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here. Only the gate of its once large castle re quality of the wines, is a decayed fortified mains. The line traverses the grounds. It be town, having many antiquities to show: as, a longed to the family of de Foix. Here Henry of párish church of the 12th century, with handNavarre slept after the Battle of Coutras, 1587, in some slender spire; the façade of Cardinal de which de defeated the Leaguers, under the Duc de Cauterai's palace; remains of the Convents of Joyeuse, who was killed. This was the first the Dominicans and Cordeliers; the hermitage victory gained by the Protestants, and was an of the Saint, near the Place, cut in the rock, nounced to Henry III. by the victor in these close to a fountain, where they show his stone words, “Sire, mon seigneur et frère, remerciez bed and chair; his monolithic temple or church, Dieu, jái battu vos ennemis et votre armée," Henry III. in the rock, 85 feet by 53, with a vault resting being secretly favourable to the Protestant leaders. on eight great pillars, and various carvings, After crossing the L'Isle, on a bridge of six arches, and what is called the Rotonde or round chapel, each 49 feet span, you come to

in a light Gothic style, of the 12th century. St. Denis-de-Pile (53 miles), and its Roman There are also remains of the castle, built by esque church, shaped like a Greek cross. The Louis VIII., which has a square tower, &c. Château of Grave belongs to the Duc Decazes.

Guadet, the Girondist, was born here, and was Follow the L'Isle to

beheaded at Bordeaux, with Barbaroux, &c., Libourne (4} miles), a fine well-built town and

after their proscription by the Jacobins.

Pétion and Buzot were found starved to death sous-préfecture (in department Gironde) of 13,570

in a corn field, since called “Champ des population, on the Dordogne, where the Isle joins

Emigrés." Population, 3,000. it, under a handsome suspension bridge. Another of nine arches crosses the main stream, which has Pass St. Etienne de Lisse to a Port large enough for 300-tons ships. Libourne Castillon (4) miles from St. Emilion), higher succeeded a place called Condat and Fozera, and as up the river (population, 2,900), celebrated for one of the chief places in Gascony, was rebuilt and the battle of 1:53, in which the English, under fortified by Edward I. of England. The old the great Talbot (who, with his son, was killed) machicolated tower styled Tour de l' Horloge (with were defeated by the French, and finally a peaked top added) remains at the Port : it was

driven out of France.- About 5 kil. to the formerly called Tour de Richard, after the Black

north-east (in department Dordogne) is Prince's son (Richard II.), born at Bordeaux. The

St. Michel Montaigne, the old feudal château of church of St. Jean was rebuilt 1856. The walks

Montaigne, who wrote his .“ Essais" here. are beautiful. It has also a public library of They show his room, in which are sentences 3,000 volumes, a botanic garden, large cavalry from the Bible and the classics, a portrait of barracks, glass factory, &c.; and a good trade in his daughter Eléonore, also his writing table, eaux-de-vic, oil, timber, iron, salt.

books, and bed, and the clock which he refers IIotels.--De France; Des Princes.

to.-To the north is The old pilgrims' chapel of Notre Dame de Condat VILLEFRANCHE DE LONGCHAPT, a very old place in the neighbourhood, was built by Eleanor of on a rock, walled round by the English, and Guienne, through whom Henry II. acquired this taken by assault, 1577, by the Huguenots, territory. Fronsac, across the Dordogne, is known Sully being among them.] for its red and white wines. It stands under the Leaving Libourne, you cross the Dordogne, by a Tertre de Fronsac, a hill about 230 feet above, com- | bridge on nine arches, the Tertre de Fronsac being manding a good panoramic view. Its ancient in view; then succeeds a long viaduct of 3,870 feet castle is gone. Rail to St. Emilion, &c.

on 100 arches, to [The line passes St. Laurent-des-Coinbes, up Arveyres (8 miles), a pleasant spot on a hill. the Dordogne.

