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stored by Charles V.; but few traces of antiquity | 28,000 volumes, and a museum of antiquities. The are left. In the time of Louis XIV., the walls walks around are extremely pleasant. Coaches to were strengthened, and the town called Villeneuve Soissons, Pierrefonds-les-Bains. (new town). Near it is the old church of Rhuys, Thourotte (5 miles). with a Romanesque tower.
Ribecourt (37 miles). Compiègne (7} miles), 63 miles from Paris. Ourscamps (2} miles). Here spinning is carHotels.--De la Cloche; De France; Du Soleil d'Or. ried on in the remains of an Abbey. A sous-préfecture of 12,140 souls, on a slant of
Noyon (41 miles), the Roman Noviadunum, bethe Oise, where the Aisne joins. It is a quiet place,
came the seat of a bishop, 611, and was the place except when frequented by the court, with narrow
where Hugh Capet was elected king, 987. It stands ill-built streets. Near its great Forest stood the
on a hill side, among gardens, in the valley of Roman Compendium, with a small hunting-seat of
Chaunay, on the Vorse, near the Oise; and is well the time of Clovis and Charles the Bold, who built
built, having four gates, and the house in which an abbey and château here. Louis le Bègue and
is said) John Cauvin, or Calvin, was born, 1509, his Louis V. were buried in the abbey (which was
father being diocesan secretary. He went to the pulled down at the Revolution); and it was held
school of the Capettes here, and, through favour of for Charles VII. by Jeanne d'Arc, when she was
the bishop, received a benefice when he was only taken prisoner (1430), in a sally from Vieux Pont
twelve; two years after, to escape the plague, he Gate, by the Burgundians, who sold her to the
was sent to Paris. English. This gate is close to the Tour de la Pucelle.
The cathedral Church is chiefly Romanesque, of The Château, as rebuilt by Louis XV., and finished
the 13th century (an earlier one was begun by by Napoléon I. (who first met his bride, Marie
Pepin), 351 feet long, and 217 high at the west Louise, here), was the residence of Charles of
towers. The interior is very imposing. One of its Spain, in 1808. It was a favourite resort of the
bishops was Pope Innocent I. Emperor Napoléon, both for hunting and for the
Trade in grain, leather, linen, cottons, coal, &c. Reviews at the Camp, which was first formed by
Population, 6,400. Louis XIV. The noble front, towards the forest,
Hotels.-Du Nord ; Des Chevalets. is 624 feet wide. In the grand gallery, of 100 feet,
Coaches to Roye, Nesles, Guiscard, Ham. are Napoléon's victories, painted by Girodet. It
[ROYE (15 kil. north-west), a small old place, on became the head-quarters of the German Army of
the Avre, in department Somme (part of occupation, under General Manteuffel, 1871. An
Picardy), is said to be the ancient Rodium, and avenue of nearly a mile leads from the château to
has suffered from eleven sieges and thrce the Forest, which covers 29,600 acres (46 square
plagues. It has a church with excellent stained miles). One road, now called Brunehaut, was a
windows; a carved timber house on the Place; Roman way leading to Soissons.
public baths, mineral springs, and manufacSt. Corneille, or the Abbey Church, contains some
tures of stockings, &c. Population, 4,000. A old royal tombs, and had the organ (the first
sect of Guerinets, so called after their leader, brought into Europe) which Constantine Coprony
Guerin, the curé here, were extirpated, 1626.) mous, the Greek emperor, gave to Pepin, 755. Its tower is surmounted by a turret. St. André and
Appilly (5 miles), in department Aisne. St. Antoine are Gothic; St. Jacques partly in the | Chauny (54 miles), a decayed fortified town, on Renaissance style. At the Carmelites' church is the Oise, where the St. Quentin canal joins, in a thie tomb of the Count of Toulouse, by Lemoine. fertile plain. Linens are made; and there are large One of the best buildings is the picturesque Gothic works for polishing the plate glass made at the Hôtel de Ville, with its delicate carvings, high roof, important factory of St. Gobain, 10 miles southcarved spire turrets, and fine spire belfry. The east by branch rail, first established by Louvois, three-arched Pont Neuf has a pyramid, 33 feet high, | Population, 8,200. The canal opens a way between in the middle of it. There is a public library of the Oise and Sommo.
