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It includes five suburbs or faubourgs; a good six- | let) and hill of Olivet; and is regularly built, with arch stone bridge crosses the river, near Place
no remarkable edifices, though lodgings, hotels Mercadieu, where the markets are held. Place
cafés, and other accommodations for strangers, are Maubourguet is at the centre of the town. There
abundant and cheap. The season lasts from May is a well-planted walk on the Prado.
to October, when the population is doubled by inThe Cathedral, called La Sede, is not remarkable,
valids and pleasure seekers. Lodgings cost from except for a fine altar under columns of Italian
13 to 2 francs a-day; sometimes much more. breccia. It stands on the site of the ancient Castrum Bigorra. St. Thèrese's church has a tall
Orchards, vineyards, bright green meadows (& spire. The old palace of the bishops is used for
rare thing in France), fields of buckwheat, &c., are
seen in the neighbourhood, with woods of oak and the préfecture; and the château of its counts, in Place de la Portèle, is used for a prison.
beech on the hills, and something like the parks There is a cavalry barrack and riding school ;
and gardens of England. The air is pure and dealso another barrack in what was the Ursuline
lightful. The people are tall and well made.
Houses are built of limestone, while cool strems convent; a convent, with a new theatre, a good hospital, priests' seminary, college, school of design,
run all day long from the river, through the streets, library of 7,000 volumes, baths, &c. Marshal de
which are paved with pebble mosaic. Castelnau (ambassador to England in the 16th Le Coustou, or the Parc, a shady place in the century), and General Dembarrère, as well as the centre of the town, is the chief rendezvous. Here infamous Barère, of the Convention, were natives. are the cafés, theatre (over the chapel of St. Jean,
Paper, copper goods, cutlery, nails, carts, &c., belonging to the Knights of Malta), and the large are made ; trade in white wines, spirits, leather, parish church of St. Vincent, which has a steeple marble, oil, grain, hams, horses, cattle, &c.
and some carvings on wood. Other walks are the Rail to Pau and Bayonne (see Routes 63, 65). | Allées Bourbon, and the Elysées Cottin and Azais, Pau is 66 kil. west. Also, to Auch, Bordeaux, Agen, , named after those authors. Toulouse (Route 66), St. Gaudens, Bagnères-de One avenue leads from the Hôtel des Thermes Bigorre, Montréjean (for Bagnères-de-Luchon.) | bathing-house (built of marble, in 1823, and 207 feet
Various Eircursions may be made to Lourdes, long), to the Bains de Salut, in a limestone ravin Argèles, Val d'Azur, Arrens, and Poucy-la-Huc in Monné hill, behind which is Mont Bédat, and its chapels, St. Savin church and its fine view over grotto. The baths of Lapoyriè, Grand Pré, Carrèrethe Vallée de Devantaygue, Luz, St. Sau veur, Lannes, and Versailles, are to be found on this road Gavarnie fall, Héas chapel, Baréges, the Pic du Those of Cazaux, Théas, &c., are under Olivet Midi, Ossun Castle, near a Roman camp, &c. hill. Petit-Prieur supplies the civil hospital, fa
The rail runs up the Adour, past Bernac-Debat the poor; the remainder take the names Bellevu (52 miles), to
(from the prospect near it), Morat, Lasserre, Pinac Montgaillard (3 miles), whence it is 5 miles to la Gautière, and de Salie-the last being especial
useful in the cure of old wounds. BAGNERES-DE-BIGORRE.
About thirty springs are counted, varying free HOTELS.-De Paris; De France; De Londres; 90 to 135° temperature, and supplying eightyDe Frascati; De la Providence; Du Grand Soleil. marble baignoires. They are usually taken in Cafés : Des Voyageurs; De Paris; De l'Union.
morning. They contain iron, with salts of English service, Rev. C. Blomefield.
and magnesia, and are tasteless, clear, aperie A sous-préfecture of 9,200 population, the second and tonic. The fontaines d'Angoulême and . town in the department, and the "Bath" of Demoiselles Carrère are chiefly iron. A France, being the best and most fashionable water spring, called Labasserre, is 8 kil. off, on ing-place in the country. It stands on the Adour Loussonet. The price of a bath is I franc (crossed by two bridges), at the entrance of the the Romans these waters were known as the Val de Campan, in a flat cultivated spot, 1,820 feet Aquensis; and they have kept up their reputs above the sea, between the gave (i.e.. burn or rivu- | to the present day.
