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quarters of the French reformed church (which held a synod here, 1620, under Dumoulin), it was besieged and taken by Louis XIII., who razed its walls. Louis XIV. not only built a citadel but sent

bishop to bring them back again to the faith, though without success. The fort is now a law court. There are a Gothic cathedral church, a library of 3,000 volumes, silk mills, &c.

In the neighbourhood are the pretty walks on the Gardon, the nermitage, part of a convent, the sulphur mines of St. German de Valgagne; by another way, in the valley of the Callaigon, you pass the Tour de Fare, belonging to General Meynadier, and part of Puech-de-Cendras abbey, burnt by tho Camisards, who were hunted down in the religious wars of 1704. Some mineral springs hero are 1180ful as tonics and in skin diseases. A rail to Salle de Gagnières was opened in the early part of 1872.

Hotels.-Du Commerce; Lion d'Or. ['wo branch rails run up the country from Alais. (a) A railway of 114 miles runs past Les Tamaris (81 miles), to

La Lavade (2} miles), and La Plse in La Grand' Combe, the centre of this coal and iron district, the mines of which are in the hands of a company. Population, 4,730. Coal (houille) is plentiful, both anthracite and inflammable, and is worked by means of galleries. The steam-engines were made in England, and brought here by way of Cette; several English workmen are employed in the mines and iron-foundries. Zinc is also produced. The coal-field reaches to St. Ambroix, north-east of Alais, on

(0) the branch to Bességes (194 miles). The stations are

Salyndres (5miles).
St. Julien (31 miles). Then

St. Ambroix (3} miles), on the Gèze, a fine spot, in the midst of rocky scenery, with many silk mills. Population, 3,700. The road hence to Privas and Valence is described in Route 29. Molières (3 miles); Robiac (2} miles).

Bességes (14 mile), the last station on the line. There is a small branch, near Robiac, to Trélys.]

(At 10 kil. south-west of Alais is ANDUZE, the Roman Andusia, a picturesque town,

near the fine Château of Tornac (a key to the Carennes), where the Camisards bogau to rise

against their oppressors, in the time of Louis XIV., and where also Marshal Villars made proposals of peace to their chief leader, Jean Cavalier. They were eventually subdued by

the Duke of Berwick, 1705. On the west, is the fine valley of St. Jean de

Gardonnenque. The rugged rocks of granite, grauwacke, limestone, gypsum, &c., are worth notice; quercus coccifera, an oak yielding a beautiful dye, abounds here. To the south-west is the castle where Florian,

the French novelist, was born; also Sauve, on the Vidourle, where fourches, or wooden pitchforks, are made, and lead mines worked ; La Salle (population, 2,120), which has silk mills on the Gardon, and gypsum quarries; and ST. HIPPOLYTE (population, 5,200), near the head

of the Vidourle, with a Protestant temple, built out of the fort erected to over&we the professors of that faith, which fort was formerly the Château of the scigneurs. For Le Vigan

(sce below).] The rail from Alais to Villefort, Brioude, etc., for Clermont-Ferrand, is continued below. Taking the road to Florac, Mende, etc., through the Lozère country, we come to

MIALET (10 kil. west of Alais), which is noted for its mountain caves, in which bones have been found; and also as the birth place of Roland, the Camisard leader, in the religious wars, who used to hide here, and who, being captured by Villars, was burnt alive at Nismes. At 5 kil. further is

ST. JEAN DO GARD, on the coach road to Nismes, in a fino part of the Gardon d'Anduzes, where silk goods, millinery, &c., are made. (LE VIGAN (25 kil, to the south-west), is another charming place (and sous-préfecture of 8,000 souls), on the Arre, near Mont l'Éperon, in the Cevennes, surrounded by country houses of the Nisines and Montpellier gentry. A Gothic bridge crosses the river. There are Catholic and Protestant churches, cotton and silk thread mills; and, on the principal Place, a bronze statue of d'Assas, a young captain of an Auvergne regiment, who fellat Clostercamp, in Flanders, 1760. Making a reconnaisance at night, he suddenly came upon the enemy, advancing to surprise the French, who threa.

tened to shoot him if he spoke. Without | At 28 kil. further, passing Molines, is hesitation he rushed on them, shouting, "A MENDE (see Route 28); beyond that is St. Chaley moi Auvergne, ce sont les ennemis" (Follow me, (48 kil.), and men, here is the enemy!) and fell pierced by St. FLOUR (30 kil.), on the Clermont-Ferrand scores of balls. These words are cut on his

alle. These words are cut on his road, as in Route 52. statue.