In winter the meadows along the Oise are inun Near Chauny is Quiéray, where Charles Martel dated by the rain, and swarm with ducks, ployers, died, also remarkable as the spot where the cranes, herons, and other wild fowl.
treaty was made between Pepin and Stephen II. [The forest of St. Gobain, above-mentioned, con in 743, which confirmed to the Papacy its pos
tains many striking spots, such as the remains sessions in Italy.] of a vast Premonstratensian Abbey, now used Tergnier (41 miles), where the branch line, viâ as a glass works; le Tortoir, a house which Laon, turns off to Rheims and Epernay, as in Routes belonged to the Knights Templars; the ruins 6 and 55; also the line to Amiens (80 miles), and of St. Nicholas-aux-Bois, a Bernardine house; Rouen, við Ham and Nesle. and the Croix Cosiné, an ancient expiatory [Ham (21 milcs, 18 kil.from Noyon), on the Somme, monument, erected by St. Louis. South of St. is as old as 875, and has a moatcd Château or state Gobain, and about 7 miles from Chauny, are prison, built 1470, by the Constable St. Pôl. the magnificent ruins of
On the gate is his motto in Gothic letters, Coucy Castle, or Coucy-le-Château, a great object “Mon Mieux" (my best); the great round
of attraction to visitors, and among the finest Keep stands 108 feet high, 108 in diameter, and of the kind in France or western Europe. The 36 feet thick. A stone, which served as a pillow most conspicuous remains are one entire wing, to a monk, is pointed out, on which girls who with great corner towers, and, rising above all wish to be married within the year come to the massive circular Keep, a solid machicolated kncel. Among persons confined here were pile, 190 feet high, and 30 to 32 feet thick. Charles the Simple; Joan of Arc, after her This castle belonged to the De Coucys, or capture at Compiègne; St. Pôl, its owner (beCourcys, a turbulent and warlike race, who fore Louis XI. sent him to the block); Miragave continual trouble to their neigbbours and beau; the ministers of Charles X.; Louis Naposovereigns until they died out, and their seat léon, the Emperor; Cabrera, the Carlist; was at last destroyed by Mazariņ. They bore and lastly, Cavaignac, Changarnier, &c., in this proud device:
1818. Louis Napoléon was kept here six years, "Je ne suis Roi, ni Duc, Prince, ni Comte aussi
and then escaped to England. The church has Je suis le Sire de Coucy."
a good choir, and carvings of scriptural sub(I am neither King, Duke, Prince, nor Count,
jects. General Foy was a native. I am the Lord of Coucy.)
Nesle (12 mailes, gave name to one of the earlier Twelve of this warlike house died in Palestine, marquisates in France; and has an old church, fighting against the infidels; John de Coucy, in which nearly all its inhabitants were butchor Courcy, became a favourite of King John, cred by the Charles the Bold, 1472.] and was the first Earl of Ulster; a daughter of Montescourt (5} miles). At 8 miles further, Ingelram de Coucy (who is buried near Sursee, over a marshy tract, which cost the engineers some in Switzerland, where he fell in battle, 1376) | trouble to consolidate, you come to became the queen of Alexander II. of Scot
ST. QUENTIN, land. There are remains of another Château in the vil
154 miles from Paris. lage, where Clothaire IV. died in 719, and where HOTELS.—Du Cygne; D'Angleterre; Du Lion La Belle Gabrielle gave birth to the Duc de d'Or. Vendôme, Henry IV.'s son,
This place, seated on a hill between the Somme Half-way between this and Chauny, is another and St. Quentin canal, is a sous-préfecture in de
seat of the Coucys, Folembrai (now a bottle partment Aisne), of 31,400 souls, who carry on here, factory), which, like their original castle, was | as the centre of a wide district, thriving manufacforfeited to the French kings. At times it has | tures of cotton, thread, table linen, silk, tulle, musbeen the residence of Diane de Poictiers and lin, shawls, steam-engines, oil, soap, &c. It was Gabrielle d'Estrées.