Coach to Branne. St. Emilion (67 miles from Lilbourne), in a Vayres (24 miles), anciently Varatedum, has

gorge among vineyards, noted for the good | the old castle of its marquises, to the west; partly

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dating from the 13th century. They show, After La Grave, the line bends to the south, past Henry IV.'s bed. Population, 2,000.

hills covered with vineyards and country-seats, and St. Sulpice (31 miles).

three short viaducts on eighteen, four, and seven St. Loubes (2 miles). The plain between the

arches, succeeded by three short tunnels, to Dordogne and Garonne is called Entre Deux Mers, Lormont (14 miles), a place of 3,000 souls, the a sort of Mesopotamia, on a small scale.

ancient Mons Laurens, on the Dordogne. Here La Grave d'Ambares (64 miles), a village of

was a country-seat of the Archbishops of Bordeaux. 2,700 inhabitants. Coaches to Cubzac and Blaye.

A fourth tunnel, of 1,312 feet, is followed by a fifth [CUBZAC (6 kil.), on the Dordogne, here crossed

of 919 feet, which brings you out in sight of by a splendid wire Suspension Bridge, in five

Bordeaux, and to the Embarcadère at la Bastide, bends, 1,788 feet long between the river's

opposite the town, close to the bridge, a building banks, or 5,079 feet, including the viaducts

984 feet long. which approach it on each side, 24 feet wide,

BORDEAUX and 92 feet above the water. It was built

583 miles from Paris, 123] from Bayonne, 1604 from 1835-9, by Fortuné-de-Vergey, for £120,000.

Toulouse. The Bordeaux merchants have large warehouses at this spot, where the high road from

For the lines to Spain and Toulouse (see Routes

63 and 66). For the Médoc (see below). Paris falls in.

The stations from Toulouse are on the southBLAYE (37 kil. further on), a sous-préfecture of

west side of the town. Omnibuses run between, 5,000 souls, in department Gironde, and a pilot

| past Place de la Comédie, &c. station, on the east bank of the Garonne. It was the ancient Blavia, and had a strong castle,

HOTELS.-De Nantes, first-class hotel; splendidly taken by the Huguenots, 1568, and then by

situated. Good cuisine. the Leaguers. This now makes part of the

Hotel Marine et des Colonies, Americains, Comcitadel, on a rock in Upper Town, commanding

merce, Voyageurs, Quatre Sæurs; Des Ambassa

deurs, in Rue Cours l'Intendance; Hotel des Sept the river (about 4 kil. broad), in conjunction

Sæurs, opposite the Post Office; De Paris; Des with the fort of le Paté (or the Pie), on an

Princes. island in the midst, and Fort Médoc on the

Cafés.-De la Comédie, near the Theatre; De la opposite side. In the old Gothic tower of this castle the Duchesse de Berri was confined, 1333.

confined. 1833. | Préfecture Fossés-du-Chapeau Rouge, Helvetius, A good mairie, hospital, theatre, &c., are in the

&c. Lower Town, where the merchants and pilots

Restaurants.-De Richelieu; De la Préfecture, live. At the Austin abbey here, King Caribert &c. Breakfasts and dejeûners a la fourchette, 75c. of Aquitaine was buried, 631. Charlemagne's to 1 franc at the cafés, or 1} to 2 francs at the Champion. Roland, who fell in battle against hotels; a good dinner for 3 francs at the hotels. the “Paynim sons of swarthy Spain," at Ron | English Consul, T. C. Hunt, Esq., No. 15, Cours cesvalles, in 778, was brought hither to bePortal; American Consul, buried. Here the hero was born. From

Chaplain, at British Chapel, Quai de Chartrons, Bourg, St. Disant du Gua, Chénac, and other Rev. E. S. Froissard. points, fine views may be obtained of

Bankers.-Barton and Guestie, Cours Pavé, 35, "—thy mirror'd wave, Garonne, near Quai des Chartrons; Johnston and Sons, Rue

And Blaye's empurpled shore." . Foy, 21. Bhips are built at Blaye, and there is a good

| Library and Reading Room at M. Chaumas-Gayet, trade in corn, wine, brandy, oil, fruit, and opposite the Préfecture. timber Hotals. De l'Union: De France. | Post Once, 6, Rue-Porto-Dljeaux. Coaches to Rochelle, Go, StoAmers to Bor doasa, Paulilas, And Royan

Steamboats to Mortayne, Blaye, and Paulilag | dailyi 10 Hoyan, twice a week. To Lisboa, fete

gal, Rio Janeiro, &c., monthly, by the Messageries Street), is the principal Theatre, a large and rolio Maritimes. To Bristol, and Bombay (viâ Suez structure, built by Louis XIV., and opened 1780; Canal), see BRADSHAW's Continental Guide.

