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Lamothe (14 mile), a buffet, 243 miles from in the Gulf of Gascony, till overwhelme! by to ordeaux. Here the branch to Arcachon turns off. sands in the 16th century. Its abbey church, now (The next stations for Arcachon, are
in ruins, stands in a circle of brick pyramids, supLe Teich (2 miles).
posed to be tombs. A Roman road went this way Mestras (2) miles).
to Bordeaux. Gujan-Mestras (f mile), near an inlet of the | Sabres (5 miles), is the highest station on the name, and
line (280 feet), and some miles distant from that La Hume (1} mile). Then
village, which has a population of 2,480. La Teste de Buch (11 mile), on the Bassin Morcenx (7) miles), or Morcens, is a Buffet at
d'Arcachon, a dull flat spot. Population, 3,890. the junction with the Mont de Marsan line, which This is the Roman Testa Boirum, where a capi- | supplies St. Severs, Tarbes, Bagnères-de-Bigorre, talis of Aquitaine had a castle. Sand hills, 150 &c. (Route 64). The Pyrenées may be seen on a to 200 feet high, line the coast. There is a clear day. vase with an inscription in honour of M. Bre-l Riom (81 miles). Coach to Tartas. montier, who first successfully stopped their [TaeTAS (14 kil. east), on a hill-side over the progress in the last century, in consequence of Medouze, is an old place, once fortified, and, in which a little rice, tobacco, &c., have been 1411, was saved from the English, who wero grown at Cazan, in the neighbourhood. In besieging it, by Charles VII. The châ:cau 1834 a company was formed to unite Bassin was demolished by Louis XIII., because of its d'Arcachon with the other lakes by a navigable attachment to the reformed faith. It has a canal. This has been done in part.
good trade in vinegar, saffron, wine, fruit, Arcachon (14 mile), 367 miles from Bordeaux.
Bayonne horses, and resin (from the pino Hotels.-Grand Hotel, first-rate establishment; forests around). Population, 3,300.
Le Gallais, situated on the beach. Boarding A little to the west, on the old road to Bayonne,
is Castets, on the Paluc, with a church, supPopulation, 850. English Service, Rev. S. Rad posed to have been built by the English, and cliffe.
an intermitting iron spring.) A bathing-place, on the Bassin d'Arcachon, which Laluque (7} miles), has a large church and a
is bordered by its houses, with a pine forest chapel of St. Vincent de Paul.
to an old ruined chapel is an oak named after him; culture is carried on here.]
and from a hill, the highest in the department, you The Landes become more desolate afterwards. may see Bordeaux. Further off, are the mineral Caudos (7} miles).
springs of Prechacq and Gamardes. Salles (7 miles), between the Leyre and the St. Paul-les-Dax (12 kil.), a place of forgeg Étang or lake of Cazan, is near the Roman Saloma- | and furnaces, with a Gothic church, built 1441, cum, in a spot which shows some signs of cultiva with marble carvings, inside and out, of Scripture tion, and is therefore styled the "paradise" of the subjects. Landes. Ichoux (64 miles), in department Les Landes,
DAX (93 miles from Bordeaux); stands 190 feet above sea level, on a brook which otherwise D'Ax, or Acqs. turns a few mills. Population, 800. Pass near HOTELS.--Figaro; De l'Europe; De St. Étienne; the Lake of Parentis, then over the Moulasse, | De la Crois d'Or (Golden Cross).
where the country begins to improve a little, to Omnibuses to the town, whence the rail goes to 1 Labouheyre (8 miles), a decayed town. About Orthes, Pau, Eaux-Bonnes, Cauterets, Bareges, &c. 120 kil. south-west is Mimizan, which was a port (Route 65). Population, 9,860.