| the Roman Augusta-Vivcimanduorum, but was called St Quentin from $84, after the martyr of that name. | The old town kept its Latin name for a long time It susfered from the Vandals, 401; Attila and his in the forın of Aoste. Huns, 451; the Normans in the 8th and 9th cen- Within a few miles of St. Quentin are-Caulainturies; and was made the head of the Vermandois court (near the Oise), the seat of the Duke de country by Louis I., for his nephew Pepin. Louis Vicenza, which was rebuilt 1773, after having been XI., and his rival, Charles of Burgundy, frequently destroyed by the Spaniards; St. Simon, once the contested it. In 1557, it was defended by Coligny property of the Duke de St. Simon (author of against 50,000 Spaniards under Philip II. (King of | Memoirs of Louis XIV. and the Regency); and Moy, England) and Emanuel of Savoy, but taken, after which belonged to Cardinal de Brienne, one of the a long siege. A battle fought close to it, 10th August, ministers of Louis XVI. the same year, in which Philip was again victorious, Coaches to Le Catelet, Ribémont, Guise, La Caled to his building the Escurial, in fulfilment of a pelle. Here the connection with Hirzon (see Route vow he had made. It was captured by the Ger- | 6) takes place, viâ Avesnes and Anor. mans, October, 1870; and hereabouts General Faid (GUISE (26 kil. east-north-east), a small third herbe, with his army of the North, was defeated class fortress, in a pretty spot on the Oise, is by General Goeben, on January 7th, 1871.
as old as 1050, and was given, 1520, to Claude The houses are modern; three faubourgs stretch de Lorraine, first Duke of Guise. Mary, Queen beyond the site of its old ramparts. Overlooking of Scots, was his grand-daughter; and Francis, the town, on the hill-top, is the fine Church, a large surnamed le Balafré (from a scar in his face), and imposing Gothic specimen, about 420 feet long was his grand-son. The old Château, 164 feet from the large Fulrad porch to the Virgin chapel, above the town, now used as a barrack, has a and 127 feet high in the nave (which is 212 feet round Keep left. Henry IV., against whom long); it has 110 windows, some stained, and 42
the Guises headed the League, burnt it, 1594. tect high, with 23 side chapels, and 78 pillars. A Jean de Luxembourg, who sold the Maid of tall spire used to rise above the square tower. It Orléans to the English, and Camille Desmouwas a cathedral until the bishop removed to Noyon. lins, were natives.]
The next station is The Hôtel de Ville, in Grande Place, built 1509, in the Gothic style, is worth notice for its handsome Essigny-le-Petit (5 miles). Then front and arcade, quaint carvings, and lantern
Fresnoy-le-Grand (5 miles), the nearest statower, in which is a good chime of bells. A Latin tion for Guise, above-mentiored. inscription on the front magnifies the behaviour of
Bohain (2} miles). the citizens in the siege above-mentioned, before
Busigny (miles). Here the junction rail from and after the battle. It stood eleven assaulis, and
Somain (in Route 4), via Cambrai, falls in. It has was given up to plunder when taken. There are
eight stations- BERTRY, CAUDRY, CATTENIÈRES, also a college, palais de justice, library of 17,000
CAMBRAI, IwuyBOUCHAIN, LOURCHES, and volumes, new thcatre, gas works, besides a conseil
DENAIN (used for the Anzin and other coal mines de-prud'hommes (who arrange prices, &c., between
only); none of which are of any importance, except masters and workmen), schools of design, founded
Bouchain, a small sous-préfecture of 1,600 souls, by La Tour (a native portrait painter), botanic
and Cambrai, as below. It serves mainly to open gardens, hospital, &c.
a communication with the coal mines round The St. Quentin canal, which is part of the system Valenciennes. called Canal de Picardie, unites the Oise and Somme [Cambrai, 38 kil. north of St. Quentin, on the to the Schelde, near Cambrai; one of its tunnels, road to Douai, is a sous-préfecture in departncar Bellicourt, is 5,677 mètres, or 33 miles, long. ment Nord, an ancient and strongly-fortified Charlevoix, the Jesuit historian, was a native; so town of the second class, in the old province of was Babeuf, the Communist, who died on the scaf Flanders, and seat of a bishopric; but it was fold, 1797. Traces of three Roman ways are seen, I an archdiocese when held by the excellent Fénélon, whose monument, by David, is in the 1712, taken and retaken, 1793, and occupied by present cathedral: the old one in which he was the Allies, 1815-18. buried was razed at the Revolution.