The town was made over to the Black Prince by below), leaving the Pio d'Espade, Néouvielle, &c., John of France. An old Gothic tower of the Jaco- | on the left, and the Pic du Midi de Bigorre, on the bins' convent remains. Among the conveniences right. The latter is 9,430 feet above sea to its for visitors are Jalons' Musée des Pyrenées and sharp top, which commands a noble prospect. The reading-room, Dossun's library, and the Frascati pass itself is 2,300 feet lower. athenæum and music hall. Horses (at 5 francs a day), mules, donkey chaises, haises à porteur (20
ROUTE 65. francs) for ladies and invalids, and other con Dax (or Bayonne), to Orthez, Pau, Eauxveyances abound; guides 5 francs a day.
Bonnes, Cauterets, St. Sauveur, Barèges, Paper (at Lasserre's factory), warm woollen and | Mont Perdu, &c. knitted crépes de Baréges, are manufactured here. Distance, about 106 to 116 miles. Here Grenzet's marble works (the veined Marbre de Dax Station, as in Route 63, on the Bordeaux Campan), may also be visited. The “Archives and Bayonne line. The next station is Évangéliques,” a Protestant journal, published at Mimbaste (8 miles), near the river Luy; folBagnères.
lowed by Misson-Habas (5 miles), and Rail and Coaches to Tarbes, Barèges, St. Sauveur, Puyoo (61 miles), a pretty spot in department Cauterets, Bagnères-de-Luchon, Pau, Toulouse, Basses-Pyrenées, on the Gave de Pau; where the Auch, St. Gaudens, Condom, Marmande, Grip, branch line from Bayonne comes in. Oloron, Agen.
[This branch passes up the Adour, near the Pau Excursions from Bagnères. Near the town are road, to Urt. (104 miles from Ravon the heights of Chipolou (above the fontaine d'An Peyrehorade (81 miles), another pretty spot, in goulême), the farms of Mentilo and Métaon, the department Landes, where the Gave d'Oloron (gave, promenade of Monto-Pouzac (where the races are a mountain torrent) joins that of Pau. It has held), and its Roman camp. Other points of in an old castle, flanked by great towers; and stone terest are Val de Campan and its grotto (3 kil.), quarries. Population, 2,700. Grip (12 kil.), Vals de Tribons and de l'Esponne, The next stations are Labatut (54 miles), and Médows convent, Ordinséde, Barèges, Pic du Midi Puyoo (54 miles), as above.] (16 kil.), Penn de l'Héris, &c.
Baigts (3] miles); followed by Ascending the Adour, you pass Aste and Bau- | Orthez (5 miles), or Orthes, a well-built sousdéan (where Larrey the surgeon was born), beyond préfecture, of 6,730 souls, in department Basseswhich the fine Val de l'Esponne joins, leading up Pyrenées, pleasantly seated, where six roads join, to Lac Bleu in Pic de Montaigu, past l'Esponne and on a hill-side by the Gave de Pau, at the old Traonessaron. Further up the Adour is.
Gothic bridge, which has a ruined tower on it. It Campan (6 kil. from Bagnères), which gives was taken from the Counts of Dax by Gaston III., name to a beautiful valley, one of the richest in the one of the Princes of Béarn, whose seat was at department for its verdure and scenery. Popula the decayed Château de Moncade, where Blanche of tion, 4,171. It stards under the precipices of the Castile was poisoned by her sister, the wife of Penn de l' Heris, or Llcyris, about 6.300 feet above sea. | Gaston IV., and where Gaston, surnamed Phoebus,
Further on is St. Marie (5 kil.), where the south- | killed his own son, and died. The castle tower east head of the Adour runs up past the marble
commands a good view. quarries of Peyrehite and Espinadet (8 kil.), to
In the town is a new Hôtel de Ville. It was a Col d'Aspin, whence it is about 10 kil. to Arreau, flourishing place, and the seat of a Protestant in Val d'Aure (see Route 67), and from which there University, founded by Henri Quatre's mother, till is, a path over the mountains to Bagnères-de the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
On the hills above it, the Duke of Wellington From St. Marie, up the south-west or main head / beat the French, 27th February, 1814, after crossof the Adour, you come to the pretty falls of Grip ing the Pyrenées. and Artigues (8 kil.); thence the path leads (15 kil.) Bayonne hams cured here; there are large sawver the Tourmalet Pass to Barèges (in Route 65, / works, and a trade in goose feathers.
