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Francis I, by the Venetians. A good pulpit rests on two flights of steps. The orgán is higly carved, with seventeen various figures playing music. On the pavement a Meridiun line is traced. There is an image of the Virgin and Child, on a globe, with a light falling on it from an opening, producing a very striking effect; and on the ceiling above is a fresco, by Lemoine (one of the best modern French painters), a work of three years' labour. Pictures and frescoes in the twenty-one chapels around. It was called the Temple de la Victorie in the Revolution. A flower market, fountain, and seminary, in front.
CHURCH OF VAL DE GRACE, Rue St. Jacques, now part of the Military Hospital, was built by Anne of Austria, on the birth of Louis XIV. Statue of Larry, the surgeon, in the court.
Collége de France, Rue St. Jacques, founded 1529, built 1774. Twenty-eight professors.
Collége de la Sorbonne, near Rue St. Jacques, on the site of the famous theological school or university, founded 1253, by Robert Sorbon. It is a quadrangle, begun 1629, by Richelieu; including a Grecian church, built 1635-59, by Lemercier, in which there is a good dome, painted by Philippe de Champagne, and Girardon's famous statue of the Cardinal, supported by religion, &c. The library of 50,000 volumes, open daily, 10 to 2.
COLUMN OF JULY, see Place de la Bastille.-NAPOLÉON COLUMN, see Place Vendôme.
Conservatoire Nationale des Arts et Métiers (Museum of Practical Arts and Trades), Rue St. Martin, No. 208, on the site of St. Martin's abbey (of which a round tower is left at the Fontaine), was formed 1798, as a repository of models, patents, machines, &c., of all classes and countries. Some are placed in the old Gothic chapel of the 13th century, and the beautiful eight-sided refectory. Strangers on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Saturday, from 11 to 3; by passport. Lectures on Science and Art, gratis.
Conveyances.—Omnibusses, all under one General Company, called Batignollaisés, Béarnaises, Citadines, Constantines, Dames-Réunies, Diligentes, Excellentes, Favorites, Gazelles, Hirondelles, Parisiennes, Tricycles, &c., run through all the 31 principal routes, at one fare of 30c. (3d.) inside, and 150. outside. They correspond with each other; and by paying the full fare you may go from any part of Paris to any other part, upon showing your ticket or cachet, when you change at certain points ; but their slow rate of travelling will be sure to try the patience of an Englishman. The different lines are marked by letters of the alphabet, by different colours, or by coloured lamps at night.
Cabs run not by the mile, but by the hour, or by the course, whichever you choose; the course being a single run or drive, long or short (within Paris), without stopping. Tariff' for Voitures de place, or Voitures de remise, when plying in the streets, within the City, is as follows:-For 2 to 3 persons-ifr. 50c. the course, 2fr. the hour; for 4 to 5 persons--1fr. 70c. the course, 2fr. 25c. the hour. The day begins at 6 in summer (31st May to 1st October), and 7 in winter, and ends at 12-30 at night. Extra rates for right cabs, or rides beyond the fortifications, or cabs hired from a remise (stables). Boxes and packages outside are 25e. each; but not more than three are to be paid for. No charge for articles inside. The driver is bound to load or unload the luggage; and to give his number when you take your seat. Going to a theatre or concert you pay in advance, to save time. Gratuities are forbidden; but it is usual to give 10 to 20c. extra for the course, and 25 to 50c. by the hour. Voitures de remise of a superior class may be hired from 20 to 30fr. a day. In hiring by time, the whole first hour is paid for; then you may pay 20 to 25c. for 5 minutes, 35 to 50c. for 10 minutes, 50 to 75c. for 15 minutes, and so on, by a somewhat complicated scale.
A Tram rail (called Chemin de Fer Américain) runs from Rue du Louvre to Passy, Auteuil, Point du Jour to Pont de St. Cloud; with a branch from Auteuil to Billancourt, Sèvres to Versailles,
COQUILLIÈRE (Rue), contains the Church of St. Eustache
CULTURE STE. CATHERINE (Rue), No. 23, is the Hôtel de Carnavalet, a fine house of the 16th century, once the seat of Madame de Sévigné and her daughter, to whom her letters were written. It was built, 1541, by Bullant; carvings by J. Goujon.
