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The above comparison of French and English moneys will vary a little with the rate of exchange: but the prevailing rate has been adopted.
Luggage and Dress.-The less luggage you take the better, as all luggage above 60lbs. weight, or 80, is charged for on the Continent, so that, in this case, it is as necessary to get a ticket for the luggage as a ticket for the fare. For the ordinary traveller, a carpet-bag is enough, with half-a-dozen shirts, two pairs of socks, and as few other things as possible. The socks should be woollen or worsted, which may be bought as you go, throwing the worn-out ones away. Brown, grey, or dark-coloured dresses are fittest for both gentlemen and ladies; and as to the style, let it be simple. A light overcoat, and an umbrella for a stick are essential. Soap is not common abroad, and being charged in the bills, you should provide yourself with a stock before taking up your quarters. The pedestrian must, of course, put on a stout pair of double soled shoes, and wear gaiters, especially as the roads are more dusty than ours. Where shoes chafe in walking, take a sheet of writing paper, grease it over, and wrap it round the foot next the skin. This was the remedy adopted by the late Captain Mangles and Mr. Loudon when they made the tour of Europe on foot. Good knapsacks may be got abroad.
Letters. The traveller will find it convenient to have his letters addressed to him, “Poste Restante,' i.e., till called for, in the various towns in which he expects to be. They will be delivered at the postoffice on the traveller's address card being shown. There are now two posts daily morning and evening), from London to France. All letters for France go through the London post-office, and for the morning mail, must be in the London office before 7 a.m., and for the evening mail, before 6 p.m. The approximate time required for conveying them to any part of France can be ascertained by reference to BRADSHAW's Continental Railway Guide. WAY TO GET TO FRANCE, AND DIRECTIONS ON LANDING.
(For further details see “ BRADSHAW's Guide.") Calais Route (see Route 1). -London to Paris, direct, via Dover and Calais, 283 miles (sea passage, 21} miles), in 104 hours. Trains leave the South Eastern Railway Stations at Charing Cross (West End Terminus) at 7 40 morn. (1 & 2 class) and 8 45 aft. (1st class), and Cannon Street (City Terminus) at 7 45 morn, and 8 50 aft.; and the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway Stations at Victoria (West End Terminus), and Ludgate Hill (City Terminus) at 7 40 morn. (1 & 2 class mail) and 8 35 aft. (1st class mail); arriving at Dover at 9 30 morn. and 10 35 aft. ; thence proceeding by steamer from Dover at 9 35 morn. and 10 40 aft., and by train from Calais at 12 30 aft. and i 50 morn; reaching Paris at 6 aft. and 7 20 morn. Through Fares, viâ Calais, 1st class, 578. 30.; 2nd, 42s.6d. Return Tickets, 88s.; 70s. There is also a Fixed Night Service (1,2,3 class), viz. :-From Victoria at 6 25 aft. and Ludgate Hill, 6 20 aft., or Charing Cross, 6 35 aft., and Cannon Street, 6 48 aft., arriving at Dover at 9 40 aft., leaving Dover at 10 20 aft., arriving at Calais at 12 30 morn., leaving Calais at 7 morn., and arriving at Paris at 4 45 aft. By Night Service: Fares-2nd class, 30s.; 3rd class, 20s. Return Tickets, 40s.; 30s. This route in the old coach days took 58 or 60 hours between London and Paris. Marseilles is reached in 283 hours, and Bordeaux in 24. Calais may also be reached by the General Steam Navigation Company's Steamers direct, from the Irongate Wharf, about every Wednesday aud Saturday, in 8 hours. Fares, 11s.; 8s.
Boulogne Route (see Route 2).--London to Paris, direct, via Folkestone and Boulogne, 255 miles (sea passage, 25} miles), in about 10 hours. Trains leave the South Eastern Stations at Charing Cross (West End Terminus) and Cannon Street (City Terminus), twice daily, and packets from Folkestone according to tide. Through Tickets, 53s. 100.; 40s. Return Tickets, 88s.; 70s. By Night Service, 2nd class, 30s. ; 3rd class, 20s. Return Tickets, 45s.; 30s. Also by the General Steam Navigation Company's Steamers, daily, direct, from St. Katharine's Wharf, in 8 hours. Fares, 118.; 8s.