it has a Corinthian portico of twelve columns, nr OBJECTS OF NOTICE. - The Chartrons with a great vestibule and staircase, and will hold Bridge-Bourse - Theatre-Hôtel de Ville-Palais 4,000 persons. It is usually reckoned the best de Justice-Museum-Churches of St. Michael, out of Paris. Here the Government Delegation St. Croix, &c.—Tour de l' Horloge-Cathedral - had its head-quarters when driven from Tours by Efigies of Montaigne-Palais Gallien-Place des the Germans, 1871. The Théâtre de Gymnase is Quinconces-Wine Cellars.

new. Another, called les Variétés in Rue Fossés

de l'Intendance, was burnt down in 1855. Population, 194,250. Bordeaux is the third commercial port in France, the centre of the vin de The Préfecture, in Rue de la Comédie, is the work Bordeaux, or Ciaret trade, chief town of the of Louis, 1775, and has been restored. Hôtel de department Gironde (formerly of the province of Ville (or town hall), near the Cathedral, was the Guienne or Aquitaine), head of a military division, palace of the archbishops, and was built, 1780-1, seat of an archbishop, &c. It stands on the west by Prince de Rohan, then primate of Aquitaine ; bank of the Garonne, à bord-des-eaux, 70 miles it is a large square pile, with a court in the midst. from the sea, where the river is 500 to 800 yards and a picture gallery. Here they show Napoleon's broad (the Thames at London Bridge is 350 yards); own Cross of the Legion of Honour, a History and it is from the water that you see to advantage of his Battles, with his MS. notes, and other its noble range of quays and buildings, stretching curiosities, presented by General Bertrand; also a like a crescent, three miles long, from the ship collection of antique arms. The pictures number yards at the south end to the fine streets and 466, including Lesueur's Urania, Rubens' Martyrdom houses at the north extremity, towards the Char of St. Just, &c., but they are ill arranged. Catatrons and Chapeau Rouge quarters, where the logue, 13 fr. An older Gothic town hall is in the merchants live. A fine, nearly level, stone Bridge, street leading to the bridge. The Palais de Justice of seventeen arches, 531 yards long, 50 feet broad,

eet broad, (law courts), near the Hôtel de Ville, is a large was built 1811-21, by Deschamps, from the Porte de and rather elegant building, 480 feet long, built Bourgogne to the village of La Bastide opposite. 1839-46, and has Maggesi's statues of Malesherbes, This will soon be accompanied by a railway bridge d'Aguesseau, l'Hôpital, and Montesque (who uniting the termini of the lines which centre here. lived at Château de Brède, 10 miles off); belind The river below forms the Port, where as many as it are the prisons; and opposite the Hôtel Dieu, 1,000 sail may lie; but the larger vessels anchor or public hospital of St. André, with 650 beds. It at Pauillac, which is the real port. High water at was rebuilt 1825-9, but founded as far back as full and change, 3 o'clock.

1390. In Rue St. Dominique, is the Museum, comThe Houses are large and well-built; the higher prising the public library of 120,000 volumes, and classes are wealthy and luxurious in their habits, 300 MSS., among which is Montaigne's annotated and particularly well-disposed towards the English, Copy of his Essais; also the museums of antiquity to whom Bordeaux and the province belonged for and natural history, and the Observatory, open three centuries, down to 1451. Its climate, however

daily to strangers. The Hospice des Enfans Trouvés, is damp. The principal buildings are as follows:

where 700 foundlings are provided for, is on the The Bourse (exchange) in Place Royale, near the

Quai de la Paludatte. bridge, is 98 feet by 65, and 78 feet high to the St. André's Cathedral, built by the English in middle of the glazed dome. The Chamber of the 13th century, the foundation having been leid Cominerce occupies a place here, with a library of by Henry II. and his Queen, is a large but irregular 6,000 volumes, which includes a good collection of structure, with buttresses, &c.; it is 418 feet long, toyiges. The Douane, or custom-house, is near the and has two spires, 150 feet high, in the north Bourse; both buildings are by Gabriel. In the transept, a good roso window, a fine altar, and an Rue Chapeau Rouge (a fine street like Portland arched roof, 66 fout broad, of the 16th century. It