A sous-préfecture, on the Adour, founded by the Saubusse (31 miles), on the Adour, has a popsRomans, with the name of Aquce Tarbellicæ, on lation of 1,000, and mineral and mud baths, at a account of its hot mineral waters, of which the spot called Bains de Joannan, in which chlorides of chief spring, called Fontaine de Nesle, in the middle sodium and lime prevail. The Pyrenées in view. of the town, falls into a large basin, in front of a St. Géours (3 miles), among forests of pine, is kind of triumphal arch, among clouds of steam, an entrepôt for the Marensin, as the tract here the temperature being 160°. The supply is most bordering on the Gulf of Gascony (maris sinus) is abundant, especially in spring time. It is very called. Population, 1,500. clear; contains sulphates of soda and lime, &c.;
St. Vincent-de-Tyrosse (3 miles). Popuand is used not only by the sick, for rheumatism.
lation, 1,083. paralysis, old wounds, &c., but by the town's
[To the north-west is the decayed port of people, to wash and make their bread with.
VIEUX BOCAULT, among sand-hills (some 200 feet Another spring at Baignots, close by, has large
high), on the Bay of Biscay, which was of imbath rooms over it, and a temperature of 90° to 145o.
portance between 1360, when the course of the Two bridges, one of wood and another on five stone
Adour was turned into it, and 1560, when it arches, built 1857, lead over to Sablar faubourg,
was made to take its old course. Its name is where the old church of St. Paul stands, which was
derived from bouche, a mouth. A lake here is a cathedral till the Revolution. The body having
called Etang de Moison, after an old skipper, fallen in, 1646, was rebuilt 1719, but the original
who was so unwilling to believe that the river Gothic front, of the 13th century, offers several
was turned another way, that he kept his carvings of Scripture subjects, within and without.
vessel at anchor in the stream, till there was Another church, St. Vincent's, contains the effigy of
no water left to carry him out to sea. the saint, and traces of the original basilica of the
A little west is third century. The bishop's palace is now the
Cape Breton, once a good port, when the Adour Mairie, the diocese being united to that of Aire.
ran by it to the Bay of Biscay, from which Between the bridges are the walls and round
sand-hills now hide it. Some say it was towers of the old moated castle of the 14th century.
founded by Brutus as Caput Bruti. Part of a
Knight Templars' house is seen among the The town walls are of a genuine Roman character;
ruins. Population, 900. and a Roman way went hence to Toulouse. Dax
The enterprising was once an English town, but was taken by the sailors of this part of France discovered and Count of Foix, 1441. Ducos, the conventionist, gave name to the Island of Cape Breton, in General Ducos, and Borda, the mathematician, 1491, now part of British America.] were born here; and here the jambons de Bayonne La Benne (7} miles), near the unhealthy Etang are cured.
Orx. Through a fine forest, close to the sea, to The Gothic church of St. Paul-les-Dax, in the Le Boucaurt (6] miles), a little pilot village, neighbourhood, deserves notice for the curious and
nd near the embouchure of the Adour, which forms a fantastic carvings upon it. At Tarcis (17 kil.), is
harbour here. At l} mile beyond is Bayonne, with
the Pyrenées in view. another mineral spa. To the south-east of it, up the Arrigan, is the town of POUILLON (population,
It is entered by a wooden bridge over the Adour, 3,200), which is equally noted for a warm mineral
from the suburb of St. ESPRIT (population, 7,000).
which contains Vauban's Citadel upon the heights spa, and contains the old feudal château of
over the town. Until 1831 the Jews of Bayonne Lamothe. Indeed, one has only to dig a few yards into the soil round Dax, and you are sure
were obliged to retire to this quarter at sunset
Here they found refuge when driven out of Spain to come to warm springs, of more or less value, for
by Ferdinand and Isabella. The Circus has been curative purposes.
rebuilt and enlarged for bull-fights, which were first Rivière-Saas (5} miles). A suspension bridge celebrated here, September, 1852, and were to be crosses the Adour.
repeated annually in the Spanish manner.
| but hemmed in with houses. The large cloisters 123} miles from Bordeaux, 487 miles from Paris.
were built by the English. Notice a new altar of
1854, the handsome pavement in the sanctuary, and HOTELS.—Commerce ; St. Étienne; Des Bains;
the cross of St. Francis de Sales. The diocese is Du Midi; Du Grand d'Espagne; De Providence.
