an interesting glimpse of the enemy's is quick and frank, and his smile is very camp. "I do not think," writes Mr. pleasing and agreeable. The General Russell, “ that any number of words can would not hear of my continuing my give a good idea of a long line of detachjourney to his quarters in a cart, and his ed batteries. I went through them all, orderly brought up an ambulance, drawn and I certainly found stronger reasons by a smart pair of mules, in which I than ever for distrusting the extraordincompleted it satisfactorily. The end of ary statements which appear in the the journey through the sandy plain was American journals in reference to militaat band, for in an enclosure of a high ry matters, particularly on their own wall there stood a well-shaded mansion, side of the question. Instead of hundreds amid trees of live-oak and sycamore, of guns, there are only ten. They are with sentries at the gate and horses held mostly of small calibre, and the gun-carby orderlies under the portico. General riages are old or unsound, or new and Bragg received me at the top of the rudely made. There are only five steps which lead to the verandah, and, heavy guns in all the works; but the after a few earnest and complimentary mortar batteries, three in number, of words, conducted me to his office, where which one is unfinished, will prove very he spoke of the contest in which he was damaging, although they will only conto play so important a part in terms of tain nine or ten mortars. The batteries unaffected earnestness. Why else had are all sand-bag and earthworks, with he left his estates ? After the Mexican the exception of Fort Barrancas. They war he had retired from the United are made after all sorts of ways, and are States artillery ; but when his State was of very different degrees of efficiency. menaced he was obliged to defend her. In some the magazines will come to speedy He was satisfied the North meant noth- destruction ; in others they are well ing but subjugation. All he wanted was made. Some are of the finest white sand, peace. Slavery was an institution for and will blind the gunners or be blown which he was not responsible ; but his away with shells ; others are cramped property was guaranteed to him by law, and hardly traversed ; others, again, are and it consisted of slaves. Why did the very spacious and well constructed. The enemy take off slaves from Tortugas to embrasures are usually made of sandwork for them at Pickens? Because bags, covered with raw hides to save the whites could not do their work. It was cotton-bags from the effect of the fire of quite impossible to deny his earnestness, their own guns. I was amused to obsincerity and zeal as he spoke, and one serve that most of these works had gal. leries in the rear, generally in connection Fort Barrancas is an old fort—I believe with the magazine passages, which the of Spanish construction, with a very constructors called 'rat-holes,' and which meagre trace—a plain curtain-face toare intended as shelter to the men at the ward the sea, protected by.a dry ditch guns in case of shells falling inside the and an outwork, in which, however, there battery. They may prove to have a are no guns. There is a drawbridge in very different result, and are certainly the rear of the work, which is a simple not so desirable, in a military point of parallelogram, showing twelve guns view, as good traverses. A rush for the mounted en barbette on the sea-face. The rat-hole' will not be very dignified or walls are of brick, and the guns are proimproving to the morale every time a tected by thick merlons of sand-bags. bomb hurtles over them; and assuredly The sole advantage of the fort is in its the damage to the magazines will be position ; it almost looks down into the enormous if the fire from Pickens is ac- casemates of Pickens opposite at its curate and well-sustained. Several of weakest point, and it has a fair command the batteries were not finished, and the of the sea entrance, but the guns are men who ought to have been working weak, and there are only three pieces were lying under the shade of trees, mounted which can do much mischief. sleeping or smoking-long-limbed, long- While I was looking round, there was an bearded fellows in flannel shirts and entertaining dispute going on between slouched hats, uniformless in all, save two men, whom I believe to have been bright, well-kept arms and resolute pur- officers, as to the work to be done, and I pose. We went along slowly, from one heard the inferior intimate pretty broadbattery to the other. I visited nine alto- ly his conviction that his chief did not gether, not including Fort Barrancas, and know his own business in reference to there are three others, among which is some orders he was conveying. The Fort McRae. Perhaps there may be amount of ammunition which I saw did fifty guns of all sorts in position for not appear to me to be at all suficient about three miles, along a line extending for one day's moderate firing, and many 135 degrees round Fort Pickens, the of the shot were roughly cast and bad average distance being about one and deep flanges from the moulds in their one-third miles. The mortar batteries sides, and very destructive to the guns are well placed among brushwood, quite as well as to accuracy. In the rear of out of view of the fort, at distances vary- these batteries, among the pine woods ing from 2,500 to 2,800 yards, and the and in deep brush, are three irregular mortars are generally of calibres corres- camps, which, to the best of my belief, ponding nearly with our 10-inch pieces. could not contain more than 2,700 men. Several of the gun-batteries are put on There are probably 3,000 in and about the level of the beach ; others have more the batteries, the Navy Yard and the command, and one is particularly well- suburbs, and there are also, I am informplaced, close to the White Lighthouse, on ed, 1500 at Pensacola ; but I doubt exa high plateau which dominates the ceedingly that there are as inany as sandy strip that runs out to Fort McRae. 8,000 men, all told, of effective strength Of the latter I have already spoken. under the command of General Bragg.

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