HOTELS.-Bergerot ; Sené.
Grand Hotel De la Paix, Place Royale. First[AMOU (13 kil. north), a town of 2,000 population, class hotel, well situated; moderate charges. on the Luy de Béarn. It has a good church,
1 Maison Sarda, 31, Rue Porte Neuve, English with one of the best Gothic spires in the de- | Boarding House. Arrangements per week, month, partment (Landes) and a château by Mansard.
or season. Mrs. Sarda is English. For Orthez, to St. Jean-Pied-de-Port, you take a Grand Hotel Beau Séjour. First-class, and turning, 5 kil. west of it, which leads to
finely placed. SALIES (9 kil.), or Sailles, so called from a brine
De France; De la Paix ; De la Poste; Grand spring, which is used to cure the Bayonne
Hotel; Victoria; De la Croix Blanche. hams.
Restaurants. — Monet, Saintger, Bernes, Café SAUVETERRE (9 kil.), on the Gave d'Oloron, is
National, Henri IV., Du Commerce. remarkable for a decayed tower and other
Furnished Apartments from £50 to £320. TeleAntique ruins.
graph Office, Rue de la Préfecture.-Post, Place St. PALAIS (14 kil.), on the Bidouze, was an
de la Nouvelle Halle. important place in French Navarre, where
Bankers.—MM. Davantes, Brothers; M. MerilHenri d'Albret established his chancery, after
lon, senior. the loss of Pampeluna.
English Service, at three Churches; also, Scotch LARCEBEAU (15 kil.), up the Bidouze. About 21
and French Services. kil. east, by a winding-road among the hills,
English Physicians.-Dr. Taylor, Dr. Smythe, Dr is the small sous-préfecture of
Bagnall, and Dr. Ottley. MAULÉON (population, 1,145), on the Saison or
Vice-Consul.-J. Church, Esq. Gave de Mauléon, divided into Basse and
Post Office, near the Préfecture. Haute Ville, the latter including an ancient
K OBJECTS OF NOTICE.- Henry IV.'s Statue château. Higher up the Gave and Val de Soule you come
Préfecture-The Parc-Château-Hôtel de Gais
son-Bernadotte's House. to Gottein, and Tardets (10 kil.), from which a road turns off east to Oloron, and another Population, 21,150. west, to the paths over Monts Solumongagna Chief town of department Basses-Pyrenées, seat and St Sauveur, to St. Jean. Further on, is of a cour impériale, university, &c., and a favourite Licq, in the Val de Soule, whence the Gave resort of English and others, on account of its soft turns up east towards Engrace, and Monts and beautiful climate, and its delightful situation Lache and Argarry; while to the west it within view of the Pyrenées, which are about 51 brings you to Larrau, wbere there is a pass kil., or 30 miles off. over Mont Bethaudy on the Spanish frontier, It stands in a rich plain, above the Gare, or to Ocagavia on the Salozax, under Mont torrent, de Pau (which rises at the celebrated fall Abaudy.
of Gavarnie), on a height, at the top of which is its ST. JEAN-PIED-DE-PORT (13 kil.), as in Route 63.]
old Castle, memorable for the birth of Henry IV.
or Henri Quatre, the darling hero of the French Argagnon (54 miles), and Lacq (31 miles), to
people. The town began in a château of the 10th Artix (3 miles), on the Gave de Pau, near a
century, built by its vicomtes, who marked the larg, paper factory at Maslacq.
bounds by stakes, or paous (in Béarnais), whene? Lescar (8 miles), the ancient Benharcum, and the name is derived. About 1364, Gaston de Foi seat of a bishopric, which was destroyed by the made it the capital of Béarn, and rebuilt the eas de Normans, 856, rebuilt by Guillaume, Duc de Gas | and a parliament and university were afterward coigne, and ravaged by the Calvinists in 1569. In | granted to it. the old Romanesque church, the grandfather of The little brooks of Héas, Ousse, &c., travers Henry IV. was buried. Population, 2,093.