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contains pictures by Veronese and Jordaens. Its gate, Porte du Palais, or du Cailhau, near the detached clock tower, called Pey Berland, 156 feet Custom House and Quai de Bourgogne, was built, high, was built, 1440, by Archbishop Pierre Berland, 1495, by Charles VIII. It is 112 feet high, and and is a fine piece of Gothic work, with buttresses known by its five or six peaked turrets. It serves at the corners, and a circular turret at the top. as a prison. In Place d'Aquitaine is the ancient

St. Michael's Gothic church, near the Quai de la évêché or bishop's house, near a gate or porte, which Grave, was also built by the English, but has a served for a triumphal arch when the Bourbons north front of later date. Length, 243 feet. It returned, in 1814. was restored 1855. Its clock-tower, 180 feet high, 1 The Entrepôt Réel, for colonial produce, is a is also detached and buttressed at the angles. The large pile on the Quai des Chartrons; on Quay de vault below the church is laid out with bones Bacalan, are the Victualling Office, and Viellard's brought from a neigbouring cemetery.

(formerly Johnson's) large porcelain factory, which St. Croix, near Quai St. Croix, though quite communicates by canals with the river. Hôtel des irregular within and without, is a most curious Monnaies (mint) is in Rue de Palais Gallien; the and interesting church, and the oldest here. It is Bank, in Rue Esprit des Lois. Joubert's spinning Romanesque, of the 10th and 11th centuries, and factory is on a large scale. Crusse's caves, or was founded by William the Good, Duke of cellars, containing 30,000 barrels of wine, are worth Aquitaine. The curious carvings on the front, the visiting ; so are Guestier's, in Pavé des Chartrons. wall paintings, and old carved font, all deserve Excellent public baths, near the Bourse, and in notice.

Place Lainé; also two swimming schools, mineral St. Seurin (or Severin) in Place de Prado, though baths, &c. modern in the front, is worth visiting for its The best Promenades are in the Cours d'Albret ancient crypt of St. Fort, of the 11th century, to de Tourny (so called after M. de Tourny, formerly which mothers take their children every 16th of Intendant, and a great benefactor to the town, May, and to which, or rather to an earlier building whose statue is near), and du Jardin publique on its site, the body of Roland was brought after (which, however, is no garden, but an open space)his death at Roncesvaux. Notre Dame, a modern but especially in the large Place Quinconces, on the church, was rebuilt 1701 ; and the Feuillant's site of the Château Trompette. It is about a church, attached to the Lyceum, has the mailed quarter of a mile long. At one end are baths, at effigy of Montaigne, who was a judge of the the other, two columns, 65 feet high, with gas Bordeaux parliament, was twice mayor, and died, reflectors. All these walks are laid out with 1592, in Rue des Minimes. There are, besides these, avenues of trees. Fairs are held the first ten days seven other Catholic churches, four Protestant in July, at the hippodrome at Gradignan (10 kil. churches, and a handsome synagogue, the last in | away). Rue Causserouge. Some remains of the Char- There are at Bordeaux, a college or university treuse abbey church are left in the public Cemetery (as old as 1441), schools of architecture and outside the town, where Moreau is buried. It | medicine, deaf and dumb institution, and many gives name to the Quai des Chartrons, &c. ' benevolent societies; an abattoir, large barracks, &c

The amphitheatre, or Palais Gallien, now hardly Among the persons born here, are Ausonius, the to be seen for the houses on it, is a Roman remain, Latin poet of the 4th century; Richard II. si near the Jardin des Plantes (botanic garden). It | England; Clement V.; Marcellus Empiricus, the was 241 feet by 177, and C4 high. Tour de l' Horloge, first of quacks; Ducos and other “Girondists or clock tower, which was attached to the old who figured in the Revolution. Another natin Hôtel de Ville, is an old gate built by Henry III. was Girard, the rich merchant of New York, de of England, and has three peaked turrets, with a sajled hence, 1762, as a cabin boy, and died word lion on the middle one. It stands 135 feet high. | two and a half millions sterling. Round the bell is inscribed its round of duties, Bordeaux was called Burdigala by Strabo, s viz::--Convoco arma, Signo dies, Noto horas, was the chief town of the Bituriges. Ausonit compello nubila, concino læta, Ploro rogos." Another praises it for its soft climate, its long spring, a


short winter. He describes it as four-sided; with kinds from abroad. About 100,000 tons of shipping high towers, and broad well-planned streets, and are employed, which possess one-fourth of the watered by the stream called Devitia (now La French colonial trade. The famous claret wine is Devise); "and when father ocean flows up, the produced below the city, on the west side of the whole surface is covered with fleets," i.e., fleets of river, in the district of the Médoc: about 50,000 boats and merchantmen.