DENIS (Rue St.), has the Entrepôt des Glaces, and (near the bottom) the church of St. Germain l'Auxerrois.
DÉPÔT DES FOURRAGES (Forage Stores), for the garrison, is near Barrière de là Rapée and Pont d'Ivry, and is 300 feet long.
DÉPOT DE LA GUERRE, Rue St. Dominique, Nos. 82 and 86, is a large building; and contains the state papers of the time of Louis XIII., the letters of Louis XIV. to his grandson, Philip of Spain, Napoléon's letters, the survey of France, plans of battles, &c. The War Minister's head-quarters are fixed here.
ÉCOLE DE MEDICINE, Rue l'École de Medicine, a handsome range, built 1769, by Gondouin, with an Ionic front, 198 feet long. Here are bas-reliefs, medallions of surgeons, frescoes (in the theatre), busts, a library of 30,000 volumes, and a museum.
ECOLE DE NATATION (Swimming School), on Quai d'Orsay, near the Tuileries.
ÉCOLE POLYTECHNIQUE, Rue Montagne de Ste. Genevieve, founded 1794, to supply scientific officers, for the army, navy, engineers, and other branches of the public service.
Elysée Palace, opposite the Champs Elysées, 59, Rue St. Honoré, was built 1718; belonged to Madame de Pompadour, the Duchesse de Bourbon, &c., and was the residence of Murat, Napoléon, Alexander of Russia, Duke of Wellington, Duc de Berri (when assassinated, 1820), &c. Here the Emperor fêted the Duke of Cambridge and Lord Raglan, in 1854. In one room is Napoléon's bed, with other memorials.
FONTAINES, and JETS D'EAUX. See Marché des Innocens, Bibliothèque Nationale, Church of St. Sulpice, Notre Dame, Place du Châtelet, Place de la Concorde, Rue Richelieu, Palais Royal, Porte St. Martin, for some of the finest in Paris.
Fortifications, round the city, planned by M. Thiers in Louis Philippe's reign, were built 1841-6; and are 26 miles long, faced by 94 bastions, and ramparted walls 11 yards thick. Outside are 17 detached Forts, such as Mont Valérien (600 feet high), Issy, &c., which suffered in the late war, and have been partially restored. The old Castle of Vincennes, with its arsenal, &c., is on the east side, near the large Convalescent Hospital, and in the midst of a Park or Bois, which the rebels occupied May, 1871.
Geneviève Ste., or Panthéon, not far from the Luxembourg, is the “St. Paul's” of Paris, and takes its name from the patron saint of the city, to whom Clovis built a Church, in which she was buried 512, and which Louis XV. began to re-build 1764, in the Grecian style, from Soufflot's designs. It makes & cross, 602 feet by 255 (the nave being 105 long), with a dome 268 feet high and 66 diameter, painted by Baron Gros. In the front, which is 129 feet broad on the whole, is a range of eleven steps, leading up to a fine portico of six Corinthian pillars, 60 feet high, besides sixteen others behind them. The pediment is filled up by David's fine bas-relief of France (a figure fifteen feet high) distributing honours to her great men, represented by Fénélon, Malesherbes, Mirabeau, Voltaire, Rousseau, Lafayette, Carnot, Monge, Manuel, David (the painter), Napoléon, &c.; below them is this memorial inscription in gilt letters :-"Aux Grands Hommés la Patrie Reconnaissante, a concise idiom, signifying that the mother country dedicates it to the memory of her great children. Altogether, the portico is so good that the architect is said to have "mis à la porte toute son architecture,"-turned his building out of doors, There are 258 pillars about this church, of which 130 are inside. The carved ceiling is eighty feet from the marble pavement, under which are the crypts on Doric pillars, containing the remains of Voltaire ("poete, historien, philosophe,") and Rousseau, Lagrange, Soufflot, Bougainville, Admiral de Winter, Marshals Lannes and Bugeaud. It was occupied by the insurgents 1848, and was threatened with destruction 1871. A fine prospect from the top, one of the highest points in Paris,
GOBELINS.--See Manufacture Nationale des Gobelins.