as old as the 4th century. The new church of St. Omnibuses from the station to the town, 25 cen
André is in the style of the 13th century. times; 25 centimes for each package. Post Office, end of Rue du Gouvernement. Popu
Observe also the Hôtel de Ville, douane, and lation, 25,620. High water, at full and change,
theatre in one pile, surrounded by arcades; the old 3h. 30m., the tide rising 14 feet.
château, built in the 12th century, by its last counts, English Consul, F. Graham, Esq., of whom pass
with round towers of the 15th century, now a barports for Spain may be had.
rack; the Château Neuf, between the Adair and A sous-préfecture in department Basses-Pyrenées
Nive; the arsenal armoury; new military hospital,
built 1841, on the site of a convent; the mint and (part of Gascony), seat of a bishopric, fortress of
naval dock, &c. There are a chamber of commerce the first class, on the Spanish frontier, and a thriving Port, on the Adour, where the Nive joins it,
and navigation school. In Rue Lormaud, No. 8, is about three miles from the Bay of Biscay. It has
an inscription to a “beinfacteur de Bayonne," a good harbour (as the name signifies in the Basque
who left property for repairing the cathedral. language, Baia and Ona), at their junction, close to
A large proportion of the population is Jewish, Pont Mayour, but the mouth is obstructed by a
that body being very wealthy, in consequence of dangerous bar, near which the Duke of Wellington
the flourishing condition of the smuggling business crossed the Adour, February, 1814, on a bridge of which is carried on with Spain by the contrabanboats.
distas. The town was founded in the 10th or 11th cen- General Harispe, Lafitte, the banker, Admiral tury; and having come to the English, was taken Bruix, and Duverger de Hauranne, the friend of from them, 1451, being the last place they retained Jansenius, were natives. The bayonette, they say, in France, except Calais. It is defended by high
was invented here; and here at Château de Marrac and strong ramparts, and divided by the rivers into (burnt 1825), Napoléon kidnapped Charles IV. of three parts, viz., Grand and Petit Bayonne, and the Spain, with his queen and his son, Ferdinand, 1808. suburb of St. Esprit, which stands on the right Its frontier position has necessarily made it a place bank of the Adour, and contains the Citadel (as for many interviews between French and Spanish above mentioned), which commands the town and
personages, of historical importance. country around. There is a noble prospect hence Manufactures-caux-de-vie d' Hendaye, glass botover the town, the wide estuary of the Adour, and | tles (sand being plentiful), hams (cured at Othez, the forests at its mouth, the Nive, Biarritz, &c., Dax, &c.), chocolate, sugar, &c.; and a trade with with the snowy peaks of the Pyrenées to the south. Spain in timber, wool, wines, drugs, resin, fish, &c. Underneath is the English cemetery, where several Conveyances to Biarritz, Pau, St. Sebastian (in officers of the Coldstreams are buried, who fell Spain), on the way to Madrid. A railway runs in when Bayonne was invested, 1814. A bridge of this direction, past Irun, St. Sebastian, Tolosa, boats crosses this part of the. Adour, and two Bilboa, Vittoria, Burgos, Valladolid, &c., to Madrid, bridges cross the Nive.
390 miles long. (See BRADSHAW's Hand-Book to The main street is good, but the rest are narrow; Spain). Madrid time is 25 minutes later than houses of stone, three or four stories high. Place Paris. There is a steamer on the Adour. Grammont is the best and the liveliest spot; there From Bayonne by rail (leaving the road into is a beautiful walk along the Allées Maritimes, a Spain) beyond Anglet, you come to sort of jetty, one mile long, near the quays, with Biarritz (6 miles). Hotels. - D'Angleterre, good prospects. The Bayonnaise women are con excellent accommodation, moderate charges; Les sidered pretty.
