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At one tiine it was used as a church (St. Etienne), | 020 at Arles, and only one-fourth of the Colosseun; then, in the 11th century, as the Hôtel de Ville, and was used not only for the inhuman gladiator then as a stable (hy one Brueys), and latterly as combats, but for naumachia or sca-fights, water part of the Austin convent; but it is now restored being brought to it by the great Pont du Gard with great care, and occupied as a Museum and aqueduct. Machicolated towers were at one time picture gallery, in which are Delaroche's well | anuexed to this classic pile; and it was turned into known "Cromwell," and Sigalon's "Nero."
a castle, to which the church of St. Martin was It stands inside a railing, on a stylobate or base | added (inside) in the 11th century; but this and ment, 21} teet high, to which fifteen steps lead ; is the houses piled against it have been long removed, externally 823 feet by 40; and is surrounded on and it is now taken proper care of. Some may three sides, by fluted Corinthian pillars, having even think that it has been restored too carefully. rich capitals, supporting a well-carved cornice and Wild bulls from the Camargue are sometimes frieze. Of the pillars, ten are in he north portico baited here. A fine moonlight view may be enjoyed (six in front); and the ten down each side are (some from the hills t of them) half let into the wall, but not at equal At a beautiful spot, near Place de la Boquerie, distances. The door under the portico, 9 feet by called Jardin de la Fontaine, after a spring which 94, leads into the temple itself, which is 52 feet by rises at the Creux de la Fontaine, and supplies the 36, and 36 feet high, and lit from the roof. Car town, are the remains of the dinal Alberoni was so charmed with this work that Temple of Diana, built by Augustus, and ruined he said it ought to have a gold case; and Colbert by Charles Martel, aftershe had driven out the Saraand Napoleon thought of transporting it, stone by cens. It is used as a bath ; the great aqueduct stone, to Versailles. It is open to the public on came in here, into a château d'eau or reservoir. Sunday, but may be visited at any time by strangers lately discovered. M. Crespon has a museum of with passports.
natural history hero Beyond this, on Mont CavaThe Arenes (arena) or Amphitheatre, the best lier, is the preserved one existing, after that at Verona, stands Tour Magne (Great Tower), a conspicuous mark in an open space, and is an oval, lying east and for the city, and commanding a great sweep of west, 437) feet by 3324 outside ; 2264 feet by 1241 view. It is a ruin, six-sided at bottom, and eight. inside; 1,176 feet round; 70 feet high (inside, the sided above, where it narrows; about 110 feet ground is 74 feet lower). It is composed of two high it might have been 130 once), and 65 feet rows, of sixty equal arches each, in a plain Tuscan through at bottom--the top being less than half as or Doric style, with a cornice between the rows, much; and built of rough stones, with an arched pilasters between the arches in the first row, and base pierced with windows, and remains of four pillars between those in the second. These arches Ionic pilasters on one side, in the upper storey. communicate with the corridors and passages There is no staircase or roof. Some think it was a leading inside. Four principal entrances front the Roman watch tower, others a mausoleum. Behind points of the compass, that on the north being dis- the cypresses, here, was the burial ground, whore tinguished by a pediment and two carved bulls. urns, amphoræ, pottery, and bones have been found. On the north-east side you may trace bas-reliefs of Out of ten Roman Gates in the ancient walls, tro fighting gladiators, and the story of Romulus and are left. That called Porte de France, near to Remus, suckled by the Wolf; and round the top hospital, on St. Gilles road, is a single plain arch, (which is broken towards the east) are holes for the 22} feet high, 13} wide, with round towers at the poles, upon which the awning was spread. In the sides. Porte d'Auguste, on the Domitian way, or Inside are remains of the 32 rows of seats (16 or 17 road to Rome, is more ornamented than the other, may be traced), made of enormuus stones, and / and was built in the year 7 B.C., along with the ranged in four divisions, according to the rank of wall, as an inscription to Augustus testifies. It has the sitters, who came in and out by the passages or four arches through it, two large and two small, vomitories, It may have held from 18,000 to 20,000 with an Ionic column botween two Corinthian when full; that is some thousands less than the pilasters on the face,
Among the ancient buildings which have disap- | engines; there is a trade also in grain, wine, eauxpeared were the Capitol, on the site of the gen de-vie, olive oil, drugs, essences, &c.* darmerie ; the Baths, in Porte St. Antoine; Basi- Convevances by rail to Alais (2 hours), by rail to lica, where the Palais de Justice now stands, &c.