Dieppo Route (see Route 8).---London to Paris direct, við Newhaven and Dieppe, 246 miles (sea passage, 64 miles). Trains leave the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railuray Stations at London
Bridge (City Terminus) and Victoria (West End Terminus), daily; and nightly packets from Newhaven, according to the tide. Through Fares, 30s.; 22s.; 16s. Return Tickets, 50s. ; 36s. ; 285.
Havre Route (see Route 9). - London to Paris, via Southampton and Havre, 341 miles (sen passage, 120 miles). Trains leave the London and South Western Railway Stations at Waterloo Bridge at 9 aft. (1st and 2nd class), and Kensington at 8 15 aft. every Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, arriving at Southampton at 11 35 aft., proceeding by steamer from Southampton at 11 45 aft., and by train from Havre at 11 45 morn., arriving at Paris at 4 20 aft. (1st class), and 10 25 morn., arriving at 6 20 aft. (2nd class). Through Fares, 30s.; 22s. Return Tickets, 50s.; 36s. Also by the General Steam Navigation Company's vessels, every Thursday, in 18 hours. Fares, lls.; 83. There is communication by steamer, between Havre and HONFLEUR (30 minutes), also between Havre and CAEN, and Havre and TROUVILLE. Steamers from Southampton to HONFLEUR, four days a week.
Dunkirk Route (see Route 3).-From London direct by Steamer, from Chamberlain's Wharf, twice a week, in about 11 hours. Faros, 10s.; 78.
St. Malo Route (see Route 19). - London to St. Malo, viâ Southampton. Trains leave the London and South Western Company's Stations, and Packets from Southampton according to tide, every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Fares, from London to St. Malo, 339. ; 23s. Return Tickets, 48s.; 385. From Southainpton. 239. ; 179. Return Tickets, 358.; 25s.
Cherbourg Route (see Route 11).--London to Paris, viâ Southampton and Cherbourg, Trains leave the London and South Western Railway Station, at Waterloo Bridge, at 8 10 morn., on Monday and Thursday. The Steamer leaves Southampton at 11 morn. Fares, from London to Cherbourg, 278. 6d.; 209. Return Tickets, 40s. ; 309.
In addition to those given above you may take the following routes:-From SOUTHAMPTON to JERSEY, by the mail boats every Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, at 11 45 aft., and Saturday at 8 30 aft.
From LITTLEHAMPTON to HONFLEUR, every Wednesday and Saturday; thence to TROUVILLE, CAEN, and the WEST of FRANCE. Or from WEYMOUTH to JERSEY (8 hours), every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 6 a.m.; thence to St. MALO, GRANVILLE, AVRANCHES, &c., and through Brittany to Nantes.'
. Before landing at a French port, make up your mind as to the hotel you choose, as, by so doing, you may secure to yourselves the services of the porter of that hotel directly you land, and save annoyance from the touters who crowd at the landing. No baggage, except a small parcel, or a carpet bag (at night) is allowed to be taken ashore by the passengers, but is detained at the Douane or Custom House, where you may clear it yourself, or pay a porter (commissionnaires as they are called) to clear it.
If you make a stay of a day or two at the port, you should employ a commissionnaire, who, for a franc or two, will clear your baggage, and take all the trouble off your hands, and save much inconvenience and loss of time. The regular charge when you clear it is, per package, 7 sous (3£d.), if under 10lbs.; 14 sous from 10 to 561bs.; 1 franc, above that weight; every packet being charged, so that the fewer you take the better. For carriage to the hotel you pay a porter 50 cents. (5d.) for the first package, and 25 cents. for each of the others.