The rail from Alais towards Clermont passes A hill near château Marave offers a fine point of Genolhac (21 miles), at the head of the Cèze, etc.,

view. There are mineral waters at Cauvalot; under Mont Lozère (4,890 feet above sea), where the and, up the Arre, you come to the coal mines, wolf is hunted. which Mr. Hammond, an Englishman, is Villefort (8 miles), on the borders of the Ardèche working.

and Lozére. It lies in the narrow valley of the The road from Le Vigan to Montpellier is de Devéze, is noted for its lead mines, and is an entrepôt scribed in Route 32.]

for the wine, silk, salt, oil, grain, &c., of this mounLE POMPIDOU (30 kil.), on the Gardon, under the tain region. The ruins of Alène (12 kil.) ridge of the Cevennes, which divides the depart

Langogne (21 miles), a station on the ments of Lozère and Gard. Cassagnas (about 10 Nismes and Clermont-Ferrand line (Route 31), kil. north-east), with its caves, was one of the head. on the Allier, in the Cevennes, one of the highest quarters of the Camisard leaders.

places in the department of Lozère or the Cevennes FLORAC (23 kil.), a sous-préfecture in department near the head of the Loire. It has a church, which Lozère, of 2,300 souls, in the valley of the Tarn, belonged to an abbey of the 10th century, founded where the Tarnon and Minente join it, among the by the Viscounts de Gévaudan. A Roman camp Hautes Cevennes. It began in a castle, of which a | is traced on Mont Milan. It is the best station part of two low battlemented towers are left; and ) for Le Puy (Route 28). has but one main street, with a church, a Protestant [GRANDRIEUX (18 kil. west-north-west), is near chapel, palais de justice, &c. The sides of the Agrippa's Roman way from Lyons into Spain, rock are covered with vines, chestnuts, and oaks.

and has an old square tower. Naussac (6 kil. About 12 kil. up the Tarn, is Pont Montvert, under

north-west), lower down the Aller, has remains Mont Lozère (4,890 feet high), where the Camisards

of a château, which the excellent Belzunce, murdered the priest Chayla, 1702, a cruel persecutor

bishop of Marseilles, during the famous plague of the Protestants, for which their leader was burnt

of 1772, used to visit. It belonged to Chambons alive. Pope Urban V. was born at Grizac, near

abbey.] this.

Descend the Allier to Jonchères (11} miles), ISPÁGNAC (9 kil.) or HISPAGNAC, on the Tarn, in

Alleyras (13 miles), etc., to Langeac (21 miles), å pretty valley, ncar the high, cold, and dreary

at the junction of the Déze, a small place where plain, called the Causse de Sauveterre, 2,870 feet

lace is made. St. Georges d'Aurac (41 miles); above the sea.

Paulhaguet (5 miles); and Brioude (11 miles),

on the Allier. For which, and the remainder of [QUEZAC, nearly opposite it, is noted for its mineral

the rail to Issoire, Clermont-Ferrand, and St. water, and a Gothic bridge and chapel, built by

Germain-des-Fossés (see Route 45). Pope Urban. ST. ENIMIE, 11 ki). further down the Tarn, in the midst of wild and rugged peaks, grew out of a monastery to St. Bennet,

ROUTE 32. foundeå in the 7th century, by a daughter of

Montpellier, up the Hérault, to Mende. Clotaire II. ST. PREJET, 20 kil. still further down the Tarn, is at the bottom of a defile 1,900