Alais, Besseges, Grand Combe, Clermont, &c. (see Charles VI. built a castle near Porte des Carmes; Route 31). Carriages to Pont du Gard, 12 francs pulled down 1693.
there and back (see Route 20). Several Protestant martyrs were burnt, 1551, in [At 4 kil. south is Caissargues, which has good Place de la Salmandre (the crest of Francis I.); fishing in the Vistre, and had a castle, pulled and on Place de Boucaire, Roland and other Cami down 1574. Names ending in argues, so comsard leaders were burnt, 1705. Besides the Col mon hereabouts, are derived from ager, a field, lege, there are a large priests' Seminary, and as in this name - Cassil ager, i.e., Cassius' schools of the Brothers of Christian Doctrine; field, or farm.--Abuut 15 kil. further on is also Protestant schools attached to an Orphan Gilles-les-Boucheries, in a vine country, on a rock home and a Normal school. A Protestant Ceme near the Canal de Beaucaire, and so called tery is on the Alais road, with "Après la mort,le, after St. Gilles abbey, of which the highly carved jugement" (after death, the judgment) over the Romanesque church of the 12th century regate; beyond it are the stone quarries in the Gar. mains, having behind it St. Gilles' screw, or riques hills. Tertiary fossils are tound on Puy spiral staircase. The Knights-Templars had & d'Autel, a hill to the south-west, towards St. Cas priory here. Distilling, &c., are carried on. sairo, where the telegraph stands.
Raymond, Count of Toulouse, was absolved here Of the three railway stations, or embarcadères, for by the pope's legate, after being scourged, 1209, Alais, Beaucaire, and Montpellier, that for the last and here Clement IV. was born. Nearly 30 kil is the best, and is 328 feet long. The people are further south, among the sand hills at the rough and independent in their manners, and
mouth of the Petit Rhône, is Les Saintes Maries, divided into two distinct religious and hostile
and its ancient fortified church, with towers and parties, formerly styled Grand and Petit Croix.
battlements, and curious carvings, and four Though the climate is better than that of Mar
paintings on wood by King René.} seilles, it is still too cold and exposed to the mis- |
Leaving Nimes, the next station is tral and rent-de-bise, for persons in weak health.
St. Césaire (13 mile), with little to arrest atten(Lee's Companion to the Continent.)
tion, any more than those which follow.
Milhaud (2 miles) is approached in a cutting. Wheat is thrashed in the open air by horses; and
Population, 1,650. the plough, or charrue, still keeps its classic shape.
Bernis (14 mile). The dry and parched district round Nismes, and
Uchaud (14 mile), or Uchaux, in the midst of extending to Aigues-Mortes, is to be irrigated and
vineyards. reclaimed by means of the Rhône, by a company, of
[12 kil. south of it is Vauvert, i.e. Valée-vert (or which Lord Ward is president.
Green Valley), the centre of the wine district in Among its natires are Nicot, who brought tobacco this quarter, and once the site of a château, Into France (called Nicotina, after him), and Guizot, visited by St. Louis, and pulled down, 1628. the statesman; Reboul, the baker-poet, is a resi An old castle (Beauvoison) of the Templars is dent; Cavalier, the Camisard leader, was also a near.) baker. He died a pensioner at Chelsea Hospital. The road is crossed by a Roman brige over the Eleven Protestant pastors are stationed here. The Vidourle, where we enter department Hérault. Rev. F. Gouthier, whose life has been written Vergeze (34 miles). Here are some old mineral by his nephews, the Villemins, laboured here for springs, useful in rheumatism, &c. nine years.
Aigues-Vives (1 mile) manufactures "living The manufactures are shawls, gloves, silk gonds,
See " Tableaux pittoresque, &c., de Nismes, et de mee pofton, carpets (at Flessier's factory), pianos, steam
Environs," by Rev. E, Frossard,
waters," (the signification of its name), in the form Lunel-Viel (2 miles), is the best seat for musof caux-de-vie. Population, 1,700.
cat above-mentioned. Fossil remains are abundant Gallargues (l} mile). Population, 2,100. in the limestone.