Ainbassadeurs, excellent table d'hôte (Spanish); The small Cathedral (in course of restoration) is Des Princes; Dumont; De l'Europe; De l'Ocean. of the 13th to 16th centuries, and is 256 feet long. Engiish Church service; and resident Physicians This favourite bathing-place of the ex-Emperor
ROUTE 64. and Empress after their marriage is on the Bay of
From Morcenx to Mont-de-Marsan, St. Biscay, here lined with picturesque limestone cliffs, 50 to 120 feet high, hollowed into caves,
Sever, Tarbes, Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Picas the Chamber of Love, near the Pharos, on Cape
du-Midi, &c. St. Marten, &c. The country people ride en cacolet,
Distance to Bagnères, about 72 miles. that is, in a pannier on one side of a horse, the
Morcenx Station on the Bordeaux and Bay. other being filled by the driver. Population, 2,770. onne rail (Route 63). Thence, passing Arjuzanx It is laid out with streets and squares, and has the (8} miles) on the Bez, to usual conveniences of a frequented resort. Here Aroengosse (2} miles). Population, 900. Bismarck met the Emperor, October, 1865, before
Ygos (41 miles). Population, 1,400. A factory the battle of Sadowa.
for essence of turpentine here, from the pine woods. The Villa Eugenie, and the new church, are at St. Martin-d'Oney (54 milés). A viaduct, Côte du Moulins (or des Fous), on a pretty bay, 3,270 yards long, crosses a brook; and Mont-dedivided by the promontory of Atalaye (and its old Marsan is 8 miles further, 92} from Bordeaux, castle) from petit port and Vieux Port. Both this and Côte du Moulin are abundantly supplied with
MONT-DE-MARSAN. lodging-houses, machines, &c., and there is good
HOTELS.-Des Ambassadeurs; De la Couronne; bathing on fine soft sand. At BIDART (11 kil. from
De France. Bayonne), the Basque nationality begins to appear.
Ortolans are eaten in August. Population, 5,570. St. Jean de Luz (8 miles), a fortified town of
Chief town of department Landes (in the old 2,660 souls, at the Nivelle's mouth, once of greater
province of Gascony), in a sandy hollow on the importance, and now growing into a bathing-place. Douze, where the Midou joins it, thus forming the At the Château Louis XIV.'s marriage with
Medouze. After its first foundation by Charlethe Infanta Maria Theresa was celebrated, 1660.
magne, on a slight eminence (from which'it obtained There are other old houses to be seen. The line in
the name of Montagne de Mars), it was ruined by its progress passes by URRUGNE (5 kil.), near Mon
the Normans in the 11th century, and then rebuilt tagne d'Arrhune, in the Lower Pyrenées moun
once more by the Counts de Marsan, 1140, taken tiins, and the Bidassoa, which divides France and
by the Protestant leader, Montgomery, 1560, and Spain. The heights were defended by Soult against
united to the crown, with Henry IV.'s other posWellington, who passed this way, October, 1813, into sessions. The rivers form a little port at Place de France. A bridge crosses the river at BEBOBIA | Commerce, and are crossed by five or six bridges. (the last French post town and custom-house)
It is regularly built, and has many fountains towards Irun; which the rail turns from to go on
and public baths, one is a cold ferruginous spring.
The chief edifices are the préfecture, palais de Hendaya (8 miles), or Andaya, at the mouth of
justice, house of detention, the barracks, and a the river, on the French side, with Fuentarabia
pepinière, or nursery of plants, &c., for the depart(truly Spanish) on the opposite. Hence to
ment, where there is a pleasant promenade. There Irun (14 mile), and the line for Madrid.
is another on the site of Montneval castle, which (a) Up the Nive you pass Ureury (20 kil.), near Louis XIII. ordered to be razed in the religious Cambo Spa, which Napoléon visited, 1808; then troubles. It was at Mont-de-Marsan that Francis Irassari (20 kil.); then St. Jean Pied-de-Port
I. first saw his mistress, Malle. d'Heilly, who be(12 kil.), the old capital of Navarre; beyond which, came Duchesse d'Étampes; and here, 1527, he marin a gorge of the Pyrenées, is Roncevaux, or Ron ried Charles V.'s sister, Eleanor, in Ste. Claire's cesvalles (in Spain), where Roland and his brave convent, which was afterwards burnt. The women peers were killed by the Saracens, 778. At | are small, but pretty, and simply dressed. Oroquieta, in this neighbonrhood, Don Carlos was Trade in cloth, wine, eaux-de-vie. defeated in the rising of 1872.