Avesnes (12 miles), a station near the Roman It was the Roman Cameracum, and the head of a Avesnc, a sous-préfecture and fortified town,
district called Cambrésis, held by the bishop as on the Sambre, on the Belgian frontier, taken a fief of the German empire. It stands in a by the Prussians, 1815. It has a church, with fertile pasture land, near the source of the a tower about 320 feet high. Hôtel de Ville, Escaut, or Schelde, which runs through it. The clock tower, &c., and is noted for prepared fortifications are strengthened by a citadel of boars' heads. Population, 3,600.] Vauban's, on a hill, which was occupied by the Hautmont (41 miles). English in 1815. Nôtre Dame bridge leads out Maubeuge (25 miles), a small frontier fortress on one side. The Hôtel de Ville fronts the on the Sambre, with a population of 7,400, and large Place d'Armes (exercise ground). The manufactures of fire-arms, nails, iron, &c. Coal
anade is also of great extent. It has a and marble are got near. The Austrians were military hospital, a college, a public library of defeated here, 1793. 30,000 volumes, mont de piété (loan fund), [BAVAY, or Bavai (8 miles north-West), the Roman theatre, and several gable-fronted houses and Bayacum, has, in the Place, a seven-sided pillar, public buildings. An alliance, or league, was marking on its faces as many Roman ways, concluded here in 1508, by France, Spain, and and said to replace a Roman milliary stonie Austria, with Pope Julius II., for spoiling which stood here within the last two centurios.] Venice of her continental possessions.
Jeumont (6 miles), a French douane. Across Monstrelet, the historian antiquary, and General the Belgian frontier is Dumouriez, were natives.
Erquelines (11 mile), another douane, where Fine linen, cambrics (to which this town first gave luggage is examined. Thence to the name), lace, thread, &c., are made. Popu.
Charleroi (18 miles), from which trains run to lation 22,600. Hotel.-De l'Europe; good.] | Waterloo, and Le Cateau (53 miles), or Cateau Cambresis, Brussels (45 miles); also to on the Sello, a place of 5,916 inhabitants, is best Cologne, viâ Liége and Aix-la-Chapelle. (See known for the treaty of peace, made 1559, between BRADSHAW's land-Book to Belgium.) Philip of Spain and Henry II. of France. It was
ROUTE 6. the head-quarters of the Duke of Wellington in Paris to Dammartin, Soissons, Reims, 1815. Marshal Mortier was born here. It had a Laon, Vervins, Hirzon, Mézières, and castle or château built by Bishop Hallais.
Givet. [SOLESMES (8 kil. from Le Câteau, along the Constructed by the Ardennes Company in 1857.
Valenciennes road) on the Selle, has the Clois With that from Rheims to Mézières, it fills up the ter, &c., of an abbey of old date, with a modern frontier ground (occupied by the departments of church, having a spire 213 feet high. Popula Ardennes, &c.,) between the Northern and Eastern tion, 6,000. Linens, muslins, &c., are made, systems, and works in connection with both. besides soap and leather.]
The stations out of Paris are Le Bourget (the Landrecies (7} miles), a small fortified town. scene of fighting in the Paris sorties of January, Coach to Le Quesnoy.
1871), Sevran, and Mitry, followed by Aulnoye (83 miles), from which a rail to Valen Dammartin (22 miles from Paris), on a hill, ciennes (page 17) við Le Quesnoy (as below) was where there is a fine circle of view. Lace is made. opened 1872. Coach to Avesnes.