Distance to Le Vigan, about 51 kil., or 32 miles. feet deep at the Pas de Souci, where it is so Montpellier, as in Route 30. narrow that , bridge might be almost run MONTFERRIER (6 kil.), a little to the east of the across. Megruies, 20 kil. south-east of this, is road, makes a pleasing appearance, being on a noted for three largo caves

| volcanic peak about 140 feet above the sea, on or

round which are grouped an old château of its Monthagin Gignac (6 miles), a station for marquises, a park stretching to the Lez, mills, &c. GIGNAC, on the Hérault, which a curious bridge Another lava peak, Valmabargues, is to the west. crosses, has a good church, a square tower, and One of these heights was the site of a Roman or the chapel of Notre Dame, on the beights, thought Gaulic town, called Substantion and Sextantio, ac to have been a temple of Vesta. A little higher cording to inscriptions, remains of walls, &c., found up the river is Aniane, where St. Bennet was born there.

the old abbey, founded 782, by a count of Mague. ST. GELY (5 kil.)

lonnc, is here. [At 5 kil. to the east is Prades, at the head of the

Paulhan (131 miles), where the line froin Lez, which has its source in a ravine (something

Bézieres comes in (Route 66), via Pézenam, ete, like Vaucluse), behind the castle of Restin

Clermont l'Hérault (7} miles), a small town, clières.)

where they make cloth, cotton, etc. It has an old ST. MARTIN (12 kil.)

castle, and a Gothic church, with a good rose

window. St. GUILHEM-LE-DESERT (7 kil.), in a deep gorge of the Hérault, among the rugged limestone peaks

Lodève (114 miles), a sous-préfecture with of the Cevennes range, is under the large old

11,870 souls, on the Ergue (a branch of the Hérault), Castie, called the Géant, which belonged, they say, in a pretty valley at the foot of the Cevennes to the giant, Gallone, who fought with St. Guil mountains, which are cultivated at the top. Tho hem. In one part is a primitive suspension bridge, old church of St. Fulcran (a cathedral till the Revoin the Indian style, running from cliff to cliff, lution), which was part of St. Sauver's abbey, has about 127 feet long.

a great square machicolated tower, with turrets,

&c., and was fortified against the Albigenses, ST. BAUZILLE-DU-PUTOIS (6 kil.), a small village

when the town was walled round. It has a mineral on the Hérault, is remarkable for a succession of

spring, and the Juifs' (Jews") grotto. Cardinal caves, in the limestone, called (in the patois of this

Fleury and General Lagarde were born here. It part) Baouma de las Doumaiselas, or the Ladies'

is the ancient Lutera. Cavern (another name is the Grotto of the Ganges),

Hotels.- De la Croix Blanche (White Cross); Du full of stalactites and stalagmites of all shapes.

Cheval Vert (Green Horse). GANGES (5 kil.), further up the Hérault.

Here the rail ends. By road to LE Vigan, on the Arre, is about 10 kil. north ST. PIERRE-DE-PAGE (15 kil.) west of this (see Route 31). St. Hippolyte, about LE CAYLAR (13 kil.), on a plateau above the 15 kil. east; and St. Jean du Gard, about 20 kil. source of the Legerce, has remains of its old walls. north of St. Hippolyte.

A charming path, called the Escalette road, leads From St. Jean the road to

to several fine points of view, near the source of MENDE is as in Route 28, where these places are the Ergue. described.

LA CABALERIC (22 kil.)

MILHAU (17 kil.), already described (see Route ROUTE 33.

28), where the roads to Mende and Albi divide off.

[About 23 kil. south of Milhau, is Nant, in the Montpellier to Lodève, Milhau, and Rodez.

beautiful valley of the Dourbie, where it joins Distance to Milhau, 121 kil., or 75 miles.

the Tarn, in a spot remarkable for the Poujade Montpellier, as in Route 30. About 6 kil. and other grottoes.) distant is the very old church of Celle Neuve, com BOIS DU FOUR (21 kil.) posed of large, well-cut stones.

PONT DE SALARS (26 kil.) Pass Fabrègues (7miles), etc., to

Rodez is 25 kil. further, as in Route 52.