Conveyances: By rail and coach to St. Serer,
Grenado, Cazeres, Aire, Barcelonne (in Gers), / period. The cathedral is rather old than beautiful. Riscles, Castelnau, Rivière-Basse, Maubourget, An ancient convent is now the priests' seminary. Vic-Bigorre, Tarbes, Bagnères-de-Bigorre.
The diocese of Dax is united to that of Aire. At The country to the south presents an inviting 50 kil. south is Pau (Route 65). contrast to that of the Landes, which still prevails The direct road to Tarbes is by way of Madiran on the north, west, and east. “Nothing is seen for (28 kil.) and Vic-en-Bigorre (26 kil.); or up the miles but extensive marshy wastes without any Adour, following the rail to Riscle (9$ miles); siz of babitation, beyond here and there a turf Castelnau d'Est or de Rive Basse (54 miles) in hovei to afford shelter to the peasantry, who are Hautes Pyrenées; Maubourguet (4} miles); to einplosed to superintend the flocks of sheep, and
Vic-en-Bigorre (51 miles), where the line from whose aspect is sufficiently indicative of the mala
Agen comes in. It is a pretty village (population, rious influence of the locality. A man, woman,
3,800) on the Salat, in Hautes Pyrenées, with a and child frequently go together, walking on their
ruined castle and walls. stilts, the woman being usually employed in knitting; and, seen from afar, the group presents
The next station is Andrest (41 miles), about rather a grotesque appearance." (Lee's Companion 64 miles from to the Continent).
TARBES, [At 22 kil. north-west of Mont-de-Marsan is
A station 59 miles from Mont-de-Marsan. ROQUEFORT, on the high road to Bordeaux, at the junction of the Douze and Estampon; on
HOTELS.-Du Grand Soleil; De l'Europe; De la the rocks above which stand an old castle and
Paix. a modern château.]
Population, 15,770. Chief town of department The first place on the Tarbes line is
Hautes Pyrenées, seat of a bishopric, &c. It was
formerly called Turta, and was the capital of the Grenade-sur-l'Adour (8} miles), a little vil
Bigerroncs, who gave name to the surrounding dislage on the Adour, where Marshal Perrignon was
trict of Bigorre, which, as part of Guienne, was born.
held by the English till the time of Charles VII. [About 6 kil. down the river is
It stands on the Adour, in the midst of a rich and St. Sever, a sous-préfecture of 4,820 souls, in a
wide plain (1,000 feet above sea), watered by the pleasant hollow ; having an old church, which
numerous branches of that river and the Garonne, was part of a Benedictine abbey, founded 993;
and crowded with villages and fragments of rock also, remains of the château of the Dukes
washed from the Pyrenées-with the Pic du Midi of Gascony. It was taken from the English,
de Bigorre in view, on the south. 1426. There is a column to General Lamargue,
The roads to the watering-places and passes of a native. At Peulvan (near the town), and the mountains strike out here, as from a centre; Peyrelongue (8 kil. off), Druid stones are seen.
and a convenient market is, therefore, held every Hotel.-Des Voyageurs.
other week, attended by the country people; when About 14 kil. south of St. Sever on the Loute, at
corn, potatoes, cheese, salt provisions, tools, cattle, Hagetman, is an old castle of the kings of
sheep, goats, horses, mules, linens, and other necesNavarre: Orthez is 39 kil. from St. Sever.]
saries are sold. Here you may see the Béarnais, Cazères-sur-l'Adour (51 miles), followed by with his white blouse, blue berret or cap, and
Aire (54 miles), near the head of the Adour, curly hair; the women with their red capulets; where the roads to Auch and Agen turn off ; an the Spanish muleteer; and a variety of picturesque old decayed place of 4,150 population, and seat of a costumes. bishopric, having, on Mas-d'Aire hill, remains of 1 The town is regular and well-built. Streams the seat of the Visigoth king, Alaric II., who here of water run through the streets, which are lined promulgated the Thcodosian code. It suffered with houses constructed of brick and pebbles, or from the ravages of the Normans and the English ; of native marble, roofed with slate. Each has its and in the religious wars which followed at a later | own garden,