When leaving a French port for England, a permis d'embarquement may be had at the Douane ono hour before the steamer starts, or between 1 and 3 p.m., when she leaves at night. Once on board you cannot go ashore again without special permission. You may bring back, free of duty, a pint of spirits, and half a pint of eau-de-Cologne. By a new arrangement, luggage direct to London, by some of the trains on the South Eastern and London, Chatham, and Dover Railways, is not examined at Dover or Folkestone, but at the Charing Cross or Victoria Stations. Luggage, also, in steamers from abroad, is examined by the officer on board, between Gravesend and London,
LIVING IN FRANCE-HOTELS-LODGINGS. Hotels-Table d'Hote.-When you go to an inn choose your bed at once, au premier, au second, au troisième, &c., on the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd storey; the higher stories being the cheapest. The average for la chambre is 1 to 1} franc. In your bed-room, if you desire it, there is no objection to your taking tea and seeing your friends, if you have not a private sitting-room. It is not necessary that you should take your meals in the hotel, though it may be advisable to do so as often as convenience permits. To make the most of your time for sight-seeing, two meals a day may suffice-a good breakfast (déjeuner), to start with, and a dinner at the end of it. Frenchmen seldom make more than two regular meals. Breakfast costs 11 to 2 francs. If you come back to the table d'hôte (ordinary) kept at every hotel at a fixed hour, at a charge of from 3 to 5 francs, you may safely trust yourself to the landlord who presides to look after you. The courses are something in this order :-Soup (potage); boulli, or the meat from which the soup is made; veal, or some made dish; fish (poisson); poultry (volaille); cutlets; vegetables, separately; roast meat (rôti); pastry (pâtisserie); then fruit, biscuits, and cheese. Coffee and liqueurs are charged separately. The drink is vin ordinaire (common wine), a bottle of which is usually included in the charge for dinner. Few dishes in France require a knife. Servants are paid in the bill, 1 to 1} franc a day for each person.
If you order a dinner at an hotel or restaurant, order it at so much a head, as "diner à deux francs et demi" (2} francs), “diner à trois" or "à quatre" francs, 3 or 4 francs, &c.; or call for the bill of fare (carte) and choose for yourself, out of a list of 100 or 200 various dishes, often filling a respectable volume. Coffee houses, &c., where you may smoke, in the large towns, are called estimanets; common wine and eaux-de-vie (brandy) are sold at the cabarets.
Lodgings-Servants.When you make a stay at any place, the cheapest plan of living is to take furnished rooms at a private house or hotel (hôtel garni, or maison meublée). You may get them at all prices; the furniture is much more simple than in England. Have a written agreement, signed by both parties, with an inventory of every article, however trifling, and, if advisable from the time of year, a stipulation that the landlord pays the furniture tax (levied in November). Rent is payable in advance.
Servants are engaged by the month; they may be sent away, or they may leave, at any time, by paying up to the day. It is most economical to hire one to come a little while, every day, to your lodgings, and to bring meals from the shop of the nearest traiteur (cook), who will regularly send his bill of fare to choose from, and supply hot dishes at any hour you please. This convenient arrangement is very common in France. If you want to examine any town, &c., in a hurry, the best thing is to hire a laquais de place, at 5 or 6 francs a day (finding himself), to act as a guide and servant.
When travelling, " a pair of leather sheets may be placed beneath the seat cushions, as a precaution against damp beds, which, however, are seldom met with in France or Italy. Essence of ginger is a useful stimulant; and a tea-spoonful in a cup of tea, on arriving after a day's journey, is very refreshing Taose who are in weak health, and travellers in general, should eat very sparingly of animal food on a journey, as it tends to produce heat and flushing. Black tea is one of the most useful articles travellers can be provided with, as it is seldom good in small towns or at inns on the road." (Edwin Lee's Companion to the Continent-a most useful Hand-Book for the Invalid).