Halle au Blés, or Corn Exchange, Rue des Deux Écus, a vast circular pile, on the site of a royal seat, built 1763-7, by Le Camus, 126 feet diameter, being the exact shape and size of the Panthéon at Rome. It is entirely of stone and iron, with an iron domed roof and skylight, built 1811; an arcade round it, and large granaries. Outside the south part is Catherine de Medicis' Doric pillar (1572) and sun dial, 100 feet high, built by her astrologer. The Halle aux Vins, or Wine Dépôt, is an immense range like town, at Bercy, near the Jardin des Plantes.
Hotel Cluny, Rue des Mathurins, No. 16, a fine old building, begun 1480, by an abbot of Cluny, and finished 1505. After many changes it came to M. de Sommerard, who formed a large medieval collection, which the government, having bought, turned into a museum of antiquities, such as carvings, furniture, stained glass, tapestry, arms, MSS., pictures. The old chapel rests on a single pillar in the middle. Across the court is the Palais des Thermes, a solid pile, about 90 feet long, supposed to be tho old seat of the Roman governors, whence a Roman way struck along Rue St. Jacques, and an aqueduct went to Arcueil. Its thick walls are made of stones and bricks with stucco; and Roman remains are kept in it. Open Wednesday and Friday, by card, 10 to 4.
Hôtel Dieu, close to Nôtre Dame, the oldest Hospital in Paris, was founded in the 7th century, rebuilt by Philippe Auguste, and enlarged by St. Louis, and forms a vast solid pile, with eight hundred and fifty beds : but all that is left of the old building is a chapel of the 13th century. There are several statues, portraits, &c., of benefactors and eminent medical men.
Hôtel des Invalides, the French “Chelsea Hospital,” opposite the Champs Élysées, is known by its conspicuous gilt dome, and stands on an esplanade, 1,440 feet by 780 feet, which reaches to the Seine, and is ornamented with trees, Marochetti's statue of Napoléon, and cannons, some of them from Algiers. The Lion of St. Mark, which stood here for a while, was restored to Venice in 1815. The buildings, begun by Louis XIV., include fifteen courts, and cover sixteen acres; and about three thousand soldiers, and one hundred and seventy officers, under a governor (the senior Marshal, now Jerome Bonaparte), lieutenant-governor, &c., are sheltered here. The river front is 612 feet long, and has Ionic pilasters, with lucarne windows (formed of military trophies, cut in stone), and a bas-relief of Louis XIV. on horseback. The Cour Royale is 315 feet by 192. Portraits of great soldiers in the council chamber. There is a gallery of plans and fortresses. Dining-rooms, 150 feet long. One dormitory is called after the famous republican soldier, Latour d'Auvergne, who refused promotion on principle, preferring to be called the "premier grenadier" of France. The large kitchens are worth seeing. In the old church, 210 feet long, are many tablets to governors ; 1,400 flags here, taken from the enemy, were burnt by Marshal Serrurier, 1815, to save them from the Allies. One of the chapels contains the mausoleum of Turenne. At the south end is the great dome, 323 feet high, under which the body of Napoléon (brought from St. Helena, 1840) is placed, with his sword, hat, crown, and star, covered by a most splendid tomb. The tombs of Bertrand and Duroc are close at hand. At the Revolution, twelve medallions of kings, here, were transformed into Greek and Roman philosophers, two being Voltaire and Rousseau! On the ceiling of the cupola, 51 feet diameter, is Delafosse's St. Louis entering Heaven. Open, 10 to 4.
Hotel (or Palais) de la Legion d'Honneur, Rue de Lille, was built 1786, for the Prince de Salms (who was beheaded, 1793), and was sold by lottery to a hair-dresser; in 1803 it came to the government, and became the seat of the Grand Chancellor of the Legion. It was burnt by the Communists, and is in course of restoration.
Hôtel des Monnaies (Mint), on Quai Conti, built 1768-75, is 360 feet long, with eight courts, ornamented by pillars and busts. Many of the scales used here, and at the branch mints, were made from cannon taken at Austerlitz. It has a museum of medals and coins, from Childebert's time (511), including English from 1422 (Henry VI.), Spanish from 560, and other countries, of which there is a catalogue. Strangers, by card, on Monday and Thursday, 1 to 3,
Botel de Bully, Rue ft. Antoine, No. 148, was inhabited by Henry IV.'s famous minister, and is well preserved.