the town, which is cut in two by a ravine, cross At 4 miles from Lescar is
by a bridge from the Place de la Comédie, 1
largest square, where the theatre, &c., stand. “This Parc has been compared to the Eng at From Basse Ville, or Lower Town, a seven arch | Berne. I think it decidedly superior. It is true bridge spans the river, towards the hills of Juran that there are no mountain masses equal to those con, which are noted for white wine. The main of the Oberland. But the extent of the chain open street, about one mile long, is crossed by several to your view is far wider: the principal objects short ones. The houses are built of pebbles and are nearer the eye: and above all, the foreground cement.
and middle distance are far superior to Pau. It is Place Grammont is surrounded with porticoes; the most splendid and enjoyable town walk that I Place Nationale, near the castle and St. Louis's know; and others of a yet wider experience than church, is planted with trees, and has Raggi's | mine, have pronounced it unequalled in Europe."mårble statue of Henry IV., which replaces one of (Trollope's Impressions). Louis the XIV., overturned at the Revolution. The old Château includes four towers, with low When the people during that king's time, asked peaked tops, and a square brick donjon, 115 feet leave to erect a monument to their favourite, all high, in which Abd-el-Kader was confined as a they could get was permission to build one to the prisoner (1848), till removed to Amboise; a broad reigning sovereign. As a consolation they cut stair-case, carved with arabesques; an elegant this inscription upon it, in the Béarnais tongue, chapel, restored by Louis Philippe (who beautified "A ciou qu'ey l'arrahil de nouste grand Enric;" | the whole structure with chefs-d'œuvre of tapestry (To him who is the grandson of our Great Henry). and carvings); the presence chamber; the apart
The Préfecture is well built, and contains the ments of Marguerite of Navarre, or Marguerite, the archives, and the letters of Henry IV., many of Pearl, sister of Francis I., and Henri's grandwhich have been published by M. Berger de Xivrey. | mother; and those of Henri's mother, Jeanne At the College, founded as a convent by Henry, is d'Albret (who was born here), with his own beda collection of minerals from the Pyrenées, &c. chamber, and the room in which he was born, 1553, There is a public library of 15,000 volumes; a containing his tortoise-shell cradle, and the carved normal school, and school of design; also a theatre, bedstead of La Belle Gabrielle The last fine room government stud, baths. A public fountain stands was occupied by the Emir's harem, who used to near the musée and market hall. At a house, in roast their mutton in the middle of its oak floor Rue de Trau, Bernadotte, king of Sweden, was born, Queen Isabella of Spain was sometime a resident. 1764, the son of a lawyer. The Hôtel de Guisson When his mother's time drew near, Henri's commemorates another soldier, Marshal Gaisson,
grandfather told her to sing,* that she might not who fought under; Gustavus Adolphus, and at
give birth to a puling and crabbed infant. As Rocroi. He never despaired: “I have that in my soon as he was born, the old king showed him to head, and at my side," said he," which makes me
the people, crying out “Ma brebis a enfanté un lion." sure of victory.” One more native, the Vicomte
then, after rubbing his mouth with garlic, he made d'Orthes, deserves to be remembered. When governor
him drink a few drops of Jurançon wine, to ensure of Bayonne, at the time of the St. Bartholomew
a hardy and robust constitution. That Henri posmassacre, he thus answered an order from Charles
sessed an excellent one is well known; the wonder IX.: "I have communicated your Majesty's letter
She sung, they say, an anthem to the Virgin, in the to the garrison and townspeople. They are brave
Bé ruals, beginningsoldiers and loyal subjects, but I cannot find among
Nouste Dame den cap deu poun, them a single executioner."
Adyudat-me à d'aquest' hore; A drawbridge leads by the Gothic Château, piled
Pregats au Dioli deli ceit on the rock, to the Basse-Plante walk in its gardens,
Qu'emboulle bié délioura leil on to a beautitul shady terrace high over the river,
D'a mayast qu'em hassle lou doun, called The Parc, where stood Castel-Beziat torror,
Which in modern French runs
Notre Dame du Bout-du-Pont, sécourez-moi à cette heure and whence there is a noble prospect of the fine
priez le Dieu du ciel qu'il veuille bien me delivrez prompteVal d'Ossau, the Pic du Midi, Mont Perdu, Muit
ment; qu'il me fasse le don d'un garçon, (Ask God to d'Aspey, &c., in the snowy range of the Pyrenéca. I deliver me soon, and give me a boy).
is that he survived such vigorous treatment. He ! (Pau to Eaux-Bonnes and Eaux-Chaudes, was afterwards nursed by a peasant at Bilhère,
28 miles. to the north-west.