As to personal demeanour, it is scarcely necessary to add, that civility and kindness will procure welcome anywhere. “One touch of nature makes the whole world kin," says the poet. When the authorities (gendarmes, &c.,) ask for explanation, be ready to give it, with temper and openness. The most insignificant official abroad, participates in the cares of government, and assumes, in consequence, a very dignified air when dealing with a stranger; but do not mind this, touch your hat (this goes a great way, indeed, with every native you speak to) and answer him as politely as if he were the Préfect de Police. Above 44 things do not trouble your head about French politics.
RAILWAYS--CONVEYANCES—WEIGHTS-MEASURES-LUGGAGE. Rallways.-A full list of Railways is given in BRADSHAW'S Continental Guide, and they are so clearly indicated in this Hand-Book, by printing the Stations uniformly in thick type, throughout the work, that it is useless to say much about them here. The map shows that all the important localities in France are now brought into daily communication with Paris and with each other.
The great Railway Companies of France are six, corresponding to the number of sections in this Hand-Book, and are as follows:
1. Du Nord, or Northern-Paris to Calais, Boulogne, Dunkirk, Brussels, Cologne, &c. Main line to Calais, 235 miles.
2. De l'Ouest, or West and North West-Paris to Rouen, Havre, Dieppe, Cherbourg, Rennes, Brest. Main line to Brest, 387 miles.
3. Do l'Orléans, or South West and Centre-Paris to Bordeaux, Nantes, Rochefort, Périgueux, Clermont-Ferrand, &c. Main line to Bordeaux, 363 miles.
4. Du Midi, or South-Bordeaux to Bayonne, Cette, &c. Main line to Cette, 297 miles. 5. De Lyons et à la Mediterranée, or South East-Paris to Lyons, Marseilles, Cette, Geneva, Grenoble, Salins, &c. Main line to Marseilles, 534 miles. 6. De l'Est, or East-Paris towards Strasbourg, Mulhouse, &c.
The total length of lines in actual working in 1872 was about 10,260 miles. BEADSHAW'S Continental Railway Guide registers all the new openings from month to month.
The traffic is carefully parcelled out to each system of railways, and each line of the system, so that vehicles to places off a line, run from certain stations, and from those only. In France, before a line is opened, not only the rail, but the carriages, engines, stations, and all other details are looked into by the authorities, with a paternal eye to the safety of the public, who on this side of the water are accustomed to take care of themselves. French railways are cheaper and more comfortable than English ; the first and second class seats are stuffed ; they are heated, in winter, with metal cases of hot water, covered with sheep skins; and first-class fare is l}d. per mile, on the average, while in England it is 8d. Children, however, pay full fare above six or eight years; in England, not till ten or eleven years. Trains do not run so often or so fast, but still they run much faster than in Belgium or Germany.
Full lists of coaches (omnibusses and diligences) running from the stations on the railways, and the towns along the roads, are given in this work; as well as of the steam boats (bateaux-à-vapeur) from the ports. The Malles-Postes (mail coaches) have been superseded by railways. Diligences (stage coaches) run six to ten miles an hour, at an average rate of 11d. per mile.
Weights and Measures are reckoned according to the metrical system, so called from the metre, The fundamental unit for long, square, and cubic measures, equal to 3 ft. 3} in. English. Other units, all derived from the mètre, are-the litre (or cubic décimètre) for liquids and dry goods, the stère (or cubic mètre) for wood and solids, the are (or square of 100 square mètres) for land, and the gramme for weights; which last is the weight of a cubic décimètre of water at the temperature of 4° centig. All these follow the common numeration system; but to express tens, hundreds, &c., the French use the Greek prefixes of increase, deca, hecto, kilo, myria, i.e., tenfold, hundredfold, &c.; while for tenths, hundredths, thousandths, they use the Latin prefixes of decrease (all ending in i), deci, centi, milli, i.e., tenth part, hundredth part, thousandth part. A Myriamètre = 10,000 mètres.
| A Mètre, the basel - STen millionth part of a quarKilomètre = 1,000 mètres.
of all the rests ter of the terrestrial meridian, Hectomètre = 100 mètres.
Décimètre = 1 = 1 mètre.