tuns of the premier crus, or "first growths" (called The Roman city stood between Place Royale on

Château Margaux, Lafitte, Latour, and Haut the Quay, and the Cathedral. It had fourteen

Brion), are made yearly, and the best of it is sent gates, of which the last (Porte Basse) was pulled

to England. down, 1805. The Visigoths burnt it, 412, and the

[From Bordeaux, by the Chemin de fer du Médoc, Saracens again about 732. Bordeaux was for a

down the west side of the Garoune, in tho time the capital of Gascony; and through Eleanor,

wine country of the Médoc (so called from its wife of Henry II. (of England), it came to the

Roman name In medio aquæ, signifying a English crown, as head of the duchy of Guienne.

peninsular tract), you pass Henry III., who built the old Hôtel de Ville, made

Blanquefort (5 miles), which belonged to the Simon de Montfort governor; Edward I., when

Black Prince. Then Ludon (11 miles); Macau prince, lived here; and from hence the Black

(14 miles); Margaux (45 miles), near Château Prince marched to the battle of Poitiers, and

Margaux (noted for its first growth claret), brought back John of France prisoner. Charles

opposite Blaye; followed by Beycheville, and VII. took it from the English in 1451, and built

Château Léoville (second growths), and Château Château Trompette to defend it. This was for

Latour (first growth). The next station is tified by Vauban, and called Fort Louis; to build Moulis (41 miles); beyond which is Châteall which stones were taken from a Roman Temple, Lafitte (another first growth); then Pauillac “ Augusto sacrum, &c.," called Pilliers de Tutelle. (94 miles), a port on the river, 294 miles from Its altar is in the museum of antiquities. To this Bordeaux, where large ships stop. fortress was added Castle Ha, or Cailhau, above The best Clarets are produced on a most unpicmentioned, forming part of L'Ombrière, the old turesque gravel strip about two miles broad palace of the dukes of Aquitaine, which disappeared and 50 to 80 feet above the river. The vires in 1800, when this space was cleared. Here the are trained about two feet high in open fields; banquet of 9th October, 1852, was given to the Prince vintage takes place in September. The grapePresident, Louis Napoléon, when he uttered his plague appeared here, 1852. memorable words, "L'Empire, c'est la Pax," which

LESPARRE (68 kil. from Bordeaux), a small sousserved to rally so many hesitating adherents round

préfecture in department Gironde (populathe imperial throne. In the present day it became tion 1,232), among vineyards and meadows. the temporary seat of the National Assembly, Passing through good pasture land, you come February, 1871, who here elected M. Thiers, Chief

to Soulac (25 kil.), at the mouth of the of the Executive Power, declared anew the forfei

Garonne, in the Bay of Biscay, opposite the ure of the throne by Napoléon III., and voted the

bathing-place of Royan, ayd near the

Tour de Cordouan, a round, solid, light-house of reaty of peace with Germany.

three stories, 2341 feet high, built 1611, by Trade. The produce brought up by the Canal

Louis de Foix, having large refractors on u Midi and Cette rail, and shipped to the French

Fresnel's system.) lonies, &c., consists of hides, flour, seeds, brandy, monds, prunes, chestnuts, cork, resin, verdigris,

ROUTE 36. iney, hams, &c. The manufactures are per

Tours to Angers, Nantes, and St. Nazaire. mery, liqueurs, ornamental fruit-boxes, stockings, rpots, cotton, earthenware, bottles, casks, hats,

DOWN THE LOIRE. per, vinegar, tobacco, refined sugar, rope, &c., By rail.-Distance to Nantes, 196 kil., or 122 i gloves from André's factory. Imports of all miles. Three trains a-day, in 34 to 6f hours.

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