The first place, Calmness, according to Sir J. Clark and other GAU (8 kil.), like Jurançon and Gelos, which the authorities, is a striking character of the climate of road passes, is noted for its wine, and is in the Pau. Westerly winds are most prevalent; north beautiful valley of the Néez river, which falls over erly are feeble and infrequent. “A sense of fulness several little cascades. is the first effect produced upon healthy strangers;
REBENAC (8 kil.), at the head of the little Néez, and to congestive patients, therefore, the climate
above which is a château. is injurious" (Dr. Taylor); but it is beneficial in cases of chronic indigestion, weak throats, and
[At 16 kil. west-north-west is the sous-préfec
ture of asthma.
OLORON, on a hill by the Gave d'Oloron, which The west part of this department includes the
is made by the union of the Gaves d'Aspe and Pays Basque, and Bas, or Low, Navarre, a small
d'Ossau. It was known to the Romans as part of a kingdom, which once included Navarra,
Iluro, which being ruined by the Saracens Biscaya, &c., in north Spain, the country of the
(732) and Normans, was rebuilt by the Vascones, or Gascons, who gave their name to
Vicomtes of Béarn. Population, 6,458, inclusive Gascony and the bay of Biscay. What was left of
of 4,400 in St. Marie, at the other end of the it in France, after the seizure of the Spanish portion by Ferdinand, the Catholic, came to Henri,
high bridge over the Gave. There are two who was King of Navarre, before he succeeded, as
mineral springs near. Henri IV., to the crown of France. Both the
Manufactures of woollens, caps, stockings, Béarnais and Basque people wear the beret, or paper; and a trade in wool, Bayonne hams, round Scotch cap; but the latter dress in gayer salt provisions, horses, &c.; and timber for colours, and are further distinguished by a language
the navy. of their own, one of the most ancient in Europe. Hotels. De France; Des Voyageurs (Travellers); It is full of long expressive compounds, and its De la Providence. purity is cited as a proof of the independence
Up the Val d'Asse, by a bold road first cut by which the Basques have maintained for 3,000 years,
the Romans, you pass by Asasp (10 kil.), Escot in spite of the changes around them. They are a
under the Péne d'Escot and Sarrance, to Bedous proud and boastful race, fond of their own customs,
(13 kil.), in a pleasant part of the Gave; then but hospitable, and so lively and active, that "léger
to Accous (population, 1,606), the Roman Aspacomme un Basque" is a proverb. The late General
luca, near the lukewarm mineral spring of Harispe was a Biscayan.
Superlaché, and Mont Argarry (to the west) Coloured handkerchiefs, Béarn linens, carpets, To the east, a road strikes over the mountains woollens, &c., are made; and there is a trade in to Eaux-Bonnes. A little beyond Accous wine, Bayonne hams, salted goose legs, poultry, near Cette, is a pass (to the west), over to chestnuts. .
Castillo d'Anso, in Spain. Rail and coaches to Tarbes, Toulouse, Bayonne Following the defile up the Gave, you come to (10 hours), and SPAIN, Oloron, St. Sauveur, Barèges,
Ardos (17 kil.), under Montagnes Rouges Bagnères-de-Bigorre (see Route 61), Eaux-Bon whence a mule path leads by Paillette (11 kil nes, &c. At Morlaes (10 kil. north-east), on the
under Mont d'Aspe, over the frontier, by Luy-de-France, was a Château and mint of the
pass, 6,713 feet above the sea, to Campfrei! Vicomtes of Béarn, called Forquie, on a hill of
(28 kil.), in Spain.] that name.
ARUDI (7 kil.), Bielle, Bellestein, are next pass At Pau roads branch off to Eaux-Bonnes and in a fine part of the Val d'Ossau. Theo Lous Eaux-Chaudes (az below).