Lunel (3} miles), a town of 6,740 souls, in depart Valergues (2 miles). ment Hérault, trading in muscat or sweet wines, / St. Bres (2 miles). liqueurs, eaux-de-vie, fruit, grain, &c., and stand Baillargues (1 mile), is near Colombières, & ing among vineyards and oliveyards, with a spirc pleasing spot among the rocks of the Carroux, not church. It had a famous synagogue in the 16th far from Pont-du-Verdier, à bridge of one arch century, and walls, which Richelieu razed, 1632, to from rock to rock. punish the Huguenots.
St. Aunes (2miles). Hotels.-Du Palais National; Du Grand Soleil
Les Mazes (14 mile). From this it is 31 miles (Sun).
to Montpellier station, a handsome pile approached Here the line from Arles (28 miles) comes in. (See
by a tunnel. Route 20.) (At 12 kil, north, is SOMMIÈRES, a thriving place
MONTPELLIER, of 3,600 population, up the Vidourle, under an
61 miles from Avignon, 520 miles from Paris. old castle, and having large manufactures of HOTELS.-Nevet; Du Midi; De Londres; Du flannel, cloth, &c. Not far off is Ville Vieille Cheval Blanc; De la Rochelle; Du Tapis ; Vert (i.e.. Old Town), where a Roman bridge and Brun; Cafés de France; De la Comedie ; Du Comother antiquities have been discovered by M. merce ; Du Palais; Du Musée; Du Pavillon. E. Dumas, an eminent geologist here. Hotel. Population, 55,610. Du Soleil d'Or (Golden Sun).
S OBJECTS OF NOTICE.-Citadel-Triumphal At 15 kil. south, on the salt marshes near the Arch-Cathedral -École de Medicine-Botanic sea, is
Gardens. AIGUES-MORTES, on the Grand Roubine and Capital of department Hérault (part of the pro
other canals. At first there was a Benedictine | vince of Languedoc), seat of a military division, of abbey, called Psalmodi, here (restored 788 by
a bishopric, &c., on a rocky hill, near the Mosson, Charlemagne), of which the gate tower is left. about 4 kil. from the Mediterranean. It was In 1218 St. Louis built a castle and the Tour de founded in the 8th century, when Charles Martel Constance, which is 94 feet high, besides a tur destroyed Maguelonne (then a town of the Sararet of 35 feet on top; walls were added by his cens), and, under the name of Mons Possulanus, son Philip, and the place now offers a complete became noted for its commerce and School of specimen of a fortified town of that age, with Medicine. The latter appears to have gained for its towers, battlements, machicolations, ditches, it the reputation of being a peculiarly healthy &c. Louis XIV. confined some unhappy Pro spot for invalids, though other places along this testants in the Constance Tower for 35 years; shore are as healthy and more beautiful. Matthews, another is called Tour des Bourgignons, from a in the “ Diary of an Invalid," says, “It is true there magsacre made by the Dauphin's troops, 1421, is almost always à clear blue sky, but the air is when the fort was held by the Burgundians, sharp and biting, and you are continually assailed whose bodies were thrown here. The clock- by the bise (north wind) or the marin. The one tower is of the 13th century. A cànal led | brings cold, the other damp." down to the Grau-Louis, or harbour, on the One of its counts married a daughter of a king Mediterranean, whence St. Louis (Louis IX.) of Arragon, whose descendants sold it to Philip de embarked for the Crusades, 1270, and where | Valois. It was taken by Louis XIII. as a strongCharles V. landed to hold his interview withhold of the Huguenots, to keep whom in check he Francis I., in 1538. At Peccais, about 2,000 built the Citadel, at one end of the hill, 167 feet men are employed in the government salt above the sea, whence there is a fine view of the works. Fevers and mosquitoes are the tor cultivated gardens, vineyards, woods, and country ment of this part of the coast.)