Centimètre = .01 = qbo mètre.
Thus they answer to decimals, altering their name and value according to the place of the decimal point.
ENGLISH FEET. | I Metre = 1.094 English yard = 3.281 English On this plan, a Mètre being ............ 3.281 feet = 39:37 inches = about 11o yards.
a décimètre is ........... •3281 (N.B.-To turn mètres into yards, nearly, add i'o). and a centimetre is............ .03281 100 mètres
= 328 English feet. but a décametre is ............. 32.81
| 1000 mètres (or 1 Kilomètre) = 3281 English feet; a hectomètre is ......... 328-1
| or 5 furlongs nearly (4 furlongs, 213 yards, 2 fect,
CUBIC INCHES. ' exactly.) In the same way, a Litre being ............ 61.028 N.B.--Distances on the French roads and railways
a décilitre is ............ 6.1028 are now measured in Kilomètres and parts. but a décalitre is ............ 610-28
Hence, as a Kilomètre is 3281 feet, and a mile 5280 į
GRAINS (TROY.) I feet, it will be useful to remember, in comparing Again, a Gramme
......... 15.432 them, that a décigramme is ......... 1:5432
1 kilomètre = fth mile, very nearly,
or 6 miles = 10 kilomètres, nearly, but a décagramme is ......... 154:32
or 10 miles = 16 kilomètres, very nearly. This system is simple and convenient, in spite of 10,000 metrès= 10 kilomètres =1 myriamètre=6.214 the fine names with which it is encumbered; but | English miles, or= 64 miles, nearly. only one or two need be used in common reckon- ! l lieue de poste (or 4 kilomètres, or 2,000 toises) ing.
= 2 English miles. For example, it is customary to express all mea- | 10
1 = 247 sures of Length in Mètres and parts, thus,
I toise = 6.396 feet = 6 feet 41 inches. 1 mile = 1609-315 mètres, i.e., 1609 mètres
= 64 feet, or 10% fathoms, nearly. 315 millimètres.
1 Kilogramme = 2 lbs. 3 oz. (avoirdupois). 1 furlong = 201·164 mètres, or 201 mètres
= 22 lbs. 1 oz. 164 millimètres.
= 112 lbs. or I cwt. nearly, I yard
914 mètres, or 914 milli corresponding to a quintal, of 20 to the ton. mètres.
N.B.—30 kilogrammes (usually abbreviated 1 foot
= 304 mètres, or 304 milli "kilos,'') or 66 lbs., is the amount of luggage mètres.
allowed to go free, on the French lines. Measures of Capacity, in Litres and parts, thus, I
ns. 1 hectare = 2:471 acres, or 24 acres, nearly. 1 gallon (imperial) = 4.64 litres, or 4 lit. 54 centil. | 10
= 244 acres. 1 quart
= 1:13 litres, or 1 lit. 15 centil. (B.)-English Measures Compared with Measures of Weight, in Grammes and
French. parts, thus,
1 foot = 3.084 décimètres. 1 lb. (avoirdupois)= 453.59 grammes, or 463 gr. | 1 yard = .9144 mètres, or jy mètre, nearly.
69 centigrammes. (N.B. Toturn yards into mètres, nearly, take off 1'0). (A.) --French Measures Compared with 1 ounce = 28-35 grammes. English.
1 pound (troy) = 373.24 grammes. 1 French foot (old) = 1.066 English foot.
1 ounce = 31.10 grammes. ditto (new) = } of the mètre = 1.094 1 fathom = 1.829 mètres. feet.
=1609.315 mètres = 1.609315 kilo1 aune or ell = 4 feet nearly.
mètres; or 6 miles = 10 kilomètres, or 10 miles 10 French feet = 10% English feet.
= 16 kilomètres, nearly, as above-mentioned. 100 French feet = 106} English feet.
100 miles = 22 marine leagues = 41.8 leagues Or about 6 per cent. (1 in 16) longer.
(or lieues de postes, now abolished).