Hotel de Ville, or Mansion House and Guildhall *combined, opposite the Place de Grève (the soene of many a bloody deed), near the Pont d'Arcole, was begun 1533-1628, on the site of the Maison de la Greve, in the Renaissance style; to this other large piles were added, 1838-41, so as to make a vast quadrangle, with pillars between the windows, and about fixty statnes, of which twenty-eight were
es & bas-relief of Henry IV. It is DOW & ruin, having been burnt with all its decorations, library. &e by the Communists, 24th May, 1871. when above 600 persons perisbed In one of the three courts was a statue of Louis XIV. 7
was a statue of Louis XIV. Two very rich staircases led to the great root, called Salle de Danse; another to tbe Grand Salle, the largest and most ancient of all, ornamented with great marble fire-places, paintings, busts, escutcheons, &c. Here was the room where A s*x spierre held his councils. From the middle window, looking into the square, Louis XVI. spoke to the people, with the “bonnet rouge" on his bead; Lafayette presented Louis Philippe to them, 1830; and Lamartine persuaded the people to adopt the tricolor instead of the red flag, 1848. Here the Government of Defence were seated down to 28th February, 1871, and the Communist leaders fron 19th March to und May. There were above one hundred and sixty public rooms here; among gy", ich were the public Library of 100,000 volumes, the Salle du Conseil; the Préfect's apartments; th: alle d'Introduction, in which was Bozio's statne of Henry IV.; Salle de Jet containing a model w the artesian well of Grenelle; the Salle de Bal, 70 feet by 40, with portraits, &c. The splendid How street, Rue de Rivoli, now passes close by the Hôtel de Ville, in a line with Rue St. Antoine.
Imprimerie Nationale, Rue Vieille du Temple, belonged to Cardinal de Rohan, of the time of Louis XIV., but is used as a Government Printing Office, since 1809, about seven hundred and fifty bands being employed. When Pope Pius VII. visited it, the Lord's Prayer was printed for him in one hundred and fifty languages. Seen on Thursday, by application in writing, beforehand, to the director. The Archives Nationales is close by.
INSTITUTE OF FRANCE.- See Palais de l'Institut.
Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles (Youthful Blind), Rue de Sèvres, was founded, 1781, by Valentine Haüy, a blind man. It is a fine large building, with gårdens, on a space of four thousand feet square, built 1843, by Philippon, for three hundred, and includes a Grecian chapel, &c. The teachers are blind; weaving, brush, and basket-making, printing, music, mathematics, &c., are laught. Strangers, on Wednesdays, 1 to 5, by card. A public examination on the last Saturday in every month, which foreigners may attend.
Institution Nationale des Sourds-Muets (Deaf and Dumb), Rue St. Jacques, in St. Magliore's Seminary, was founded by Abbé de l'Epée, 1775 (?), and has about one hundred and sisty cases. The
Bud Abbe's portrait, by Camus, is here; one of his pupils, A. Dubois, died in it lately, upwards of ninety years old. A work by a deaf and dumb artist adorns the chapel.
Jardin des Plantes (Botanic Garden) opposite Pont d'Austerlitz, near the Halle aux Vins, was Lunded by Louis XIII., in 1635, and increased by the care of Tournefort, Vaillant, Jussieu, Buffon, Fourcroy, Cuvier, Brongniart, and other learned men. In this vast collection there are the following divisions :--A Botanic Garden of 12,000 plants and trees. Botanic Gallery, with 50,000 specimens. Mineral Gallery, 540 feet long, with sixty thousand specimens. Zoological Gallery, of 390 feet, in six rooms, with two hundred thousand specimens, of which two thousand are mammalia, ten thousand are birds, five thousand are fishes, two thousand are reptiles. Comparative Anatomy Gallery, in twelve rooms, with fifteen thousand specimens, chiefly arranged by Cuvier, whose bust, by David, is here. Also a menagerie, some of the animals in which were killed for food in the siege of 1871; lecture rooms for one thousand two hundred, which the publie attend, gratis, añid å library of forty"we thousand volumes, besides ninety splendid volumes of plants, &e. (coloured, on vellum), open erorý day, except Thursday, 11 to 3. There is, in the grounds, & cedar, given by Collinson, the English naturalist, near the pavilion and dial, on a height commanding a good view, and not far from the grave of Daubenton. Strangers to the galleries, by card, on Monday and Thursday (11 to 3, comparative anatomy); Monday, Thursday, and Saturday (Zoology).