1 around-the sea, Mont Canigou in the Pyrenees,
and the Cevennes being visible. At the other end, wax, chiefly from Italy, but some by Delpuech. of the bill is Place de Peyrou, a large, regular, well- | The Botanical Garden, where de Candolle lectured, planted square, built by Daviler. Here stand is in the neighbourhood, and was begun by Richier Dorbay's triumphal arch to Louis XIV. in one de Belleval, 1593, in the time of Henry IV.; it concorner, his bronze statue in the centre, and a six tains 8,000 plants, many being rare exotics, and sided domed château d'eau, faced with Corinthian one, a cyprus, called the Tree of Montpellier. In & pillars. To this water is brought from St. Cle corner is a tablet to Narcissa, "Narcissæ placandis ments by an acqueduct, eight miles long, built manibus,'' supposed to be Young's daughter-in-law, 1753-9, by H. Pitot, and distributed to 29 foun Mrs. Temple; she died of consumption, and was tains in the town-one of which, in Place de la buried here, but her body was afterwards moved to Comédie, has a group of the Graces. This acque- Lyons, to escape the bigoted fury of the populace. duct is mostly under ground, but near the city, it This town is still reckoned a great Catholic strongruns on an imposing double row of arches (183 hold; and the hatred of both parties is so great, arches in one row, 53 in the other), and at one that they use different cafés, and will hardly meet point is 92 feet high.
in society.-(Trollope's Impressions of a Wanderer.) At a house in Place de Peyrou is the Musée St. Eloi's Hospital, with 500 to 700 beds in it, was Fabre, a bequest of Baron Fabre (pupil of David, founded as far back as 1183. The general hospidied, 1837) to his native town. It includes prints, tal, built 1682, is near an asylum for Insensés (lunasketches, medals, statues, paintings (about 490) of tics). There is a prison for 450 on the solitary the French, Italian, and Dutch Schools, and 25,000 system, opened 1844; also a new Palais de Justice, books, of which 15,000 belonged to his friend Alfieri; near the triumphal arch, composed of a centre ten and is open thrice a week. Many of the paintings column portico, with wings. The public bibliothèque are worth notice, one among them is Sir J. | has 10,000 volumes; the theatre, on the citadel Reynolds's “Young Samuel," a beautiful specimen. esplanade, built 1786, is generally used as a bourse A School of Design is connected with it.
or exchange; the chamber of commerce is at the St Pierre's Cathedral is the largest and ugliest of Hôtel St. Côme; the Tour de l'Observance serves all the churches, of which there are four or five. It as a telegraph. is 180 feet long, and has three towers, near one of Up the little stream of the Verdanson, you come which is the porch, curiously resting on two cylin-| to the fountain of Jacques Caur, Charles VII.'s drical pillars or turrets, with conical tops, ten side goldsmith, who was a great benefactor to Montchapels, Santarme's statue of the Virgin, and paint. pellier. ings by Bourdon (“Simon Magus "), Jean de Troy! Among a long list of natives are, James, King of ("Healing of the Cripple"), and Ranc (“Power of Arragon; Bourdon, the painter; Count Daru; and the Keys "). Notre Dame des Tables church, Cambacères. which belonged to the Jesuits, is now the college. Manufactures of linen and cloth, liqueurs, che
Near the cathedral is the ancient machicolated micals, verdigris, refined sugar, leather, &c.; and Ecole de Médecine, first founded, they say, by the a trade in these, with wine, fruit, olive oil, &c. Arabs (or Saracens), and seated in what was the Conveyances: By coach, to Rodez, Clermont, &c. «ld bishop's palace. Among the objects in it worth (See Routes 32, 33.) notice are, busts and portraits of eminent pro. Several decayed ports are along the coast, which fessors, from the 13th century (besides a bronze of is lined with low marshy lagoons or étangs, and Hippocrates brought from Cos); the patched robe sandhills. in which licentiates are dressed, once worn by (At 10 kil. south, on one of these étangs (de Rabelais ; the lecturer's seat in the amphitheatre Thou), is the old cathedral church of Mague(which holds 2,000); a marble piece of antiquity lonne, a mixture of the Arab or Norman, and from Nismes; a library of 35,000 volumes, and 600 the Gothic, begun in the 7th century, and MSS. in various languages, including Tasso's plan altered 1054, and fortified against the pirates. of his “Jerusalem Delivered," and Queen Chris It is now a barn. The town was ruined in the tipa's papers; and a room of anatomical models in 8th century by Charles Martel,
It is a fact that, as late as 1926, money was 455 A.D. In 1860, bishop and all went over to
coined at Malquiel, under the authority of the the reformed faith, for which Louis XIII. gar. bishops of Maguelonne, which bore the engy of 1 risoned it, and razed the walls. It was latterly Mahomet. This was meant to conciliate his a duchy, in the Crussol family (the first peers followers, who, as well as the Jews, formed of France), whose old Château remains, with important colonies here.)