SECTION I V.

ROUTES TO THE CENTRE AND SOUTH-WEST OF FRANCE.

IN CONNECTION WITH THE CHEMIN DE FER D'ORLEANS, or Grand Central Rail

way of France; SUPPLYING SCEAUX, CORBEIL, ORLÉANS, BLOIS, TOURS, POITIERS,
ANGOULÊME, BORDEAUX, ANGERS, NANTES, ST. NAZAIRE, NIORT, ROCHEFORT,
LA ROCHELLE, LIMOGES, PÉRIGUEUX, BOURGES, NEVERS, MOULINS, VICHY,
CLERMONT-FERRAND, MONT DORE, BRIOUDE, ST. ETIENNE, LYON, &c.; IN THE
OLD PROVINCES OF ORLEANAIS, TOURAINE, ANJOU, POITOU, BERRI, BOUR-
BONNAIS, MARCHE, LIMOISON, PERIGORD, AUVERGNE.
ROUTE 34.

tury. L'Hay and Chevilly lie to the south-west,

and Berni château to the south, beyond the viaParis to Sceaux, Orsay, and Limours.

duct. Distance, 22 kil., or 13} miles; trains, every (Here the line to Sceaux turns off. This hour, to Sceaux; every other hour, to Orsay. Em serpentine rail has many small curves in it, barcadère, Barrière d'Enfer, behind the Luxem to accomplish the ascent to Sceaux, which is bourg. A single rail, opened 1816.

24 yards higher than Fontenay, and only 840 Passing in view the great Bicêtre Hospital, Petit yards distant, as the crow flies. For this Montrouge, and the fortifications, then Montrouge purpose the patent jointed carriages of M. quarries and its new fort, you come to

Arnoux are used. The gauge is 6 feet. Little Arcueil-Cachan (3} miles), so called from the wheels, fastened to the rims of the great ones, aqueduct made by the Romans over the Biévie, keep the carriages on the line. They turn two arches of which are seen in the modern aque freely, and require no buffers. Curves of only duct, built 1613-24 by Desbrosses, for Mary de

82 feet radius are thus safely passed. Medici's palace at the Luxembourg. It stands on Fontenay-aux-Roses (9 kil. from Paris), a 35 arches, is 72 feet high, and 1,200 long. The charming village, was so called from the rose church is of the 13th-15th centuries. Laplace, the trees once cultivated here. The house in mathematician, resided bere. Several country which Scarron lived now belongs to Ledru seats are about. Cachan, across the valley, was a Rollin. The vine, strawberry, &c., are grown. country-seat of Philippe le Bel's.

Sceaux (11 kil. from Paris), pronounced "So," Bourg-la-Reine (14 mile), on the high road to a sous-préfecture in department Seine (popu. Etampes and Orléans, a pretty place, with a lation 1,800), had a château, built 1670, by country-seat of Gabrielle d'Estrées, “la Belle Colbert, the statesman, and enlarged by the Gabrielle," mistress of Henry IV., whose decorated Duchesse de Maine, who married Madame do chamber is still shown. It was in the prison here Montespan's son. Here Voltaire wrote his that Condorcet, the philosopher and Girondist, “Semiramis," &c. It was pulled down at the poisoned himself, 1794. The cattle market, or Revolution, except the orangerie or park, now Marché de Sceaux, is held near this every Monday. a public garden for Sunday balls.

To the north-west are Chatillon on a hill, and Near the Gothic church of St. Jean, which conBagneaux on another hill-the latter a healthy tains a marble "Baptism of Christ," is a place with an old church of the 12th or 13th cen pillar to Florian, the novelist, who died bere,

1794. The Hôtel de Vule is a good building. | 1840; to Orléans, 1848; to Bordeaux (throughout). Plessis, and the forest of Meudon, are to the 1853. Distance to Orléans, 76 miles, or 121 kil.; west ; also Robinson and its chestnut trees; eleven trains a day, 2} to 4 hours. To Bordeaux, Aulnay, where Châteaubriand wrote his 383 miles, or 578 kil.; 124 to 19} hours. Baggage "Martyrs," and other works; and Chatenay, allowed, 30 kil., or 66 lbs. Omnibuses meet all where Voltaire was born, 1694. It is now the the trains from the branch offices; fare, 30 cents. residence of Eugene Sue.