Louvre (Rue de Rivoli), begun 1528, by Francis I., on the site of Dagobert's castle (or Louveterie), was enlarged by Louis XIV. (who finished the long gallery to the Tuileries), after Perraut's designs, and improved by Napoléon. The west side, or old Louvre, was built by Henry II., and has sculptures by Goujon. Charles IX. was here on the infamous Bartholomew day; they pretend to show the window he fired from. Henrietta Maria, widow of Charles I., also resided here in great poverty. The best part (and best seen from Pont Neuf) is the east front, which has C. Perrault's colonnade of 28 pillars, 38 feet high; it is 525 feet long and 85 high, and includes Napoléon's bronze gates. In the south front (towards the river) are 40 pilasters. The decorated court, inside, is 408 feet square, and, till 1848, held Marochetti's bronze statue of the Duke of Orléans. The Louvre is now used as a vast Museum of paintings and works of art; including about 2,000 specimens of every school of painting (1,400 being French, Flemish, German, Italian-and 450 Spanish), with models, busts, marbles antiquities, bijoux, &c. Admission, 10 to 4, every day (except Monday). Catalogues are sold at the door. The whole collection has been re-arranged in twelve sections, viz. :-Paintings, drawings, engravings, ancient sculpture, modern sculpture, Assyrian antiquities, Egyptian antiquities, Etruscan antiquities, American (Mexican) antiquities, Algierine antiquities, marine models, and Museum of Sovereigns. In the last are seen Henry IV.'s bed; with Napoléon's bed, his toilet, desk, sword, cocked hat, the famous redingote, handkerchief, and other relics, The new wing, in Rue de Rivoli, added by the Emperor Napoléon, now unites the Louvre to the Tuileries. An attempt to burn it was made by the Communists, 1871; but only the library was injured.
Luxembourg.-See Palais du Luxembourg.
Madeleine Church, Rue Royale, at the upper end, near the Boulevards, was begun 1764 (boing the fifth church on this site), and lately finished. Vignon, its designer, was the principal architect. It stands on a platform 328 feet by 138, and --high, with flights of 28 steps at each end. The bronze yates deserye special attention, being beautifully sculptured in relief, representing the Commandments, &c. It is in the style of a Grecian temple, and has 52 pillars round three sides, each 64 feet high, with 32 statues of saints between. In the south pediment--the largest of the kind existing-is a fine alto-relief, by Lemaire, 126 feet long, of Christ and the Magdalene; the bronze door beneath is 32 feet by 164. covered with bas-reliefs from Scripture. Inside are six chapels, adorned with paintings of the Magdalene; over the altar (by Marochetti) is Ziegler's picture of the Progress of Christianity.
Manufacture Nationale des Gobelins, Rue Mouffetard, No. 280, on the Bièvre (where tanners, dyers, &c., have settled for ages), takes its name from Jean Gobelins, a tapestry worker, about 1450, ard was turned 1662, into a Government factory by Louis XIV., who employed Lebrun to paint the desins Large elaborate pictures are here copied, with all the effect and smoothness of an oil painting- not for sale, but for presents. A carpet factory is attached to it, called La Savonnerie, from an old soap wak in which Marie de Medicis placed it, 1615. Some carpets take ten years to make, and cost 180,000 francs. Strangers on Wednesday and Saturday, 2 to 4. A catalogue may be had. Part of the factory was burnt 25th May, 1871, and much tapestry destroyed.
Marché des Innocens, or Halles Centralles, Rue St. Denis, so called from a church of that game, pulled down 1788, is used for fruit, vegetables, and provisions, and has in the midst an old