MAYEN-MULEIN (11 kil. north-east), on the canal [Le Quesnoy (6 miles), a fourth class fortress, de l'Ourcq, has an ancient church, ranking next to
on a hill, in a wide plain, near Mormal Forest, | Meaux, in this diocese. with an arsenal, a curious church, a nail Then follow Le Plessis - Belleville, Nanfactory, &o, It was taken by Prince Eugenç, I teuil-le-Haudoin, Ormoy, and ·
Crépy-en-Valois (16 miles from Dammartin), / The Gothic Cathedral of the 12th century, on the founded 10th century, with St. Arnould's Abbey. site of that in which Pepin was crowned by St. It was the capital of the Valois country, and a strong Boniface, has a tower 160 feet high, and Rubens's place, having a palace called Bouville. Only one “Adoration of the Shepherds," given, they say, by (St. Denis, with a good choir) of its five churches him to the Cordeliers here, in gratitude for their remains, with ruins of another; also a tower of the care of him when sick. St. Pierre is in the Lomchâteau. The English took it 1431, and the Lea- | bard style, small and round, with buttresses and a guers, 1588; but it is best known for the treaty of dome; St. Leger, in that of the Renaissance 1544, between Francis I. and Charles V.
Only the fine Gothic portal and spire are left of St. The next, Vaumoise, is followed by
Jean-des-Vignes Abbey, on a hill, founded in the Villers-Cotterets (11 miles from Crépy), in the 11th century. forest of Retz, has a château restored by Francis I. The old Château, on the site of the palace, is (on the site of one burnt by the English) now a flanked by heavy round towers. Other buildings depôt de medicine, or poor-house, for the district. are, the Intendance, the college, Hôtel Dieu, house Near it are remains of Longpont abbey church, of correction, museum and library of 19,000 founded in the 12th century. General Dumas volumes, two barracks, theatre, &c. A bridge (called the French Cocles, for his defence of Brixen
leads over to St. Vaast. bridge), his son Alexander Dumas, author of Monte
In the neighbourhood are some remains of st. Christo, and O:to, the statesman, were natives.
Medard's Abbey, founded 1545, with the dungeon [There is a short railway connection of 9 miles
where Louis-le-Debonnaire was for a time confined with
by his rebellious sons. Clotaire, son of Clovis, La Ferté Milon (25 miles north-east of king of Soissons (whose dominions took in all the Meaux), in department Aisne, on a hill by the
north-east of France) was buried in it. Another Ourcq, fortified as far back as 845, and has spot is Braisnes (as below) which belonged to the the fine remains of a castle, dismantled by Counts of Egmont, before the Revolution, under Henry IV. In front of the Hôtel de Ville is the name of Château de la Folic. Coucy Castle and David's statue of Racine (born here, 1639),
Anizy, built by Francis I., may be visited from whose bust, by Stabinsky, is in the Bibliothèque
here. of 17,000 volumes. Population, 4,800.
Childeric I., Clotaire II., the Duke of Mayenco Hotel.-Du Soleil d'Or (Golden Sun).]
(the chief of the League against Henry IV.), and Longpont, Vierzy, and Berzy are passed, | Collot d'Herbois, the infamous terrorist, were before reaching
natives of Soissons. Soissons (17 miles from Villers-Cotterets), a Linen and pottery are made; trade in grain, vegesous-préfecture of 12,210 souls (department Aisne), | tables, cattle, &c. a fortified town, and a diocese, in the valley of the Rail to Laon (Route 6), Rheims; Coach to Aisne. It was the chief hold of the Suessones in Château-Thierry, &c. Cæsar's time. Clovis made it the capital of the At 12 kil. south-east of Compiégne, near one end Franks (486), after routing its Roman governor, of its forest, are the picturesque walls and towers Syagrius. Pepin deposed Childeric here, 752, and of Pierrefonds Castle, a vast ruin on a hill. It was Charles the Simple was beaten, 922, by his com so strong that a determined soldier, Riqux, in petitor Robert. In 1315, it suffered from the Bur 1592, held out against three or four of Henry gundians and Armagnacs; the Huguenots ravaged | IV.'s commanders, and was at last only bought it, 1567; and it was taken and retaken twice over, over with gold. In 1617, no fewer than 15,000 1814. It is well-built, and defended by a citadel, men invested it, and took it after six days' conwhich capitulated to the German forces, 16th tinual firing, when it was dismantled. It is one of October, 1870, with 4,000 men, after four days' the finest remains of antiquity in France. There bombardment.
is a sulphur spring here, called Pierrefonds-lesHotel --Croix d'Or,
Bains, now much frequented in summer, and