(3d.), exclusive of baggage. The direct Route Coaches to Lenas, Arpajon, Bonelles, Epilly, to Tours, viâ Bretigny and Vendôme, instead of Chatenay, and Amblainvilliers )

going through Orléans, shortens the distance to The next station to Bourg-la-Reine 18

Tours and places beyond only two miles. Antony (14 mile), on the Biévre. Coach to the The line runs out by Barrière de la Gare and ancient village of Longiumeau.

Pont de Bercy, on the Seine, past the bastions at Massy (14 mile). Coach to Verrières and its the bac or ferry, and past Ivry (population, 6,000) wood. Vilgenis, near this, belongs to Jerome | and its fort and large workshops, with Grand Bonaparte.

Gentilly, and the Chemin de Ceinture, to the left. Palaiseau (f miles), on the Yvette, under a (Gentilly (5 kil. from Paris), on the Bièvre, is hill, was so called from its palatium or château of near Villeroy château, and the famous the early kings, and has a church of the 12th Bicêtre, once a château of Jean, Duke of Berri, century. Coaches to Igny château (built in 1852, and a military hospital, now a vast asylum, in in the Renaissance style, by M. Tourneux, its connection with the Salpêtrière, for 3,000 old owner), and Bièvre, in a pretty part of that river. people and for lunatics, in a building about 1,000 It is hence 9 kil. to Versailles, past Jouy-en-Josas feet square. In the court is a great well (puits and Buc aqueduct, which supplies the palace with de Bicêtre), 7 feet diameter, and 187 feet deep, water.

in the rock; the water is conveyed thence to a From Palaiseau, up the Yvette, after Lozére, reservoir, 57 feet square. Workshops, gardens, you come to

a farm, &c., are attached. The Duke of Berri's Orsay (3 miles) and its moated Château, in a

dhâteau replaced a Carthusian house, built by picturesque part of the river. Then Gif (2 miles),

Bishop John of Winchester, whence comes the St. Remy (3 miles), the station for Dampierre,

present name-Winchestre, Bicestre, Bicêtre.) the fine seat of the Duc de Luynes, and Chevreuse,

Vitry-sur-Seine (Villejuif to the left) among which has an old church and castle ruins, with a

nursery gardens, has a seat which belonged to good view from another ruin, the Madeline, over

Count Dubois, and is near a spot on the river, the Yvette.

called Porte à l'Anglais, where the English, who Limours (21 miles). Coaches to Bel Air, Briis,

held Paris in the time of Charles VI., had a camp, Forgos-les-Bains, St. Arnoult, Bonnelles, and

to cut off the Dauphin's communication by the Rochefort.

river. Population, 3,000. An eight-arch viaduct brings you to

Choisy-le-Roi (61 miles), in department SeineSUB-SECTION A.-ROUTES TO THE SOUTH

et-Oise, at the five-arch bridge on the Seine, built WEST, VIÂ THE LINE TO BORDEAUX.

1802. It is so called from a château of Louis XV., ROUTE 35.

which was here, but is now occupied by a porcc

lain factory. Here died, in 1836, Rouget de l'Isle, Paris to Orléans, Blois, Tours, Poitiers,

the author of the famous Marseillaise. Population, Angoulême, and Bordeaux.

4,650. The large glass-works are no longer carried By railway Station, or embarcadère, Quai on; but there are factories for morocco leather, d'Austerlitz-3 miles from the Rouen terminus; chemicals, &c. Thiais is on the heights, to tbe 2} miles from the Northern ; 27 miles from the south-west, and the Lyons railway on the opposite Strasburg: { mile from the Lyons; 1 mile from the side of the river. A little further, at the bridge on Rennes and Brest. The line to Corbeil was opened the Seine, la Villeneuve-le-Roi (opposite Villeneuve

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