high walls and corner towers, like the bastille The next station to Montpellier is
at Paris; the chapel has stained windows, and Villeneuve (5 miles), so called when the canons tombs of the Dukes from 1660. of Maguelonne built a church here in the 12th 8t. Therri's cathedral was burnt, 1611, except century. Population, 1,200.
the fine circular Romanesque tower of six stages Mireval (34 miles), in a track of sandy marsh. (once eight, they say, to which a modern Away to the west of it is Piguan, with an old church is added, with a portrait of Cardinal castle of the 11th century, and the arcient half Pacca St. Etienne's was the Jesuits' church. Moorish abbey church of Vignogoul, older than the An ancient crypt, in another part, has an ill12th century.
made tigure of Christ, crowned with the stigFrontignan (4 miles), a decayed port, still mata. The large bishop's palace is now the celebrated for its sweet muscat wine, which is
Hotel de Ville, with a beautiful dark behind. raised in what appears a most uninviting spot. The A little beyond is the house where Racine curious fortified church and tower attract notice. lived, 1661-2, when studying theology here; it Population, 2,150.
commands a fine prospect over the valley of The line runs hence on a slight embankment be Gisfort, in which is a grotto called Temple des tween the sea and étang (leaving the Balaruc Druides, with a dolmen close by; also the springs, west), to
Tournal tower and the Fontaine d'Eure, which Cette, 44 miles further, at the junction with the supplied the great aqueduct to Nismes. Many Chemin de Fer du Midi (see Route 66).
Roman inscriptions have been found. A few
silk goods are made. ROUTE 31.
Conveyances to Nismes, &c.] Nismos, to Alals, Grand' Combe, Bességes,
Mas-de-Ponge (67 miles).
Fons (} miles). Florac, Mende, Clermont-Ferrand, St.
St. Genies (3 miles). Germains des Fossés, and Vichy.
Nozières (2} miles). Distance, 370 mlles, through the hilly and in Boncoiran (14 mile), on the Gardon, which teresting districts of the Cevennes.
sometimes floods it, is a small village, with mills, By rail from Nismes to Alais and Bességes, 604 Gothic-looking houses, and an old château, with a iniles, in 2 hours 20 minutes, twice a-day. To square tower, on a rock. Population, 700. Mende by road. The rail passes several rocky Ners (24 miles) on a hill, overlooking the fine trenches, and many tunnels (there are 101 between Valley of Beau-rivage, on the Gardon, with the Alais and Langeacy-one 1,300 feet long), and Cevennes in the distance. some well-constructed bridges and viaducts. This Vezenobres (14 mile), on a hill side. Popula. way from Marseilles to Paris, viâ Nismes, &c., is tion, 1,030. more direct and interesting, as far as scenery goes, St. Hilaire (44 miles). than the line via Lyons and Dijon.
Alais (37 miles), a sous-préfecture in department Nismes, as in Route 30.
Gard, of 20,260 population, the ancient Alesia, anda [At 20 kil. north-north-east, is
thriving town, among coal and iron mines, under Uzle, 14 kil. north-west of Pont du Gard, a the Cevennes mountains, where the Cèze meets the
sous-préfecture of 6,200 souls, on the olive Gardon d'Alais and Gardon de Mialet. It had a covered rocks above the Auzon. It is the Ro- | leper's hospital for the crusaders in the time of St. man Ucetia, which had a temple to Augustus, Louis, and was held by the English when given up and sent a bishop to the council of Arlen, ( 1422, to Charles VII. Haring become me bendo